In every activity we undertake, safety should prevail. Safety is very important for well living in terms of health and finances. This is because any individual who seeks safety by protecting him or herself lives free from harms, diseases and infections, thus spending little if any on treatments. This enhances saving of finances which could otherwise be spent on medication, and these funds can be used later to make other developments, or purchase other necessary goods and services. This shows the role of safety in life. Harms and damages may be caused by fire, traffic, occupational activities, as well as disasters whether natural or man made.
In all these cases, we need to know the possible impact of the safety against these harms and based of individuals animals, businesses, premises as well as the entire society. China is geographically located on the Eastern side of Asia between Vietnam and North Korea. The country has diverse climate, characterized by subarctic in north and tropical in south. The country is exposed to various natural hazards such as floods which damage many things, earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons and drought among others. The country is rich in terms of natural resources as it produces hydropower potential, petroleum, natural gas and aluminum among many others.
China is the forth largest country in the world, and part of the country hosts the tallest mountains peak in the world. According to the 2007 estimation, the country has a population of 1,321,851,888, a population growth of 0. 6%, with birth rare of 13. 5 births per a thousand populations, and a death rate of seven deaths per a thousand populations. The infant mortality rate is twenty two per a thousand live births and life expectancy of seventy three years at birth. China has 9. 326,410 sq Km of land and 270,550 sq of water with the coastline covering about 14,500 KM. Geographically China lies on 3500 N and 105 00 E.
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The Chinese have an intermediate degree of risk to major infectious diseases such as food and waterborne disease, vector borne diseases, water and animal diseases and very rarely avian influenza. (CIA 2008). An average of 91% of Chinese total population is literate, with the individuals aged fifteen and above able to read and write. Every Chinese individual is entitled to getting mandatory education. The country has 961,000 schools with 1,080 colleges and universities. Majority of these colleges and universities have online websites. Generally the China education system covers the preschool to college and universities levels, (Premier 2007).
The China has a market oriented economy with many private sectors developing which has played a major role in the global economy. The GDP as per the 2007 estimate is 87. 043 trillion, 885,300 of PPP. The labor force is 803. 3 million as per the 2007 estimate. The unemployment rate is about 4% with 8% of the Chinese population living below poverty line. The household income rate ranges from 1. 6% to 35% (Harper 2005). According to the 2007 estimation of China budget, the expenditures out weighs the revenues, and has a 19% of GDP as public debt.
The communication in China is composed of telephones which use main line and mobile cellular. The mobile cellular move used, compared to main line, according to 2006 estimate. There is also television and radio broadcast stations (Peterson 2002). Various modes of transport are used in China. Among these include airports, where there are those with paved runways and unpaved runways, the heliports, pipelines for gases and refined products, railways, waterways and roadways which are the commonly used transports among all Fire can be caused by various factors.
Many lives and goods are lost as a result of fire disaster. It is very important to create safety against fire to minimize the risks related to fire. In China most of fire fighting agencies are the country’s army part and citizens undergoes the training which is divided into subcategories. These subcategories include drills, construction concerns, and simulations. The trainees can be trained by a 26-minute training DVD which are made in away to help the fire fighters to effectively and compassionately work with disabled individuals. The fire fighters Agencies in China include the public Agency.
For any citizen to become fire fighter, there are several characters he or she need to have. This is barely because the job involves helping people who are in great need of the help, while risking your own health and life. Fire fighters have a unique character. When all other people are moving away from fire incident, the fire fighters tend to move closer to the fire, to put it off. This means that for any citizen to become an effective fire fighter, he or she need to be courageous and ready to save other people lives and ready to risk his or her life.
The fire fighter are not only involved with putting out fires and saving other peoples lives, but they also constantly care about the people’s health making the society a better place to live. This brings the need for any citizen who intends to become a firer fighter to be devoted and not selfish. Citizen willing to become a fire fighter is expected to take psychological and physical examination, and to undergo a background and criminal check. The individual are expected to be self motivated without attitude. The citizen is expected to have empathy on others and have the ability to support people in all situations.
A citizen with these abilities and who passes the exams are considered to be able to fight fire. In China, the fire fighters get their training involving in various activities and handling various equipments. They engage in responding to emergency calls, duties that require keeping watch, driving fire trucks and operating the fire trucks. The fire fighter learns manual and mechanical operation of the fire truck ladders. These practices needs to be handled in various locations, including inside buildings where they are expected to learn the amount of ventilation in building and how to increase without deteriorating the scene.
They learn skills on how to enter into buildings on fire using the safest entrance. This shows that the training is not restricted to a specific area or location of training, but rather in various places depending on the skills being learnt to enhance proper practice. Safety against fire can be gained by using building code and fire codes. Although all building materials can be damaged by fire though at different heat degrees, the spread of the fire can be minimized by using building codes. (Thygerson 2008). Use of building codes enhances good public health, general welfare and safety.
The building codes are used by engineers, architect and other manufacturers of products used in building, as well as insurance manager and tenants. Due to the distinct climatic zones in China, building codes are used. These codes are developed by code compilation committees which have high industrial involvement, and they are reviewed by the public, approved then the ministry of construction adopts them. These China building energy codes saves 35-50% energy in a 10% less cost increased as compared to other buildings.
DEO II and other simulation software at LBNL, enhances software transfer and codes drafting where implementation activities are reviewed. Various zones have been covered in China, and the heating zone of North was covered by the code first, the residential code followed in cold winter and hot summer regions. The cooling of the warm winter and hot summer consumed a lot of energy, without heating. The commercial and government building are yet to get public building codes as they are in the process of being developed. (IEA 2006).
The building codes in China played roles in heating the houses in colds winters and cooling the houses in warm and hot summers. Initially the fire codes were not translated into Chinese, until 2004 after the signing of agreement between National Technical committee for fire protection, Fire department commute, the China public security ministry and the National fire protection Association. They agreed to translate the 26 NFPA code. The translation was to be followed with training where individual would get the knowledge on how to apply the codes.
This was aimed at enhancing life safety for the Chinese, and visitors who were to join the country for Olympics. Among these codes is the NFPA 1 uniform fire code, which was edited in 2003, NFPA 13E, NFPA 72, National alarm code which was edited in 2002, NFPA 101, life safety code which was edited in 2000, NFPA 230, standard for the fire protection of storage which was edited in 2003, NFPA 921, guide for fire and explosion investigation which was edited in 2004 among others in China, a GB316-87, is the current national standard Building design code which was edited in 2001 with the aim to control building fires. Kelly 2000). The National technical committee and China public security ministry are responsible for fire prevention in China. The PRC has come up with law which enhances fire prevention by ensuring that all residential buildings have a clear emergency exit. Generally the Chinese people feel the need for safety. This is evidenced after the several fire disasters which have occurred in the country. Despite the need for this safety, many builders and new-home buyers tend to assume the need.
This is because, by use of these fire stops and better fire resistance rating materials the costs of construction and subsequent cost of buying the built house increases. In 1999, a severe fire disaster occurred in a village of Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A high number of people were involved, and the following year, others died, while others remained hospitalized. Around fourteen patients were referred to UK and USA for further medication. Rapid motorization has caused severe challenge to driving safety in China.
Research has showed that most of the Chinese drivers usually have unsafe driving behaviors, recommending improved training methods and enforcement of good driving behaviors by the police. The Chinese drivers consider use of driving skills and capabilities rather than practical safe driving guidelines. The Chinese drivers rarely use running light in snowy weather, few of the drivers don’t use safety belts and very few of them use turn signals as well as headlights. The automobiles in China were developed in 1986, and the output rapidly. These automobiles are high-class consumer durable containing low household ownership in China.
In 2005, China started producing sedans. The death rate of Chinese in relation to motor vehicle is high, but not as the rate in United States. Chinese have more of the injury death associated with drowning, suicide, unlike the United States whose motor vehicle clashes rate is more compared to suicide and drowning. In China its easy to get driving license especially for individuals from other states, an individual is required to present a passport copy, a copy of driving license from their state, four red-color photos and 1,880 Hong Kong dollars.
The applicant then sits for traffic rule examination and road tests follows, the applicant drives the vehicle for very few minutes as a practical examination, and after two weeks, driver’s license is ready. This means to get drivers license in China is easy because one can even refers the answer to the questions from the book. According to the Chinese culture, alcohol drinking is an important cultural aspect, believed to enhance, colleagues and leaders relationship, and to promote happy life when in festivals with friends, relatives and family members.
In China, there is no minimum alcohol taking age, Alcohol-related injuries account for a third of total injuries in China, and the Chinese government made a traffic safety law in 2004. In China, there has been set penalty for drivers who drink while driving, and a different one for drivers who are found drunk when driving. For the drinking drivers, the driving license can be suspended for an average of two month, and a fine of an average of 50 US dollars. For the drunk drivers suspension of driving license takes an average of five month and the driver can end up into custody, and/or about 230 US dollars fine.
WHO considers the Chinese most collisions to have resulted from violation of traffic rules, arguing that the poor road conditions, lack of necessary measures and ineffective prevention measures also contribute to the deaths, where farmers and businessmen are the major victims. According to Chinese automobile fatalities are preventable, but this contradicts with the cultural practices because what can be used to prevent the fatalities, the Chinese culture has great value for them. A good example for this is drinking.
There has been no major motor vehicle accident in China, but minor cases have been reported throughout China, causing few severe and minor injuries to the victims. The International Labor Organization, State Administration of Work Safety as well as China International Forum of work safety are some of the organizations in China, which have been working to promote safety of workers at their work places. One of the most dangerous work places in China is the coalmines. Education and training of safety inspectors are the major keys which can underpin safety culture.
The coal mining industry training in China is offered in four institutional types. The level A and level B institutions are involved with training the mine managers and safety controllers, level C institutions trains special occupational workers with special skills unlike those given to manager and controllers. The level D institution trains mine workers at the mining sites. (OS and HC 2001). The occupational safety inspectors require the training on how to maintain safety while working, and the need for the safety.
An underground gas- triggered earthquake in Northeast China killed at least two hundred and two people. The president leaders and local officials made efforts to rescue the victims and put strict measures that would prevent similar and other disasters at mining site, and compensated the victims’ families. The Chinese work hard and with diligence. They believe that hard work has a lot for them in terms of benefits, incomes and generally good living standards. All Chinese keep this as their drive force, whereby all individuals work hard to earn living.
Migrant workers put extra efforts when working in China, and the wages they get in return are very low. Not all Chinese are hard work, but since no country has a universal cultural trait, the general description of Chinese is that they are hard working. They are status-obsessed, greedy and envious of their social betterment. These traits are the driving force of Chinese to hard working. The riches of the Chinese are not achieved from the parents’ financial background, but rather from the efforts of their hard work.
Various trade unions have been formed in China. These unions are aimed at protecting the legitimate rights and interests or workers. Among these unions is the All China Federation of Trade Unions which collectively bargains for the workers in the management. The union represents the workers interest in wage negotiations, while enhancing job security. Occupational illnesses and injuries cost China a lot. Most of these illnesses are caused by inhaling of dusts at mining sites and include, chronic lung diseases, pneumoconiosis.
According to legal daily, the GAWS, said that about seven hundred million of Chinese suffer occupational illnesses, and there is a high possibility of the number to increase. (Chow 2003). There are other illnesses and injuries related to the Chinese occupation, but the ones that result from mining are the majority and have severe effects to individual and businesses. Although some businesses gives sick leaves, not all of them give a considerable duration of the leave for fire fighters in China, some fire houses gives a day to two medical leave for fighters but its given to workers with severe injuries.
Minor injuries like sprains, injuries and cuts are not considered. The city argued that workers who seek on-duty injury leaves should be penalized because the union fosters the decision to seek the sick leaves. The ILO urges China to create more and better jobs to meet the economy surges, of filling jobs. This is because China’s economy is booming but the labor is scarce. The ILO reported that there is a decrease in creation of jobs in China, compared to the GDP growth. There has been a high ratio of unemployed Chinese in relation to the entire Chinese population.
ILO reported that the shedding of jobs at poorly performing states owned business has caused loss of many jobs, and the shifting from long-term structural shift to employment-intensive growth as the country modernizes have resulted to mediocre rate in creation of job. ILO urges China to participate in education and training system to avail skilled technicians and workers. The trained personnel and thought to ensure long term transition plans are effective which would produce greater valued goods and services.
In China occupational accidents are so frequent especially at mine sites and despite it all, Chinese continue to work at the mines. Despite the deaths which result from these accidents, the Chinese continue to work to earn for their living. The International Strategy for disaster reduction and UN/ISDR have been participating in preventing and minimizing risks associated with natural and manmade disasters in China. In July 1931, a severe flood occurred in China, which led to 3,700,000 deaths. The disaster was as a result of flooding of yellow river in China.
In 1920, Gansu earthquake occurred in China killing 200,000 people. (Brown 2002). The WHO report, indicates that China is one of the major tobacco consuming countries, with subsequent death, and to limit this, the WHO report emphasized on preventing the tobacco consumption by giving anti-smoking messages to the public. In another WHO report, China was among the countries which were found to be operating in a level accepted by WHO in terms of compliance with its principles of good manufacturing practices.
The tobacco consumption in China, as well as other lung infections related to mining dust is some of the specific threats faced by the Chinese. . According to WHO report, Chinese population is under the risk of chronic diseases, children malnutrition, under nutrition and overweight, anemia resulting from under nutrition and poor sanitation. These risks if not sorted out can have great negative impact to the entire Chinese population. Other diseases which increase the Chinese mortality rate include HIV /AIDS, malaria infection, and tuberculosis among others.
Deaths, injuries and damage of premises are some of the major threats faced by the Chinese as a result of various disasters. These disasters affect individuals, organizations as well as the entire population in the Chinese society, whether directly or indirectly The WHO recommends support from governmental, and non governmental organization to enhance health workforce and financial support, which are thought to ensure effective treatment of infected and affected people in China. China is one of the countries mostly affected by disasters due to its geographical and physical feature.
The disasters are also enhanced by involvement of people in various activities thus the manmade disasters. These disasters greatly affect the social and economic development of the Chinese. Various disasters have been reported to have occurred in China, including floods, earthquakes, firers, drought, seismic and ecological disasters among others. (Thygerson 1977). However, no history report has indicated volcano eruption or possibility of eruption. Threats posed by disasters are related to property, life and individuals’ safety as well as the country’s safety in terms of economy and society.
These China’s social stability and national security are inhibited by the disasters and due to fear of investors, China economic development comes to halt, which promotes poverty in the country. The disasters made by man in China include the virus, biological warfare, chemical warfare and the development of nuclear weapons by man. (Abramowitz 2002). Both natural and man made disasters have similar threat to the Chinese population. A lot of injuries and deaths’ have resulted in China from disasters whether, natural or manmade. In China, flooding is a major killer of lives in China.
Below is a table showing the top ten natural disasters in China, including the resulting death and injury toll. The Chinese blame Japanese, claiming that they cause most of the experienced disasters. They relate manmade disasters to the Japanese action. They regard civil war as a process in which a nation moves despite the war effects. Despite the many likes lost as a result of these disasters the Chinese population takes heart and continues with their work activities. This is common in mining sites, because the disasters are frequently reported but Chinese continue working at the mine site to earn for their living. (Heming and Philpee 2001).
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