Last Updated 13 Jan 2021

Mesopotamia Civilization: Aztecs

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The ancient Aztecs were a Mesopotamia civilization. They originated from Northern Mexico. They developed a intricate social ,political, and religious society. They were great contributors to today's ideas, way of living, and society itself.

The Aztecs were very advanced and articulate. Causeways were very important because of where the Aztec capital was located at. Causeways are raised roads across water or wet ground. Another very important achievement that the Aztecs made was that they created “floating gardens”, “Floating gardens” were used because the Aztecs were originally located on a small island, there was not a whole lot of room for the crops that the Aztecs wanted to grow and sell.The island was also the capital of the Aztec Empire, and it had big temples that could be seen from far away.

Aztecs also made a calendar that was similar to the Mayan calendar. This calendar helped the Aztecs choose days for stuff such asas ceremonies, days for battle, days for planting crops, and many other things. The Aztecs were also very good with plants. They had a good idea of what foods were edible and what foods were deadly. They knew more than one hundred plants that could be used as medicines.The Aztecs were very talented artist and writers as well. In the Aztecs architecture and sculptures they usually made their work out of stone. Besides achievements they were also very skilled artist.

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The Aztecs were very skilled artist. To make art they incorporated natural materials and gold feathers. With the use of there art skills they were able to developed a capital city. Within the city were avenues, canals, long causeways, aqueducts, and dikes. It also included pyramids , temples and buildings. They had a bunch of markets that included everything from livestock, medicine, food, and building materials. Of all the accomplishments there is a lot of history.

The aztecs were under the rule of Itzcoatl. They formed a three way alliance with Texcocans and the Tacubans. They joined the alliance to defeat there most powerful rivals. They wanted influence within the religion and they wanted conquer the Tepanec, and conquer their capital of Azcapotzalco. By the 16th century the Aztecs ruled over 500 small states. Within these states were a massive population of about 5 to 6 million. Within these states there were markets that were visited by about 50,000 , the markets were a big contributor to the Aztec economy. These cities also included great structures and temples. Of all these great advances in the Aztec community there were other big roles in their society, one being beliefs.

The ancient Aztecs built temples, plazas, and palaces with statues in them for reasons of religion and to represent their undivided devotion. Some of their gods include Huitzilopochtli god of war and of the sun and Quetzalcoatl (“Feathered Serpent”), a Toltec god who influenced many important roles in the Aztec faith over the years. The aztecs also developed a calendar that was influential to their religion. The calendar was based on a solar cycle of 365 days and a ritual cycle of 260 days.With all of the peace and accomplishments, came a downfall.

By the year of 1517 was the first Europeans to settle in Mexico ( Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba). Cortes founded the city of Veracruz where he trained his army. Cortes and about 400 soldiers marched into Mexico with the intentions of violence. Being that the Aztec Empire was failing, Cortes was able to make alliances. In November 1519, Cortes and his men arrived in Tenochtitlan, where Montezuma and his people greeted them as honored guests according to Aztec custom.

The Aztecs had superior numbers, but their weapons were inferior. Cortes felt the need to take Montezuma and his lords hostage. In which he gained control of Tenochtitlan. The piards killed thousands of people including, Aztec nobles during a ritual dance ceremony, and Montezuma died under uncertain circumstances while in custody.In the year It is to be believed that they brought on salmonella.Cuauhtemoc, his young nephew, took over as emperor. The Aztecs pushed the Spaniards out of the city. Finally defeating Cuauhtemoc’s on August 13, 1521. 240,000 people were believed to have died in the city’s conquest, which ended the Aztec civilization. After his victory, Cortes razed Tenochtitla and built Mexico City , it quickly became the premier European center in the New World.

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