More and more companies are finding it necessary to to achieve high quality, ND consider it a major strategy objective.This essay aims to explain how companies control their organizations to produce high quality products through cases in two completely different sectors, separately service and manufacturing industries.It compares distinct method to improve quality in two company Toyota and American airline.
Literature Review Quality Is an often-used concept but yet such a complex term. Many academic researches have been conducted to help us understand what Is quality.
From marketing’s perspective, it is about how to satisfy customer expectations to the greet extent ( Crooning 1994). Other economics and industrial organization researchers view quality in terms of vertical product differentiation between design and implementation. ( Mayer,C 1 971 ), whereas management researchers study quality in terms of organizational processes such as quality circles and total quality management (Powell,T 1995). Those definitions give a comprehensive understanding of this concept. To attempt to reach high quality, companies monitor the process of production. These actively can be defined as quality control (SQ).
As Mayer (1971) said, the term control add the meaning of attempts to Insure that the design was implemented according to the plan. In other words, it is a systematic process through which the targets and standards are set and then actions are taken to correct deviations from actual performance. There are four steps in the control process according to R. Daft (1991) ,namely establish standards, measure actual performance, compare performance to standards and take corrective action. Firstly, establishing standards precisely provides a guide to workers and managers so that they can determine whether the product or service Is on target.
Secondly, companies develop various quality agreements which can be observed In a period,for monthly. Thirdly, comparing performance to standards means relating collected data and reports from actual activities to the target. When performance Is Inconsistent with the standards, inquiring approach should be taken and causes of the problem chancing work activities in order to bring them back to acceptable performance standards. When implementing the four steps above, quality control can focus on events before, during,or after the production process.