Broadcasting internet as a threat to old media Introduction Just a few clicks on the mouse and a whole world of information are available for free. The internet, whilst largely contributing to declining newspaper, magazines and books sales, decreasing the percentage of advertising on TV and radio, increasing of internet piracy and illegal downloading of films and music.
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At first, writing was restricted to inscriptions, e. g. on stone, seals, brooches, and containers. The Sumerians then developed baked clay tablets, which can be regarded as the first books. These were soon followed by the papyrus rolls of the Egyptians, made from a plant native only to the Nile Valley. The traditional modern form of the book is called the codex. Meanwhile paper was invented in China as early as 105 AD, and was at first prepared from bark and hemp. This paper developed to a high standard, and paper-making later spread to Japan (c. 10 AD), and then to the Arab world along the Silk Road, via Samarkand in Central Asia. The Arabs introduced paper into Europe via Spain. Printing Printing was another Chinese invention. However such cast type did appear in Korea before developing quite independently in Europe. A major advance in the West was Johannes Gutenberg's printing from cast metal type (c. 1450 AD). However this was still hand composed on a mostly wooden press. This still relied on human power to operate. A steam-powered press invented by the German Friedrich Koenig followed in 1810.
An American, Richard Hoe, invented the faster rotary press in 1846. Printing raced further ahead when the mechanical composition of type was perfected in 1886 with the Linotype compositor. Lithography was long used to print pictures for books. From this method came the idea for offset printing - in 1904 the first offset press appeared. In offset printing the method of "relief" printing from cast metal type, traditional since Gutenberg, is replaced by a smooth photographic plate. By 1980 offset printing was taking over from the older method in many countries. That was only the beginning of the modern printing revolution.
From 1968 computers became involved in printing (the Linotron). In 1983 the offset plate progressed to a format involving the laser-beam transference of stored digital information. Gradually printing worldwide became a digital and computerized process, and mechanical printing began to disappear. The Digital Revolution This change led to the irony that a series of advanced digital electronic processes now produced the traditional analogue material book. It was only a matter of time before the logical conclusion would be drawn - that books could exist in a purely electronic form.
Moreover such books could incorporate new possibilities undreamed of in the printed codex book. For example, they could be instantly updated, be searchable electronically, include sounds ; video and even a dictionary, and interact directly with the new Internet, and therefore contain instant links to further information. The advent of digital book files also meant that traditional physical books could now be printed individually as required from a stored computer file (Print on Demand, or POD), rather than in the traditional large print runs.
This meant both that books could be cheaper in general, and that it was financially practicable to print them in limited numbers for a more restricted readership than before. So rather than immediately displacing the printed codex, the advent of the digital book meant that the physical book could now flourish as never before. At the same time this change prepared the ground for a decisive future shift towards electronic reading. Dawn of the e-Book The electronic book (e-book), existing as a virtual entity stored in a digital file, began to emerge in its own right in the last years of the twentieth century.
Like many new technologies it suffered from technical teething troubles, ineffective or inappropriate marketing, commercial rivalries that slowed its progress, and initial public scepticism or indifference. Gradually however the electronic book became capable of being read from an increasing variety of devices, and its vast potential began to be more widely understood. It became clear that the e-book would represent the next leap forward in the onward march of the book. While it can simply represent traditional texts it can also become a layered and interactive multimedia experience.
Indeed the book of the future could even be spontaneously assembled from multiple sources for specific educational or entertainment purposes, by a single reader or group. The e-book therefore holds the promise of adding an unprecedented degree of flexibility to the concept of the book. The book is one of humanity's most enduring cultural artifacts and treasures. As it evolves, the greatest threat to its future is therefore not from technical advances but from the danger of new generations losing the inclination to read.
The ability to read and write is our greatest tool in education, and, apart from the family, the single most important medium existing for the transmission of ideas and the continuance of an evolving human culture. http://www. e-book. com. au/bookhistory. htm Newspapers “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter. ” -Thomas Jefferson, 1787. The history of newspapers is an often-dramatic chapter of the human experience going back some five centuries.
In Renaissance Europe handwritten newsletters circulated privately among merchants, passing along information about everything from wars and economic conditions to social customs and "human interest" features. The first printed forerunners of the newspaper appeared in Germany in the late 1400's in the form of news pamphlets or broadsides, often highly sensationalized in content. In the English-speaking world, the earliest predecessors of the newspaper were corantos, small news pamphlets produced only when some event worthy of notice occurred.
The first successively published title was The Weekly Newes of 1622. The first true newspaper in English was the London Gazette of 1666. Fo In America the first newspaper appeared in Boston in 1690, entitled Publick Occurrences. Published without authority, it was immediately suppressed, its publisher arrested, and all copies were destroyed. The first successful newspaper was the Boston News-Letter, begun by postmaster John Campbell in 1704. Although it was heavily subsidized by the colonial government the experiment was a near-failure, with very limited circulation.
Two more papers made their appearance in the 1720's, in Philadelphia and New York, and the Fourth Estate slowly became established on the new continent. In 1783 there were forty-three newspapers in print. The press played a vital role in the affairs of the new nation, representing all shades of political opinion. The ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791 at last guaranteed of freedom of the press, and America's newspapers began to take on a central role in national affairs. Growth continued in every state.
In the Jacksonian populist 1830's, advances in printing and papermaking technology led to an explosion of newspaper growth, the emergence of the "Penny Press"; it was now possible to produce a newspaper that could be sold for just a cent a copy. Previously, newspapers were the province of the wealthy, literate minority. This sudden availability of cheap, interesting reading material was a significant stimulus to the achievement of the nearly universal literacy now taken for granted in America. In the 1850's powerful, giant presses appeared, able to print ten thousand complete papers per hour.
At this time the first "pictorial" weekly newspapers emerged; they featured for the first time extensive illustrations of events in the news, as woodcut engravings made from correspondents' sketches or taken from that new invention, the photograph. Reporters, called "specials," became the darlings of the public and the idols of youngsters everywhere. Many accounts of battles turned in by these intrepid adventurers stand today as the definitive histories of their subjects. Newspaper growth continued unabated in the postwar years. By the 1890's the first circulation figures of a million copies per issue were recorded.
At this period appeared the features of the modern newspaper, bold "banner" headlines, extensive use of illustrations, "funny pages," plus expanded coverage of organized sporting events. The rise of "yellow journalism" also marks this era. This is also the age of media consolidation, as many independent newspapers were swallowed up into powerful "chains"; with regrettable consequences for a once fearless and incorruptible press, many were reduced to vehicles for the distribution of the particular views of their owners, and so remained, without competing papers to challenge their viewpoints.
By the 1910's, all the essential features of the recognizably modern newspaper had emerged. Radio and television have gradually supplanted newspapers as the nation's primary information sources, so it may be difficult initially to appreciate the role newspapers. Not complete http://www. historicpages. com/nprhist. htm, Phil Barber, 03/08/2010 Magazines The term “magazine” is generally acknowledged to have come into usage with the publication in the 1730s of the Gentleman’s Magazine by Edward Cave. Its aim was to entertain with stories of crime and romance.
It soon proved popular, not just for sale but for rental in public houses, coffee houses and barber shops. Magazines were more affordable than newspapers because printing technology allowed mass production. Taking their cue from America, British publishers produced all-fiction magazines such as Romantic Confessions and similar ‘penny dreadfuls’. General interest magazines such as Answers, Titbits (Tit Bits from all the Most Interesting Books, Periodicals and Contributors in the World), Home Chat, Comic Cuts and Pearson’s Weekly were also hugely popular. The early 20th century saw new styles of magazine such as Reader’s Digest hich included edited versions (digests) of articles and stories. International editions followed the same formula, later developing subscription as a means of ensuring a place in the competitive magazine market. “Life” magazine which traded on the quality of its pictures in a period when photography was accepted as an art form and photojournalism was regarded as a means of social commentary. “Life” used the slogan: ‘To see life, to see the world; to witness great events; to watch the faces of the poor and the gestures of the proud; to see strange things’.
It had many imitators (or, perhaps more kindly, admirers) such as Picture Post and Illustrated in Britain and Paris Match and Stern in Europe. The end of the Second World War saw new titles emerged to satisfy the needs of increasingly affluent consumers who now had business and technical interests as well as expanding leisure pursuits. Interestingly, the emerging broadcast media - particularly television - were accommodated by the magazine industry that began to produce publications which included listings, reviews and background material.
Later spin-offs would include comics based on television characters, and magazines dedicated to specific topics or programmes such as BBC Wildlife and Gardener's World. A web search will reveal the extent to which the big companies have other interests, particularly media interests other than publishing magazines. The Guardian Media Guide contains details of the sites run by all the main players in the publishing business. Ezine is an electronic newsletter or magazine. Ezine could reside on a website, intranet system or be sent throughout any network, including the largest network; the Internet.
The key to success for the big companies is the advertising revenue generated by magazines, and the ability of specific interest magazines to provide clearly-defined target audiences. Not that there is complete freedom to publish any material that will make money: there are laws and regulations that affect magazines just are there are for other media forms. 2000 The Media Guide edited by Steve Peak and Paul Fisher (Fourth Estate) 2001 The Media Guide edited by Steve Peak and Paul Fisher (Fourth Estate) EzineArticles. om Lance Winslow, Expert Author , 18 Jul 2006 A decade on the streets Simon Rogers and Xan Brooks, in Media Guardian September 10 2001 http://www. mediaed. org. uk/posted_documents/Magazines. html Radio Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone, all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". It started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air.
Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (morse code) used in a telegraph. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. Lee Deforest invented space telegraphy, the triode amplifier and the Audion.
In the early 1900s, the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. The result of Lee DeForest's work was the invention of amplitude-modulated or AM radio that allowed for a multitude of radio stations. Online radio streaming was born in the 90s as a solution for the music industry to reinvent itself or as a solution for activists. WXYC is the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. The term internet radio isn't just about live streaming on the internet but can also be an archive site with audio files.
Online radio can be a terrestrial radio station that broadcasts to a bigger market, or an independent internet-only operator that is just starting. Web radio stations are a good solution for new markets, delivering independent music that listeners can't hear on regular radio. The advantage of internet radio services is that its services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world. Internet radio is distributed most often via streaming, in audio formats like mp3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio and others. http://www. radiobunch. com/online-radio-history. html, http://inventors. bout. com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio_2. htm , Mary Bellis Television In the late 1800s, Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, a student in Germany, developed the first ever mechanical module of television. He succeeded in sending images through wires with the help of a rotating metal disk. This technology was called the ‘electric telescope’ that had 18 lines of resolution. In 1923, an American inventor called Charles Jenkins used the disk idea of Nipkow to invent the first ever practical mechanical television system. From 1926 till 1931, the mechanical television system saw many innovations.
Although the discoveries of these men in the department of mechanical television were very innovative, by 1934, all television systems had converted into the electronic system, which is what is being used even today. In 1927, Philo Taylor Farnsworth was able to invent a working model of electronic television that was based on Swinton’s ideas. His experiments had started when he was just a little boy of 14 years. By the time he became 21, Philo had created the first electronic television system, which did away with the rotating disks and other mechanical aspects of mechanical television.
Thus was born the television system which is the basis of all modern TVs. In 1948 there were early tests of cable television in the rural area of Lansford, PA. In 1956 the Ampex quadruplex videotape replaced the kinescope; making it possible for television programs to be produced anywhere, as well as greatly improving the visual quality on home sets. In 1957 the 1st practical remote control, invented by Robert Adler and called the "Space Commander," was introduced by Zenith.. This "Golden Age" of television also saw the establishment of several significant technological standards.
These included the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) standards for black and white (1941) and color television (1953). In 1952 the FCC made a key decision, via what is known as the Sixth Report and Order, to permit UHF broadcasting for the 1st time on 70 new channels (14 to 83). This was an essential decision because the Nation was already running out of channels on VHF (channels 2-13). That decision gave 95% of the U. S. television markets three VHF channels each, establishing a pattern that generally continues today.
Thus the "Golden Age" was a period of intense growth and expansion, introducing many of the television accessories and methods of distribution that we take for granted today. 1962 brought the 1st transatlantic reception of a television signal via the TELSTAR satellite. High definition television (HDTV) was also introduced during this period. In 1981 NHK, the Japanese National Broadcasting company, demonstrated their 1,125 line HDTV system to the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers at their Winter conference in San Francisco.
In 1994 HDTV standards were established and a plan for the transition from analog to digital transmission of television programming has been rolled out throughout the decade. Not complete http://www. thehistoryoftelevision. com/ , Geno Jezek, 2006 http://www. fcc. gov/omd/history/tv/1990-today. html internet The Internet has become such an integral part of our lives, with such powerful capabilities, that it is easy to forget that this technological marvel was created by the long, hard, dedicated efforts of human beings -- folks who had a vision of what universal networking could become and worked to make it happen.
The conceptual foundation for creation of the Internet was largely created by three individuals and a research conference, each of which changed the way we thought about technology by accurately predicting its future: •Vannevar Bush wrote the first visionary description of the potential uses for information technology with his description of the "memex" automated library system. •Norbert Wiener invented the field of Cybernetics, inspiring future researchers to focus on the use of technology to extend human capabilities. The 1956 Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence conference crystallized the concept that technology was improving at an exponential rate, and provided the first serious consideration of the consequences. •Marshall McLuhan made the idea of a global village interconnected by an electronic nervous system part of our popular culture. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite, Sputnik I, triggering US President Dwight Eisenhower to create the ARPA agency to regain the technological lead in the arms race.
ARPA appointed J. C. R. Licklider to head the new IPTO organization with a mandate to further the research of the SAGE program and help protect the US against a space-based nuclear attack. Licklider evangelized within the IPTO about the potential benefits of a country-wide communications network, influencing his successors to hire Lawrence Roberts to implement his vision. A special computer called an Interface Message Processor was developed to realize the design, and the ARPANET went live in early October, 1969.
The first communications were between Leonard Kleinrock's research center at the University of California at Los Angeles, and Douglas Engelbart's center at the Stanford Research Institute. The first networking protocol used on the ARPANET was the Network Control Program. In 1983, it was replaced with the TCP/IP protocol invented Wby Robert Kahn, Vinton Cerf, and others, which quickly became the most widely used network protocol in the world. In 1990, the ARPANET was retired and transferred to the NSFNET.
The NSFNET was soon connected to the CSNET, which linked Universities around North America, and then to the EUnet, which connected research facilities in Europe. Thanks in part to the NSF's enlightened management, and fueled by the popularity of the web, the use of the Internet exploded after 1990, causing the US Government to transfer management to independent organizations starting in 1995. And here we are. http://www. livinginternet. com/i/ii
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