Last Updated 03 Mar 2020

Outline of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

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Introduction Throughout history, humans have been migrating in and out and settling in different areas of the region. Migrating and settling causes people to come together and spread their ideas to others which causes civilizations. Each civilization is created to be equal but separate in their own ways. They are all related to each other in different ways. They have shared similar beliefs, experiences and obstacles. They are both unique culturally, politically and socially. * Thesis: Two civilizations which are similar and different individually are Egypt and Mesopotamia.

II. Differences * Geographical Differences 1. Egypt developed North and South hugging the banks of the Nile River Valley. * The Nile River systematically floods which flooded the surrounding banks and made the soil exceptionally rich. * Egypt bordered on the side of sea and dessert which was difficult to invade and conquer it. 2. Mesopotamia has the Tigris and Euphrates River, commonly referred to “Fertile Crescent. ” * Mesopotamia was formed in between these two rivers. * When Mesopotamia has a flood, they are forced to supply their agricultural lands. Mesopotamia land was easily opened for attack. * Writing Differences 1. Egypt created Hieroglyphics which developed from pictographs to advanced letters. 2. Mesopotamia created cuneiforms which are wedged shaped characters * Political Differences 1. Egypt had a Pharaoh which was passed down from father to son that established a long lasting dynasty. * The Pharaoh was viewed as god-liked and has magical powers. 2. Mesopotamia had a king but their king was usually deposed by invading forces due to the area's poor defensive position. Social Differences 1. In Egypt females had more opportunities to rise in life 2. Mesopotamia had different classes of slaves but all were still treated as properties. * Cultural Differences 1. Egypt did not have a law system set at the time 2. Mesopotamia had the Hammurabi Code which were orders given to chaotic places

* Egypt had a longer continuous civilization than Mesopotamia III. Similarities * They were both similar by being polytheistic, believing in more than one god * They both later moved to a sort of monarchy Both of their system led to the creation of strict social classes that usually included a class for priests, traders, farmers and laborers. * Egypt and Mesopotamia both created pyramid structures * These two civilizations both first developed advance systems of writing. * Egypt and Mesopotamia created calendars beginning with the sun’s or moon’s cycle * These two civilizations both used their main rivers for trades and access to a major source of freshwater. * They used their river valleys for water for fertile crops and both have floods. Both of these civilization has structures which organizes classes within groups IV. Conclusion * Restate thesis * Till this day, ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia are still known as a huge impact in history. * Brief summary of the important similarities and differences * Why was the history of these two civilizations important? * What were some things that these civilization spread throughout and the result of it? * How are these two civilization related to today? * Analysis of this essay * End with a personal statement

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