Summary of the Tyler Rational
The Tyler Rationale: this is a model of curriculum and instruction development. This model is eclectic; it draws from the social aspect of Dewey: incorporating the society, subject matter and the learner to create learning experiences. It also has behavioral aspects drawn from Thorndike and others expressed through the emphasis on changing student behavior; judging behavior helps to monitor internal growth or aspects of the mind not overtly seen.
This model addresses four (4) basic questions. 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
Three sources should be used for identifying objectives: The learner – these are identified through interviews, observations and tests. •The society – community life should be classified into categories vocation, recreation, religion etc… and develop objectives for each •The subject matter – the subject to be taught must be examined to identify more objectives which encompass the content and skills which must be taught. The objectives are then screened (through the use of philosophies and psychologies of learning) and the most important ones. All objectives should be stated clearly (simple terms) and concisely. 2.
What educational experiences can be provided to attain these purposes? After the selection of objectives learning experiences should be selected; which actively promote the acquisition of these objectives. Tyler defines a learning experience as “interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment with which he can interact” Deweyean influence). Major effectors of the learning experience •The interaction between the person and the environment •Behavioral psychology (evident in the way objectives are stated) Criteria for developing learning experiences They should allow the student to practice the behavior implied by the objective. •Students should obtain satisfaction from the learning experience.
•The experience should be appropriate to the student’s background. Categories of learning experiences: •Development of thinking skills •Acquisition of information •Development of social attitudes •Development of student interest 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? •Tyler suggest that learning experiences can be organized by: •Continuity – the recurring opportunity to learn various skills (maybe at different grade levels). Sequence – the exposure to experiences which build upon each other. •Integration – this encompasses skills which cross discipline/subject. 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? •The curriculum must be evaluated by judging the learning outcomes against the original objectives. ?The first step is to focus on changes in human behavior. oPretests must be used to determine students’ original state before learning. oTests are then administered to determine whether student performance increases in the designated areas. oAll evaluation procedures must relate to the original object.
They must be reliable – or actually measure what they are expected to measure (curriculum standards). The Tyler effect has several criticisms. One concerning criticism identified by kliebard was that evaluation was tied so closely to the original objectives; it makes it impossible to identify unexpected outcomes. It narrows the focus of evaluation to only the achievement of the objectives. Therefore the significance of philosophy and other critical factors which are integrated have no way to be evaluated; and to ultimately determine the efficacy of their implementation. One question left to bear:
What is the real difference between learning activities and learning experiences? In the revision Tyler collaborated with Leyton Soto and distinguishes learning experiences and learning activities. Learning experiences consist of behaviors that are written into objectives; while learning activities are behaviors in which the learner engages to achieve particular objectives. In this case shouldn’t the main concern be the objective and both the activity and experience tools to achieving it? Which comes first? Aren’t the learning activities the display of the same behavior expected in the objectives?