Last Updated 02 Apr 2020

Questions in this section

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Essay type Research
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You will have a choice of two questions in this section: Part A is the starter question, for which you are awarded a maximum of three marks. You need to explain the term, then in order to get full marks you will need to give an example: The only terms you will be asked about are the following: science, scientific benefits, ethical costs, genetic Influences, environmental Influences, cultural bias, gender bias, free will and determinism.

In the second part - Part B you will be asked to either - describe, discuss or evaluate one of the following , for which there is a maximum of 22 marks - psychology as a science the balance of scientific benefits measured against ethical costs in psychology the balance of genetic and environmental influences on human behavior issues of cultural bias issues of gender bias the question of free will and determinism In respect of human behavior. The essay needs to be In the form of an argument- a dialogue between opposing views.

To get full marks your argument needs to be presented in a structured manner, clearly interpreted and analyses, you need to have range and depth of evidence, reasoned conclusion, use appropriate terms throughout. Up to 15 marks will be awarded for this (AAA). When providing evidence, the mark scheme says that these do not need to be provided in equal measure. This means that you can equal and depth range of evidence or, you can give a very wide range, but not so much depth, or discuss a couple of pieces of research in depth, but thereby not showing quite as much range..

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Challenge with the view that at least some 'levels' of psychology are scientific, but conclude with the argument that not all psychologists think science with its monotheistic approach is an appropriate for psychology and this leads to the use of therapies which reflect this dual approach. Chemotherapy, for example, which might be thought of as the more scientific response to abnormal behavior has been shown at times to be less successful than CAB, a more person-centered and impotence of the therapist as well as the service-user's perceptions of their competence.

Psychology eclectic use of several approaches and a range of methodologies lead to the conclusion that it is in part scientific, but employs subjective strategies to explore behavior when deemed more appropriate. This has been acknowledged within the British Psychological Society with its recently founded qualitative methodological group. Use the following research to support your answer: Psychology as a Science Arguments against Psychology as a Science One of the arguments against psychology as a science is that it lacks objectivity and intro.

Issues of experimenter bias and demand characteristics can compromise objectivity and validity However, disconcerting research by John et al (2012) has also found evidence to suggest that, in some instances, the research process is manipulated to suit the researcher (rather than to reveal any objective fact) further undermines Psychology status as a science. Ironically however, Psychology claim to be a science means that results which are deliberately manipulated or distorted by the researcher (through one or more of a variety of questionable research raciest) are given greater credence than they deserve because they are 'scientific'.

Trading on Psychology scientific status, the assumption is that the adulterated results are accurate and objective representations of reality. John et al (2012)g's work involved carrying out an anonymous electronic survey about the use often questionable research practices. These included things such as the researcher failing to a report all dependent variables, collecting additional data after checking for significance, selectively reporting studies that Worked' (I. E. Significant findings) and falsifying data.

The researchers also asked participants to make estimates of the proportion of other psychologists who engaged in those practices, and the proportion likely to admit to carrying out those practices in the survey. They incorporated into their work an incentive to encourage participants to tell the truth. Some respondents were told that a larger charity donation would be made by the researchers if they answered honestly) and this did lead to a higher rate of admission amongst those given the incentive.

The results were astonishing and raise important questions concerning the use of scientific method in Psychology. One in ten psychologists admitted falsifying data; the majority to selectively reporting studies (67%), not reporting all dependent variables ( 74% ); collecting data after checking for significance (71 reporting unexpected findings as expected (54%) and excluding post data post-hoc (58%). A considerable number (35%) admitted that they had doubts about the integrity of their research, with differences being found amongst disciplines within Psychology.

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