Past Movements in Education and Analysis of Curricuar Reforms

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Last Updated: 20 Apr 2022
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Polytechnic University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL Doctor in Educational Management Manila The Past Movement for Social Change in the Educational System & Analysis of Curricular Reforms in the Elementary, Secondary and Tertiary Levels A Written Report in DEM 736-Systems Analysis in Education Submitted to: DE DRACIA Subject Specialist Submitted by: MARY ANN B. PASCUA DEM Student March 16, 2013 Introduction Education has always been considered a very important basic tool in improving not just the quality of an individual’s life, but in achieving overall social and economic progress of the whole nation as well.

For an individual, it must be treated as a continuous process that should not end when graduation rites in each particular level of schooling are being held. True education is life, it must always be a part of our daily living, whether through formal or informal means. Educational systems in general, and educational curriculum in particular, also need not to be static. The curriculum should respond to the demands of a fast-changing society. To some extent, it should also be global or internationally-aligned.

These are the reasons why foreign and local educational educators in the past and until now have been introducing educational reforms and innovations. They have been searching means to address the problems being met in the implementation of a certain curriculums and to ensure the total development of every learner. I. The Past Movements for Social Change in the School System Social change affects education. Centuries ago, pioneers of education have sought to introduce renewal in education. Their ideas were far ahead than the actual renewal that took place later on.

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Among them were Commenius, Condorcet, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Dewey, Drecoly, Montessori and Freinet. 1. Johann Amos Commenius -“Father of Modern Education” Most permanent educational influences: a. practical educational work Comenius was first a teacher and an organizer of schools, not only among his own people, but later in Sweden, and to a slight extent in Holland. In his Didactica Magna (Great Didactic), he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart of the existing American system of kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, college, and university.

Didactica Magna is an educational treatise which aimed to seek and find a method of instruction by which teachers may teach less but learners may learn more, by which the school may be the scene of less noise, aversion, and useless labor, but of more leisure, enjoyment and solid progress; and through which the Christian community may have less darkness, perplexity (confusion) and dissension (disagreement), but on the other hand, more light, orderliness, peace and rest. b. formulating the general theory of education In this respect he is the forerunner of Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, etc. and is the first to formulate that idea of “education according to nature” so influential during the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century. c. the subject matter and method of education -exerted through a series of textbooks of an entirely new nature His published works: Janua Linguarum Reserata (The Gateway of Language Unlocked) - contained his conviction (certainty) that one of the prerequisites for effective educational reform was a fundamental change in language of instruction.

Orbis Pictus (The World of Sensible Things Pictured) - contributed to the development of the principles of audio-visual interaction. It was the first successful applications of illustrations to the work of teaching, but not the first illustrated book for children. Schola Ludus (School as Play) - a detailed exposition of the doctrine that all learning should be made interesting, dramatic and stimulating.

These texts were all based on the same fundamental ideas: (1) learning foreign languages through the vernacular; (2) obtaining ideas through objects rather than words; (3) starting with objects most familiar to the child to introduce him to both the new language and the more remote world of objects: (4) giving the child a comprehensive knowledge of his environment, physical and social, as well as instruction in religious, moral, and classical subjects; (5) making this acquisition of a compendium of knowledge a pleasure rather than a task; and (6) making instruction universal.

He also developed the pansophic scheme, the view that education should take the whole of human knowledge as its universe. For him, truth was indivisible and was to be seen as a whole. Thus by relating each subject to every other subject and to general principles, pansophia was to make the learner capable of wisdom. 2. Marquis De Condorcet Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat took his title Marquis de Condorcet from the town of Condorcet in Dauphine. He advocated that the aims of education were: o cultivate in each generation the physical, intellectual and moral facilities and, thereby contribute to the general and gradual improvement of the human race. He envisioned a national system of public education designed to develop the natural talents of all, making real equality possible. His proposals of the five levels of public instructions areas follows: 1. Elementary- for the teaching of the ‘elements’ of all knowledge (reading, writing, arithmetic, morals, economics and natural science)and would be compulsory for all four years 2.

Secondary school- of three years’ duration, teaching grammar, history and geography, one foreign language, the mechanical arts, law and mathematics. The teaching at this and the first level would be non-specialized. 3. Institutes- responsible for ‘substituting reasoning for eloquence and books for speech, and for bringing philosophy and the physical science methodology into the moral sciences’. The teaching at this level would be more specialized.

Pupils would choose their own course of study (at least two courses a year) from among four classes: mathematics and physics, moral and political sciences, science as applied to the arts, and literature and fine arts. 4. Lycee - the equivalent of universities, with the same classes as the institutes and ‘where all the sciences are taught in full. It is there that scholars-teachers receive their further training’. Education at this and the first three levels was to be entirely free of charge. 5.

National Society of Science and the Arts - a research institute responsible for supervising the formal education system as a whole and for appointing teachers. Its role would be one of scientific and pedagogical research. 3. Jean Jacques Rousseau According to the history of education, he was the first great writer to insist that education should be based upon the nature of the child. Rousseau’s Emile is a kind of half treatise, half novel that tells the life story of a fictional man named Emile.

His book “Emile” has been referred to as the gospel of “educational freedom” for the child. Accordingly, Emile is divided into five books, each corresponding to a developmental stage. |Book No. |Age |Description |Basic Features | |I & II |0-12 |Age of Nature |Insists that the young children must emphasize the physical side | | | | |of their education .

Like small animals, they must be freed of | | | | |constrictive swaddling clothes, breastfed by their mothers, and | | | | |allowed to play outside, thereby developing the physical senses | | | | |that will be the most important tool in their acquisition of | | | | |learning.

Later, as they approach puberty, they should be taught a| | | | |manual trade, such as carpentry, and allowed to develop within it,| | | | |further augmenting their physical capabilities and hand–brain | | | | |coordination. |III & IV |13-19 |Transitional Stage |The individual should begin formal education under a private tutor| | | | |and studying and reading only what he is curious about, only that | | | | |which is “useful” or “pleasing. ” Rousseau explains that in this | | | | |manner, Emile will essentially educate himself and be excited | | | | |about learning.

Rousseau states that early adolescence is the best| | | | |time to begin such study, since after puberty the young man is | | | | |fully developed physically yet still uncorrupted by the passions | | | | |of later years.

At this stage, Emile is also ready for religious | | | | |education | |V |20-25 |Age of Wisdom |(Rousseau writes that only after a final period of studying | | | | |history and learning how society corrupts natural man can Emile | | | | |venture unprotected into that society, without danger of himself | | | | being corrupted). Emile does venture out in book V, and he | | | | |immediately encounters woman, in the form of Sophie. Rousseau | | | | |devotes a large part of the concluding section to their love story| | | | |as well as to a discussion of female education. |

Rousseau claims that this stage is followed by the Age of Happiness, the final stage of development, which he does not address in Emile. For Rousseau, there are two natural attributes cooperating in the youth’s development, namely: -generic features of his age, which makes it possible to articulate the principal phases of his development; and Specific talents for which the child must find opportunities to exercise and develop. 4. John Pestalozzi

In the history of education, the significant contributions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi are: 1) his educational philosophy and instructional method that encouraged harmonious intellectual, moral, and physical development Pestalozzi's most systematic work, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children (1801) was a critique of conventional schooling and a prescription for educational reform. Rejecting corporal punishment, rote memorization, and bookishness, Pestalozzi envisioned schools that were homelike institutions where teachers actively engaged students in learning by sensory experiences.

Such schools were to educate individuals who were well rounded intellectually, morally, and physically. Through engagement in activities, students were to learn useful vocations that complemented their other studies. 2) his methodology of empirical sensory learning, especially through object lessons Pestalozzi designed object lessons in which children, guided by teachers, examined the form (shape), number (quantity and weight) of objects, and named them after direct experience with them. 3) his use of activities, excursions, and nature studies that anticipated Progressive education. He also emphasized the importance of the nature of the child and propounded (advocated) that in the educational process, the child must be thought in relation to the subject matter. He sought to understand the nature of the child and to build his teaching around the natural, progressive and harmonious development of all the powers and capacities.

He is an advocate of each man’s right to education and of society’s duty to implement that right and pave the way to universal national education. His motto "Learning by head, hand and heart" is still a key principle in successful 21st-century schools. 5. Friedrich Froebel The German educator, Friedrich Froebel, was one of these pioneers of early childhood educational reform. Froebel’s educational principles: a) free self-activity As an educator, Froebel believed that stimulating voluntary self-activity in the young child was the necessary form of pre-school education (Watson, 1997a).

Self-activity is defined as the development of qualities and skills that make it possible to take an invisible idea and make it a reality; self-activity involves formulating a purpose, planning out that purpose, and then acting on that plan until the purpose is realized (Corbett, 1998a). Corbett suggests that one of Froebel's significant contributions to early childhood education was his theory of introducing play as a means of engaging children in self-activity for the purpose of externalizing their inner natures. ) creativity Froebel designed a series of instructional materials that he called "gifts and occupations", which demonstrated certain relationships and led children in comparison, testing, and creative exploration activities (Watson, 1997b). A gift was an object provided for a child to play with--such as a sphere, cube, or cylinder--which helped the child to understand and internalize the concepts of shape, dimension, size, and their relationships (Staff, 1998). The occupations were items such as aints and clay which the children could use to make what they wished; through the occupations, children externalized the concepts existing within their creative minds (Staff, 1998). Therefore, through the child's own self-activity and creative imaginative play, the child would begin to understand both the inner and outer properties of things as he moves through the developmental stages of the educational process. c) social participation A third component of Froebel's educational plan involved working closely with the family unit.

Froebel believed that parents provided the first as well as the most consistent educational influence in a child's life. Since a child's first educational experiences occur within the family unit, he is already familiar with the home d) motor expression Motor expression, which refers to learning by doing as opposed to following rote instructions, is a very important aspect of Froebel's educational principles. Froebel did not believe that the child should be placed into society's mold, but should be allowed to shape his own mold and grow at his own pace through the developmental stages of the educational process. 6. John Dewey

He contributed the educational philosophy which maintains that education is life, education is growth and education is a continuous reconstruction of human experiences from the beginning to the end of life. He was the spokes person of progressive education which states that aims have significance only for persons, not for processes such as education, and arise only in response to problematic situations in ongoing activities. Aims are to be viewed as anticipated outcomes of transactions, as intrinsic aspects of the process of problem-solving, and as a motivating force behind the individual’s approach to problem-solving situations.

The Progressive Education Association, inspired by Dewey’s ideas, later codified his doctrines as follows: a. The conduct of the pupils shall be governed by themselves, according to the social needs of the community. b. Interest shall be the motive for all work. c. Teachers will inspire a desire for knowledge, and will serve as guides in the investigations undertaken, rather than as task-masters. d. Scientific study of each pupil’s development, physical, mental, social and spiritual, is absolutely essential to the intelligent direction of his development. . Greater attention is paid to the child’s physical needs, with greater use of the out-of-doors. f. Cooperation between school and home will fill all needs of the child’s development such as music, dancing, play and other extra-curricular activities. g. All progressive schools will look upon their work as of the laboratory type, giving freely to the sum of educational knowledge the results of their experiments in child culture. He believed that education has two sides: the psychological and the social on the same plane.

Education must start from the psychological nature of the child as the basis for directing his energies into totally useful channels. Schools must be set up to include bond the individual and social goals. The needs of a new society are to be taken into consideration in modifying methods and curriculum. 7. Ovide Decroly He influenced instruction in the kindergarten, the aim of which was to guide the child’s desire for activity and to give him a sense of discipline and norms for his social behavior (same with Dewey) 8. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori left a long lasting mark on education around the world.

She is regarded as one of the most famous and accomplished educators of her time. Montessori determined the development of the human being to be as follows: |Birth – 3 years |Absorbent Mind | | |Sensory experiences | |1 ? - 3 years |Language development | |1 ? 4 years |Coordination and muscle development | | |Interest in small objects | |2 – 4 years |Refinement of movement | | |Concern with truth and reality | | |Awareness of order sequence in time and space | |2 ? 6 years |Sensory refinement | |3 - 6 years |Susceptibility to adult influence | |3 ? - 4 ? years |Writing | |4 – 4 ? years |Tactile sense | |4 ? - 5 ? ears |Reading | Learning, according to Montessori, comes from manipulation of the environment and the training of the senses. Montessori thought that within every child “There exists…an unconscious mental state which is of a creative nature. She called it the ‘Absorbent Mind’” The child’s absorbent mind is the driving force behind Montessori’s theories of how children learn. She claims that children will absorb information from the environment that they are in.

The materials that Montessori developed “…were designed to be self-correcting, and the children thrived on the activity involved with learning…” (Hainstock, 1997, 14). They were auto-instructional in that they did not require a teacher to show the children how to use the materials, the children were able to play with the tool and gain knowledge from it on their own. The teacher was simply there as an observer and a facilitator. Mistakes were a natural part of the learning process according to Montessori.

She believed that when children work with the environment they will naturally make mistakes and often those mistakes are a critical part of the learning process. It is the repetition of the activity that the child will gain mastery and learn the concept. Characteristics of a Montessori Education • Psychic wellness • Intrinsically motivated • Inner disciplined • Self-supporting • Creative thinkers • Highly developed social skills • Lifelong learners • High sense of self-worth • Peacemakers & peacekeepers • Love of mankind • Stewards of the earth • Leadership • Abstract thinkers Able to think & speak for themselves • Self control • Team players 9. Celestin Freinet In 1915 he was recruited into the French army and was wounded in the lung, an experience that led him to becoming a resolute pacifist. In 1920 he became an elementary schoolteacher in the village of Le Bar-sur-Loup. It was here that Freinet began to develop his teaching methods. In 1923 Freinet purchased a printing press, originally to assist with his teaching, since his lung injury made it difficult for him to talk for long periods. It was with this press he printed free texts and class newspapers for his students.

The children would compose their own works on the press, and would discuss and edit them as a group before presenting them as a team effort. They would regularly leave the classroom to conduct field trips. The newspapers were exchanged with those from other schools. Gradually the group texts replaced conventional school books. Concepts of Freinet's pedagogy • Pedagogy of work (pedagogie du travail) - pupils were encouraged to learn by making products or providing services • Inquiry-based learning (tatonnement experimental) - group-based trial and error work •

Cooperative learning (travail cooperatif)- pupils were to cooperate in the production process • Centres of interest (complexe d'interet) - the children's interests and natural curiosity are starting points for a learning process • The natural method (methode naturelle) - authentic learning by using real experiences of children • Democracy - children learn to take responsibility for their own work and for the whole community by using democratic self government II. Analysis of the Curricular Changes in the Philippine Educational System (Elementary, Secondary and Tertiary Levels) Basic Education Curricular Reforms Grade Level |1945-1957 |1957-1972 |1973-1989 |1989-2001 |2001-2011 |2012-present | |Year IV | |2-2 Plan |Revised Secondary |New Secondary Education|Revised Basic | | | | |-College Prep |Education Program |Curriculum |Education Curriculum| | | | |Curriculum |-Electives |(SEDP) | | | | | |-Vocational Curriculum| | | | | | |General Education | | | | |K to 12 Basic | | |Core Curriculum | | | | |Education Curriculum| |Year III | | | | | | | |Year II | | | | | | | |Year I | | | | | | | |Grade VI | |1958-1982 |1983-2001 |2011-onward | | | | | |Kindergarten to the | | | | | | |Public Schools | | |Grade V | |Revised Elementary |New Elementary School Curriculum (NSEC) | | | | | |Education | | | | | | |Curriculum |SOUTELE basis of PRODED | | | |Grade IV | | | | | | |Grade III | | | | | | |Grade II | | | | | | |Grade I | | | | | |

The development of the basic education curriculum is the responsibility of the Central Office Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education, the Curriculum Development Divisions. The historical development of the Philippine basic education program proves the Department’s continuing effort at improving the quality and relevance of basic education in terms of curriculum development. The table shows that since 1945, the elementary curriculum underwent three (3) revisions, while that of the secondary curriculum underwent four (4) before the K to 12 Curriculum. A. ELEMENTARY LEVEL Before the NESC and NSEC were developed, the DECS reviewed the results of several researches, surveys and experimental programs conducted in the country to find out what the ailed the educational system.

The surveys and researches revealed the deficiencies of the curricula implemented by the Department. 1970 Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) - Reiterated many of the findings of previous surveys. It also restated the language problem, but further noted the mismatch between educational output and country needs. It called for the reorganization of the educational system to address overcentralization-which resulted in the creation of the Bureau of Higher Education (BHE), Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE), Educational Project Implementation Task Force (EDPITAF), and National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) and for a political solution to the language problem. 976 Survey of Outcome of Elementary Education (SOUTELE) - Measurement and analysis of learning outcomes of a sample of Gr. IV students in the country that included surveys of school, teacher, and student characteristics. It also indicated poor achievement levels even in basic reading, writing and quantitative analysis. It noted differences across socio-economic conditions of students and school environments, and explicitly linked socioeconomic inequalities in society to differences in educational outcomes. The two studies, along with 1978 Experimental Elementary Education Program (EEEP) revealed that our elementary students performed poorly especially in the three Rs.

One of the findings also revealed that the elementary school curriculum was overloaded starting from Grade I. With this issue of curriculum congestion which resulted to the learners’ lack of mastery of basic competencies was the reason behind the introduction of the decongested NESC and NSEC. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) The 1983 National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) was deemed to answer the problems revealed by the above-mentioned surveys. First, a comprehensive plan known as the Program for the Comprehensive Elementary Education (PROCEED) was prepared. From this big program was derived the sector program known as the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). 982-1989 Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) - funded by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). It focused on improving the curriculum to strengthen the emphasis on science, technology, math, reading and writing. Features of NESC: a. It covered fewer learning areas putting together emphasis on intellectual skills and basic knowledge, especially reading, writing, and mathematics as well as attitude formation among pupils; b. Its content focused on the development of a shared values and belief system which fosters humanism and sense of nationhood among children; c. It aimed at mastery learning among pupils; d.

It also emphasized the development of work skills which are as important as intellectual skills e. It developed health values in the whole curriculum, not only n the period for character building activities and science and health; f. It developed competencies and values for social living reflected in the new dimension in civics and culture expanded to include history, geography and work ethics for grade 3, and in-depth learning of geography, history and civics in grades 4-6. Learning Areas Grades I-III Filipino English Mathematics Civics and Culture Science and Health was added starting Grade III. Music, Arts and PE were integrated in Gr. I and II and became a separate subject area starting from Gr. III.

Other subjects were gradually added beginning Gr. IV, Like Home Economics and Livelihood Ed. , a common subject for boys and girls, and Geography, History, Civics for Gr. IV-VI, which was the continuation of Civics and Culture. The NESC was tried out gradually in 13 pilot schools in the country. From the results of the try-outs, the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLCs) were finalized and the NESC was fully implemented. Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) (2002-2011) The four Pillars of Education in Jacques Dolors’ Report to UNESCO was one of the documents that influenced the restructuring of the curriculum. (Restructuring does not mean complete revision or change of the curriculum.

It only means refining and giving more emphasis to some aspects that are deemed more responsive to the present realities). Learning to live together and learning to be using the knowledge gained to improve oneself and one’s relationship with fellow human beings, are especially relevant Features of the BEC 1. Greater emphasis on helping every learner become a successful reader 2. Emphasis on interactive/collaborative learning approaches 3. Emphasis on the use of integrative learning approaches 4. Teaching of values in all learning areas 5. Development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens 6. Development of creative and critical thinking Focus of BEC 2002 1. Development of reading skills and values of self-reliance and patriotism 2.

Interactive learning approaches and integrative teaching approaches which integrate competencies and values within and across learning areas Comparison of Learning Areas of NESC and BEC |NESC |BEC | |Filipino |Filipino | |English |English | |Mathematics |Mathematics | |Science and Health (starting Gr.

III) |Science | |Civics and Culture (I-III) |Makabayan | |Geography, History, Civics (IV-VI) |- Sibika at Kultura (I-III)/ Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika (IV-VI) | | |- MSEP (integrated in I-III; separate subject in IV-VI) | | |- Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pang-Industriya (IV-VI) | | |- Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (separate subject fr. I-VI) | |MAPE (integrated in Gr. I and II; separate subject in Gr.

III) | | |HELE (starting Gr. IV) | | |Geography, History, Civics (starting Gr. IV) | | The K to 12 Curriculum Focus: Considers every aspect of development of the learners so that graduates will be holistically developed, equipped with 21st century skills and prepared for employment, entrepreneurship, middle level skills or higher education. Comparison of the 2002 BEC and the K to 12 Curriculum 2002 BEC |Age |K to 12 Structure | | |17-18 |Senior High School | | | |Grades 11-12 | |High school |12-16 |Junior High School | |Year 1 to 4 | |Grades 7-10 | |Elementary Grades |6-11 |Elementary | |Grades 1-6 | |Grades 1 to 6 | |Optional |5 |Mandatory Kindergarten | |Pre-school | | |

Comparison of the 2002 BEC and the K to 12 Elementary Education |2002 BEC | |K to 12 | |Bilingual |Medium of Instruction |Mother Tongue-Based Multi-Lingual Ed. (Gr. I-III)| |(English and Filipino) | | | |Filipino, English, Mathematics, Science, |Learning Areas |Filipino, English, | |Makabayan | |Mathematics,EsP,AP, | | | |Mother Tongue (Gr.

I-III) | | | |MAPEH (starting Gr. I) | |National Achievement Test |Assessment |End-of-Gr. VI Assessment, as exit exam and as | |For Gr. VI | |readiness test for Gr. 7 | Twelve major languages that shall be offered as a learning area and utilized as language of instruction: TagalogCebuanoMaranaoKapampangan HiligaynonChabacanoPangasinenseWaray IlokoBahasa-sugBikolMaguindanaoan Comparison of the Learning Areas and Time Allotment of the 2002 BEC and the K to 12 Curriculum Learning Areas |2002 BEC |K to 12 Education | | |(minutes per day) |(minutes per day) | |English |60-90 | |30-50 | | | |Languages | | |Filipino |60-70 | |30-50 | |Mother Tongue(I-III) |None | |50 | |Mathematics |60-70 | |50 | |Science (III-VI) |40-60 | |50 | |Araling Panlipunan |40-60 | |40 | |Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao | |20-30 | |30 | | |Makabayan | | | | |Music, Arts, PE and Health | |40 | |40 | |Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (IV-VI) | |40 | |50 | B. SECONDARY LEVEL 1. 2-2 Plan In the 2-2Plan, both general and vocational secondary schools offered the basic or common curriculum of academic course with one unit of Practical Arts in the first two years. In the last two years, the general secondary schools offered a pre-college academic curriculum with one unit of vocational elective each year while the vocational secondary schools offered more specialized vocational courses with one unit of academic elective each year. The 2-2 Plan was a differentiated curriculum leading either to a college or technical course.

It was seen to be a very responsive curriculum, however, it was met with strong opposition especially from the private sector which requested for its deferment due to lack of money, facilities, equipment for vocational education and lack of guidance counselors. The pitfalls of the 2-2 Plan implementation could be attributed to “insufficient preparation before the plan was implemented and the continued high prestige value of the college preparatory course in the eyes of parents and students. ” 2. Revised Secondary Education Program Learning Areas: EnglishMathematicsScienceFilipino Social StudiesHome EconomicsCharacter Ed. Physical Education (with PMT/CAT in fourth year) Medium of Instruction: English (almost all subjects excluding Filipino)

In the later years of implementation, more time were spent in technology-related subjects like Science and Technology and Technology and Home Economics. 3. New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) When the first batch of students who went through the NESC graduated, the Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) implemented the NSEC in the schools. Like the NESC, it had to undergo field try-outs and on the basis of the results, was revised and finalized. The NSEC had the following features: g. It covered fewer learning areas putting greater emphasis on intellectual skills and basic knowledge, especially reading, writing and mathematics as well as attitude formation among pupils; h.

Its content focused on the development of a shared values and belief system which fosters humanism and sense of nationhood among children; i. It aimed at mastery learning among pupils; j. It emphasized the development of work skills which are as important as intellectual skills; k. It developed health values in the whole curriculum; and l. It developed competencies and values for social living reflected in the new dimension in civics and culture The NSEC included the ff. learning areas to be taught for 40 minutes daily from first year to fourth year: Values EducationSocial Studies FilipinoScience and Technology EnglishPhysical Education, Health and Music MathematicsTechnology and Home Economics

Comparison of the Learning Areas and Time Allotment of RSEP and NESC |RSEP | |NSEC | |English |Learning Area |English | |Mathematics | |Mathematics | |Science | |Science and Technology | |Filipino | |Filipino | |Social Studies | |Social Studies | |Home Economics | |Technology and Home Economics | |Physical Education (with PMT/CAT in fourth year) | |Physical Education, Health and Music | |Character Ed. | |Values Ed. | |One hour, thrice a week |Time allotment |40 minutes daily schedule | The formal review of the NESC and NSEC was started during the incumbency of Sec. Andrew Gonzales (1998-2001) and continued during the incumbency of Sec. Raul Roco (2001-2003).

Other studies conducted: |Studies/Researches |Findings/Recommendations | |National Achievement Test |Gr. VI students were able to answer correctly less than 50% of questions asked in | | |Science, Mathematics and English | |National Secondary Achievement Test |A mean percentage score of only 50 % was achieved | |Committee on Information, Technology , Science, |An “overcrowded curriculum” especially in Gr.

III resulted in poor performance of | |Mathematics, Education and other Technology |pupils in the elementary grades. Students needed longer time in science and | | |mathematics. | |Present Realities in Reading Education by Aurora|Students are deficient in reading ability. They have not developed the higher | |Roldan |order thinking skills, even at Gr. V. There is danger of reverting to illiteracy | | |if the students dropped out before completing Gr. VI. | |Third International mathematics and Science |The Philippines ranked 39th out of 42 countries which participated in the studies. |Study (TIMMS) | | |The Learning Process: The Neglected Phenomenon |In comparison with other countries, the Philippines science syllabus contained | |in Science and Mathematics Education Reform in |more topics suggesting that the curriculum is still congested. | |the Philippines | | 4. Restructured Basic Education Curriculum The first monitoring and evaluation of the basic education curriculum implementation was conducted in September 2002, the second in October 2003 and the latest in September 2004. Effective 2006-2007, the mandatory implementation of the 2002 BEC was expanded to the private secondary schools (DepEd Order No. 35, July 1, 2005). Comparison of the Learning Areas of NSEC and RBEC NSEC | |RBEC | |English |Learning Area |English | |Mathematics | |Mathematics | |Science and Technology | |Science | |Filipino | |Filipino | |Social Studies | |Makabayan | |Technology and Home Economics | |-Araling Panlipunan | |Physical Education, Health and Music | |- Technology and Livelihood Ed. | |Values Ed. | |- Musika, Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan | | | |-Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga |

A vital part of the restructured curriculum is the promotion of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in every learning area. DepEd, through its Computerization Program, provided computers and peripherals to recipient public high schools nationwide. The government agencies like the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), local governments, and private firms such as Intel likewise contributed to the advancement of computer education in public elementary and high schools through donations of computers. The features that make the new 2002 curriculum for elementary and secondary education different from previous curricula implemented in the 1900s are: 1.

Restructuring of the learning areas, reducing them to five (English, Filipino, Mathematics, Filipino and Makabayan) 2. Stronger integration of competencies and values within and across learning areas 3. Greater emphasis on the learning process and integrative modes of teaching 4. Increased time for tasks to gain mastery of competencies of the basic tool subjects Amendments in the RBEC included the assessment or learning outcome to take place before or in between the presentation of the lesson 5. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum (SEC) The SEC still patterned the content of the curriculum to the 2002 RBEC. It still includes the five major learning areas.

The refinement of the curriculum followed the Understanding by Design (UbD) model developed by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins. The Secondary Education Curriculum is composed of three stages: Stage 1: Results/Desired Outcomes, which define what students should be able to know and do at the end of the program, course, or unit of study; generally expressed in terms of overall goals, and specifically defined in terms of content and performance standards. • Content standards, which specify the essential knowledge (includes the most important and enduring ideas, issues, principles and concepts from the disciplines), skills and habits of mind that should be taught and learned. They answer the question, “What should students know and be able to do? • Performance standards, which express the degree or quality of proficiency that students are expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards. They answer the question, “How well must students do their work? ” or “At what level of performance would the student be appropriately qualified or certified? ” • Essential Understandings, which are the big and enduring ideas at the heart of the discipline and which we want the children to remember even long after they leave school. • Essential Questions, which are open-ended, provocative questions that spark thinking and further inquiry into the essential meanings and understandings. • Curriculum Objectives, which are expressed in terms of knowledge and skills that teachers can use as guide in formulating their own classroom objectives.

Stage 2: Assessment, which defines acceptable evidence of student’s attainment of desired results; determines authentic performance tasks that the student is expected to do to demonstrate the desired understandings; and defines the criteria against which the student’s performances or products shall be judged. • Products and Performances, which are the evidence of students’ learning and a demonstration of their conceptual understanding, and content and skill acquisition. Stage 3: Learning Plan, which details the instructional activities that students will go through to attain the standards. • Instructional Activities, which are aligned with the standards and are   designed to promote attainment of desired results. The Features of 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum

The 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum has the following strengths/ advantages: 1. It focuses on essential understandings. 2. It sets high expectations (standards-based) expressed in terms of what students should know and the quality of the skills that they are expected to demonstrate as evidence of learning. 3. It is rich and challenging as it provides a personalized approach to developing the students’ multiple intelligences. 4. It develops readiness and passion for work and lifelong learning. 5. Comparison of the Learning Areas and Time Allotment of the 2002 BEC and the K to 12 Curriculum Comparison of the Learning Areas of RBEC and 2010 SEC RBEC | |2010 SEC | |English |Learning Area |English | |Mathematics | |Mathematics | |Science | |Science | |Filipino | |Filipino | |Makabayan | |Makabayan | |-Araling Panlipunan | |-Araling Panlipunan | |- Technology and Livelihood Ed. | |- Career Pathways in Technology and Livelihood Ed. |- Musika, Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan | |- Music, Arts, Physical Education, Health | |-Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga | |-Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga | | | |Citizen ship Army Training (4th yr) | 6. The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum This is in pursuance of the reform thrust of Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) 2006-present BESRA - Integrated reform framework articulated by the DepEd that provides a coherent conceptual and policy structure for the various reforms needed by the system, particularly the targets defined in the Philippines EFA 2015 plans and the Millennium Development Goals -. Focuses on key reform targets related to the implementation of school-based management, improvement of teaching quality, curriculum, and pedagogy in the key learning areas, and incorporates the Philippine EFA 2015, among others.

Comparison of the Curriculum of the Old Education and K to 12 Secondary Education |Basic Education Curriculum (2002) |2010 SEC |K to 12 Curriculum 2012 | |BEC is restructuring of the NSEC and NSEC in |The 2010 is the revised 2002 BEC incorporating |The K to 12 Basic Ed. Curriculum is geared | |order to raise the quality of the Filipino |Understanding by Design (UbD) which seeks to |towards the development of holistically | |learners and graduates and empower them for |contribute to functional literacy for all and |developed Filipino with 21st century skills who| |lifelong learning. the development of 21st century core skills |is ready for employment, entrepreneurship, | | |needed for global competitiveness. |middle level skills development and higher | | | |education upon graduation. | Learning Areas The learning areas of the K to 12 curriculum cut across the grade levels from Gr. I to Gr. 12 are the ff: Languages: Mother Tongue, Filipino,English Arts and Humanities: Music, Arts, PE, and Health, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, Araling Panlipunan Science and Mathematics Technology and Livelihood Ed

Comparison of the 2010 SEC and the K to 12 Secondary Education |2010 SEC | |K to 12 | |UBD framework follows three stages, starting |Curriculum |Spiral progression of curriculum that starts | |from results or desired outcomes, assessments, | |from simple to complex and requires revisiting | |products, and performance and learning plan | |prior knowledge | |National Achievement Test for Secondary |Assessment |End-of-Gr. 10 Exam and end-of-Gr. 12 Exam | |Students | | |

Comparison of the Learning Areas and Time Allotment of the Secondary BEC 2002 and K to 12 Curriculum |Learning Areas |2002 BEC (Hours per week) |K to 12 Education (hours per week) | |English |5 |4 | |Filipino |4 |4 | |Mathematics |5 |4 | Science |6 |4 | |Araling Panlipunan |M |4 |3 | | |a | | | | |k | | | | |a | | | | |b | | | | |a | | | | |y | | | | |a | | | | |n | | | |Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao | |2-3 |2 | |Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) | |4 |4 | |Technology and Livelihood Ed. |4 |4 | C. TERTIARY LEVEL General Education Curriculum (GEC) A. CHED Memorandum Order No. 59, series of 1996 Minimum Requirements The minimum requirements for the mandatory General Education Curriculum (GEC) of tertiary courses of study leading to a initial bachelor’s degree covering four curriculum B. CHED Memorandum No. 04, Series of 1997 Two broad categories of fields of study a. the Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication-GEC-A (63 units for humanities, social sciences and communication students) b. fields other than the Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication -GEC-B (51 units for non-HUSCOM students) C.

The Revised General Education Curriculum Gen. Ed vis-a-vis Major Courses The GE Program introduces students to different ways of learning and is oriented toward broad and wide-ranging understandings. On the other hand, major program focuses on theories and methods particular to a discipline. Likewise, it is directed at more theoretical and technical knowledge. Goals of RGEC 1. Lay groundwork for development of a professionally competent, humane and morale person 2. Prepare students demands of 21st century life 3. Enable students to locate himself/herself in the community and the world and engage in it meaningfully COLLEGE READINESS STANDARDS Combination of knowledge, competencies, and reflective thinking necessary for K-12 graduates to participate and succeed—without remediation—in entry-level undergraduate courses in higher education The New GEC: from 63/51 to 36 units The RGEC or new GEC removes remedial courses, does not duplicate Gr. 11 and 12 subjects and cuts across domains of knowledge. RGEC is composed of 24 core units which include Understanding the Self, The Contemporary World, Purposive Communication, Art Appreciation, Ethics, Readings in Phil. History, Mathematics in the Modern World, Science Technology and Society; 9 units in Elective (Environmental Science, People and the Earth’s Ecosystem, Living in the IT Era, Gender and Society and others) and a mandated 3-unit course in Life and Works of Rizal. Core Courses Title |Description | |Understanding the Self |Nature of identity; factors and forces that affect the development and maintenance of personal | | |identity | |Readings in Philippine |Selected primary sources on different periods of | |History |Philippine history | |The Contemporary |Globalization and its impact on individuals, communities and nations, challenges and responses | |World | | |Mathematics in the Modern World |Nature of mathematics, appreciation of its practical, | | |intellectual, and aesthetic dimensions, and application of | | |mathematical tools in daily life | |Purposive |Writing, speaking and presenting to different audiences | |Communication |and for various purposes | |Art Appreciation |Nature, function and appreciation of the arts in contemporary society | |Science, Technology |Interactions between science and technology and social, cultural, political and economic contexts| |and Society |which shape and | | |are shaped by them; specific xamples throughout human history of scientific and technological | | |developments | |Ethics |Principles of ethical behavior in modern society at the level of the person, society, and in | | |interaction with the

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Past Movements in Education and Analysis of Curricuar Reforms. (2017, Jan 08). Retrieved from

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