Housekeeping: Hotel Industry

Last Updated: 01 Aug 2021
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Institutional housekeeping applies to housekeeping maintenance in commercial lodging establishment like hotels, resorts, inns and apparels. Domestic housekeeping= refers to housekeeping maintenance in a house. It covers bedrooms, kitchen, dining, receiving area, grounds and the surrounding areas within the house. Scope of housekeeping maintenance

  1.  Cleanliness
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  3. Orderliness
  4. Sanitation
  5. Comfort
  6. Eye appeal- creativity
  7. Safety
  8. Material Control and Maintenance

The scope of housekeeping maintenance includes items like basic cleaning.

Other activities in the scope of housekeeping include use of appliances like the vacuum and he use of chemicals. Housekeeping is extremely important in the hotel business. Types of Hotels or classification of hotel by type: Hotels are classified according to the hotel size, location, target markets, levels of service , facilities , number of rooms , ownership and affiliation etc.

  1. Size - Or number of rooms Under 1 50 rooms 1 50 to 299 rooms 300 to 600 rooms More than 600 rooms These categories enable hotels of similar size to compartmenting procedures and statistical results .
  2. Target Markets Hotel target many markets and can be classified according to the markets they attempt to attract their guests.

Common type of markets include business, airport, suites, residential, resort , timeshare , casino , convention and conference hotels . Business Hotels: - These hotels are the largest group of hotel types and cater primarily to business travelers and usually located in downtown or business districts . Although Business hotels primarily serves business travelers , many tour groups, individual tourists and small conference groups find these hotels attractive.

Guest amenities at business hotels may include complimentary newspapers, morning coffee, free local telephone calls , Break fast etc. In addition to this facilities like access to business centre , personal computer , Wi-If and fax machines also provided to the guest. * Airport Hotels: - These type of hotels typically target business clientele, airline passengers with overnight travel layovers or cancelled flights and airline personnel. Some hotels might give free transport between hotel and airport . Housekeeping: Hotel Industry By merchantman's by air and wish to minimize ground travel.

Another attraction of these hotels is instead of charging the guest on a daily basis guest can also pay for their room on a hourly basis. Suite Hotels: - These kind of hotels are the latest trend and the fastest growing segments in the hotel industry . Main attraction of these hotels is guestrooms with a living room and a separate bedroom. In exchange for more complete living room suite hotels generally have fewer and more limited public areas and guest services than other hotels . This also helps keep suite hotel's guestroom prices competitive in the market .

Professionals such as accountants, lawyers, business men and executives find suite hotels particularly attractive as they can work and also entertain in an area besides the bedroom. Extended Stay Hotels: - Extended stay hotels is somewhat similar to the suite hotels , but usually offers kitchen amenities in the room . These kind of hotels are for travelers who want to stay more than a week and does not want to depend on the service of the hotel . Extended service hotels usually does not provide any F & B service or Laundry service etc.

These kind of hotels are considered by guests as "Home away from home * Apartment Hotels: - Apartment / Residential hotels provide long-term or permanent accommodation for Guest. Usually guest makes a lease agreement with he hotel for minimum of one month up to a year. These lease agreements are renewed on a yearly basis. Guest rooms generally include living room , bedroom, kitchen , private balcony , washing machines , kitchen utensils etc. Residential hotel also provided Housekeeping , laundry , telephone and in some hotels a restaurant and lounge etc will be present on the premises. Resort Hotels: - Resort hotels are usually located in the mountains, on an island , or in some other exotic locations away from city's . These hotels have recreational facilities , scenery , golf , tennis , ailing , skiing and swimming . Resort hotels provide enjoyable and memorable guest experiences that encourage guest to repeat to the resort. * Bed and Breakfast Hotels :- These are houses with rooms converted into overnight facilities , this can size up to 20 to 30 guest rooms . They are also known as 'Home Stays'. The owner of the B;B usually stay on the premises and is responsible for serving breakfast to guest .

Due to the limited services offered at these hotels the price for room is very less than any full service hotel. * Timeshare and condominium Hotels: - Another ewe type or segment of the hospitality industry is the timeshare hotels. These are sometimes referred to as " Vacation-interval" hotels . Timeshare hotels are where the guests who purchase the ownership of accommodations for a specific period . These owners may also have the unit rented out by the management company that operates the hotel . Condominium are similar to timeshare but the difference between the two lies in the type of ownership.

Units in condominium hotels only have one owner instead of multiple owners , each for a limited amount of time each year. In a condominium hotel, an owner informs the management company if when he/ she wants to occupy the unit.

Casino Hotels :- Hotels with gambling facilities may be categorized as a distinct group called Casino Hotels . Although the food and beverage operations in casino is luxurious their functions is secondary to and supportive of casino operations. Casino hotels attract guest by promoting the gambling and other entertainments.

Conference Centers: - These type of hotels attendees.

They also provide High quality audiovisual equipments, business services , flexible seating arrangements , flowchart etc. These hotels mostly located outside the metropolitan areas and have facilities like golf , swimming pools , tennis courts , fitness centers , spas etc.

Convention Centers: - Convention hotels are larger in size compared to conference centers and likely to have more than 1500 rooms . These hotels are huge and have sufficient number of guest rooms to house all the attendees of most conventions, even the size of the meeting rooms , ball rooms , exhibit rooms are quite huge .

They usually cater to convention market for state , regional , national, and international associations .

Levels Of service

World class service: - These are also called luxury hotels , they target top business executives, entertainment celebrities , high- ranking political figures, and wealthy clientele as their primary markets . They provide upscale restaurants and lounges , concierge services and also private dining facilities . Guestrooms are oversized , heated and plush bath towels , large soaps bars , shampoo , shower caps and all amenities .

Housekeeping services are given two times a day including turn-down service . Above all luxury hotels give personalized service to the guest and have a elatedly high ration of staff members to guests.

Mid-Range Service: - Hotels offering mid-range service appeal it the largest segment of the traveling public . This kind of hotels does not provide elaborate service and have a adequate staffing . They also provide uniformed service , food and beverage room service, in room entertainment's and also Wi-If . Property may offer a specialty restaurant , coffee shop and lounge that cater to visitors as well as hotel guests .

Type of guests who like to stay at these hotels are business people , individual travelers ,and families . Rates are lower than luxury hotels as they provide fewer services , smaller rooms and a smaller range of facilities and recreational activities .  Economy / Limited Service: These hotels provide clean , comfortable , safe , inexpensive rooms and meet the basic need of guests . Economy hotels appeal primarily to budget minded travelers who wants a room with minimum services and amenities required for comfortable stay, without unnecessary paying additional cost for costly services .

The clientele of these hotels include families with children , traveling business people , backpackers , vacationers retirees etc. These type of hotels might not offer food and beverage facilities .

Ownership and Affiliations

Ownership and affiliation provide another means by which to classify hotel property . There are two types one is Individual and another is chain hotel. * Independent Hotels :- They do not have identifiable ownership or management affiliation with other properties. That means these properties doesn't have any relationship to another hotel regarding policies , procedures , marketing or financial obligations .

Example for the same would be family owned and operated hotel that is not following NY corporate policies or procedures. The advantage of a individual property is its autonomy . An independent hotel however does not get the advantage of board advertising exposure or management insight and consultancy of an affiliated property . Standards, rules , policies and procedures to restrict affiliate activities . In general the more centralized the organization tag stronger the control over the individual property . Some chain have strong control over the architecture, management and standards of affiliate properties .

Others concentrate only on marketing , advertising ND central purchasing . Hotels A Brief History - By Jacques Levy-Bobbin The history of hotels is intimately connected to that of civilizations. Or rather, it is a part of that history. Facilities offering guests hospitality have been in evidence since early biblical times. The Greeks developed thermal baths in villages designed for rest and recuperation. Later, the Romans built mansions to provide accommodation for travelers on government business. The Romans were the first to develop thermal baths in England, Switzerland and the Middle East.

Later still, caravanserai's appeared, providing a resting place for caravans along Middle Eastern routes. In the Middle Ages, monasteries and abbeys were the first establishments to offer refuge to travelers on a regular basis. Religious orders built inns, hospices and hospitals to cater for those on the move. From antiquity to the Middle Ages - The history of hotels is intimately connected to that of civilizations. Or rather, it is a part of that history. Facilities offering guests hospitality have been in evidence since early biblical times. The Greeks developed thermal baths in villages designed for rest and recuperation.

Later, the Romans built mansions to provide accommodation for travelers on government business. The Romans were the first to develop thermal baths in England, Switzerland and the Middle East. Later still, caravanserai's appeared, providing a resting place for caravans along Middle Eastern routes. In the Middle Ages, monasteries and abbeys were the first establishments to offer refuge to cater for those on the move. Inns multiplied, but they did not yet offer meals. Staging posts were established for governmental transports and as rest stops. They provided shelter and allowed horses to be changed more easily.

Numerous refuges then sprang up for pilgrims and crusaders on their way to the Holy Land. Traveling then became progressively more hazardous. At the same time, inns gradually appeared in most of Europe. Some of them have remained famous, for example, l' Faberge des Trots Rossi in Basel, which dates from the Middle Ages. Around 1200, staging posts for travelers and stations for couriers were set up in China and Mongolia. In Europe, or more precisely in Belgium, l' Faberge Court Saint Georges opened in Gang, while the Angel Inn was built at Graham in Lancashire, England.

The start of the hotel industry - In France, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, the law required that hotels keep a register. English law also introduced rules for inns at that time. At the same time, around 1500 thermal spas were developed at Carlsbad and Marinade. During this epoch, more than 600 inns were registered in England. Their architecture often consisted of a paved interior court with access through an arched porch. The bedrooms were situated on the two sides of the courtyard, the kitchen and the public rooms at the front, and the stables and storehouses at the back.

The first guide books industry began to develop in Europe. Distinctive signs were hung outside establishments renowned for their refined cuisine. At the end of the sass, the first stage coaches following a regular timetable started operating in England. Half a century later, clubs similar to English gentleman's clubs and Masonic lodges began to appear in America. In Paris in the time of Louis XIV, the Place Vendöme offered the first example of a multiple-use architectural complex, where the classical fades accommodated boutiques, offices, apartments and also hotels.

In the nineteenth century, hotels take over the town -The industrial revolution, which started in the sass, facilitated the construction of hotels everywhere, in mainland Europe, in England and in America. In New York first of all, and then in Copenhagen, hotels were established in city centers. At the beginning of the sass, the Royal Hotel was built in London. Holiday resorts began to flourish along the French and Italian Riviera. In Japan, Rookery guest houses sprang up. In India, the government-run Dakar bungalows provided reliable accommodation for travelers. The Tremors House in Boston was the first deluxe hotel in a city centre.

It offered inside toilets, locks on the doors and an "ä la carte" menu. The Holt Hotel in New York City was the first to provide its guests with a lift for their luggage. In 1822, in Venice, a certain Giuseppe Deal Nile transformed an old palace into a hotel and gave it his name, "El Daniel". As trains began to replace horse-drawn transport, highway inns for stage coaches started to decline. During this period, the Shepherds Hotel in Cairo was founded, the result of a complete transformation of an ancient city-centre harem. I'LLötell des Burgees was built in the spring of 1834 on the shore of the Lake of Geneva.

One of its founders, Gallinule Henry Duffer, became a famous Swiss general. In 1840, I'llötell des Trots Sourness was established in Peeve in Switzerland and the Barr AU Lack in Zurich, fully refurbished since 1995. In New York, the New York Hotel was the first to be equipped with private bathrooms. The "Brainwasher Hoff" was built in Munich in 1841, followed in 1852 by the "Ever Christensen" . These two famous establishments were completely renovated after the Second World War. El Grand Hötell Paris -The inauguration of the Grand Hötell in Paris took place on 5 May 1862 in the presence of the Empress Eggnine.

The orchestra, directed by Jacques Offenbach, played the Trivia. This building was designed by the architect Alfred Armband, in order to "show the elite of travelers from all over the world the progress made under the Second Empire by the sciences, arts and industry". The exterior fades with their high arched doors and their Louis XIV windows were in the style required for the surroundings of the PopRA. The greatest names in painting and decoration participated in the completion of this hotel, the grandest in Europe in its dimensions, luxury and installations. The first hydraulic lift was installed in this hotel. Lighting as supplied by 4000 gas Jets; heating by 18 stoves and 354 hot air vents. In 1890, the entire hotel was equipped with electric lighting. Due to the installation of steam central heating in 1901, baskets of wood were no longer sold on the floors. Some years later the hotel was renovated. Further renovation took place in 1970 and 1985. In 1982, it became a member of the Intercontinental chain. Since 1992 the hotel has been equipped with a central Building Management System. In June 2003, El Grand Hötell Paris has re-opened its doors following an eighteen- the first in that period to provide lifts for its guests. 69 saw the inauguration, near Cairo, of the Mean House, an oasis of calm and luxury, at the foot of the famous pyramids of Cheeps, Cheapen and Mockeries. In 1870, the Palmer House Hotel in Chicago was the grandest of all hotels. Its structure, the first of its kind, was fire- resistant. In 1873, the Pal's De W;redeemer in Vienna was transformed into a superb luxury residence for the notables of the epoch, I'llötell ImpArial. Kings and queens became regular visitors to what is without doubt the finest example of the refined architecture of the Reintegrates in Vienna.

It is said that Richard Wagner erected the first productions of "Thankäuser" and "Lengthening" there. Two years later in 1875, the Grand Hotel Europe opened its doors in SST Petersburg. This prestigious place where Tchaikovsky spent his honeymoon and where Stochastic played a sonata for Profile in his suite. In 1880, the Sycamore Hotel on Lake George in the state of New York was the very first to provide electricity in all its rooms. The first school for hoteliers was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1890 by J. Dictums, Director of the Beau Ravage in Lausanne, and A. R.

Armed, the "father" of the Richmond in Geneeve. In Monte Carlo, I'llötell Hermitage opened its doors in 1896, offering its guests the refined and luxurious atmosphere enjoyed by the rich at the close of the nineteenth century. Shortly afterwards, the Victoria Hotel in Kansas City offered bathrooms with every room. The Netherlands Hotel in New York City then became the first to provide all its guests with their own telephone. In Athens in 1874, Stasis Lamps, a chef by profession, realizes his dream by building I'llötell Grandee Breakage. Athens was suffering at that time from a shortage of water.

It is said that he personnel bought water from carriers in the street to bring to the 80 bedrooms and the two bathrooms. Of course, the establishment has undergone several renovations since that time. In 1894, the Grand Hötell became the first Italian hotel to boast an electricity supply. The Swiss hotelier Spark Bathurst opened the famous Palace De Saint Morris in 1896. In 1898, CSara Ritz, from the Villas in Switzerland, who became, to quote the famous phrase of King Edward VI', the "king of hoteliers and hotelier to kings", opened the hotel which bears his famous name in the Place Vendöme in Paris.

The twentieth century: the age of prosperity -The early years of the twentieth century were rich in new hotels which rapidly became prestigious. Detoured Minerals, the "architect of palaces", transformed the Villa "Eugenia", the summer residence of the Emperor Napoleonon Ill and his wife Eggnine De Monotint, in 1900. In 1905, he built I'llötell du Pal's in Barbarity. In 1913 his "NGreece" was opened in Nice, in the presence of seven kings! In Madrid, King Alphorns XIII was anxious that the capital should have a luxurious and prestigious hotel, and as a result the Ritz was inaugurated in 1910.

Seville paid its own homage to the king by opening a splendid establishment, constructed by the architect Joss Espies, the Alphorns XIII. Not to be outdone, Barcelona inaugurated its own Ritz in 1919. This was equipped with an unheard of luxury at that time, bathrooms with hot as well as cold water! We could also cite, among many other hotels built in the same period, the Ritz and Savoy in London, the Beau Ravage Palace in Lausanne, el NGreece in Nice, the Plaza in New York, the MTrollope in Brussels, the Plaza-Athenae and I'llötell De Carillon in Paris, the Tag Mall in Bombay and so on.

The latter was renovated in 1972 by the Inter- hotel industry. Numerous hotels were established in this decade. In 1923, the architects Mariachis and Pros constructed a hotel in some wonderful gardens in the heart of Marched in Morocco, and for decades it was considered the most beautiful hotel in the world: La Ammonia. Winston Churchill helped to forge its reputation by becoming a frequent guest. Hotels were built not only in cities, but also in the mountains. The first ski resorts in Switzerland (Saint-Morris, stand, Montana, etc. Welcomed tourists (often English ones) to some very comfortable establishments. The worldwide depression which followed in 1929 did not prevent the construction of the famous Waldron Astoria in New York. This was the greatest hotel edifice of those troubled times. After the war, the fifties saw the second boom in the hotel industry. The Club Mterraine (G. Training) created the now famous, but then revolutionary concept of the club village. These years were also notable for the construction of the first casino hotels. This was also the time when the airline companies began to develop their own hotels.

In the sixties, new tourist resorts flourished around the Mediterranean. From Spain to Greece and from the Baldrics to Yugoslavia, numerous city and beach hotels opened their doors to summer guests hungry for relaxation and a good dose of sunshine. Portugal and the Scandinavian countries soon followed their lead. 1970 saw the beginning of the construction of hotels for business people. This movement was supported by several factors. First of all, there was the will of the airline companies to extend their efforts in the domain of hotels.

Then there was the sudden prosperity, due to black gold, of Middle Eastern countries which attracted business people from the entire world. This engendered an important business travel trend - not limited to this region alone - which initiated the development of hotels primarily designed for business people in Middle-Eastern cities like Dubbed, ABA Dhabi, Riyadh and Judged, to mention only the most important. Hotel chains, attentive to their customers' wishes, started to offer an increasingly varied range of services.

Their rooms became more spacious and the cuisine more refined. Gradually, too, various first class hotels (among them former palaces and city centre hotels) which had fallen into disrepair began systematic renovation aerogramme. The end of the seventies, when China opened its doors to foreign tourists, also saw the first congresses of international hotel experts. The third hotel industry boom -The third boom in the hotel industry began in 1980, marked by more inventive marketing and the development of hotels increasingly adapted to a particular type of clientele.

This trend prompted the construction of hotels near airports, hotels for conferences, health hotels, ski holiday hotels, holiday villages and marina hotels. The first Property Management Systems (Fidel, Hostage, etc. ) appear in the hospitality market. In Istanbul in 1984, work began on the renovation and transformation into a hotel of the prestigious sultans' residence, the Cardigan Palace in Istanbul. The resulting hotel is no less prestigious than the Cardigan Palace was. Managed by the Skimpiness chain, it opened its 322 rooms to guests in 1991.

The first administrative hotel management systems, offering hotels greater independence from human resources, then appeared on the market. The hotel industry was becoming more and more competitive. Business travelers and retired people became important target customers. In the eighties, too, the Far East began to o discover the countries of the rising sun, such as China, South Korea, Thailand and Japan. The international chains (American for the most part) prepared expansion plans for Europe, the Middle and Far East which were mainly aimed at congress participants and business people.

The nineties: technology starts to make an impact - The early nineties were characterized by a recession in the hotel business, without doubt caused by reductions in multinationals' travel budgets and the growing crisis in the Gulf. The Gulf War helped to create great insecurity for both individuals and business. 991 is considered to be the black year of the hotel trade. It forced hoteliers to become more creative in finding ways of attracting guests (special programmed, offers for "frequent travelers", high performance reservation systems) and thus emerge from the crisis with the minimum damage.

For the first time, the environment and energy conservation played an important role in the marketing activities of numerous chains (thanks in part to the green movement) and even helped to win the loyalty of numerous clients while safeguarding assets at the same time. Reservation systems became more efficient and offered the hotelier a new omission in the creation of customer loyalty, the database. The records of each guest's individual history have helped create individualized marketing programmed and have enabled hotels to satisfy a guest's personal needs from the moment of his arrival.

Hotel Talon Berlin is a legend reborn. From its opening in 1907, until it was destroyed in 1945, it was a symbol of Berlin, a lavish host for royalty, heads of government, stage and screen stars, and the greats of literature and science. Now, it has been rebuilt (1997) on its original site, the corner of Enter den Linden and Parries Plat, facing the Brandenburg Gate. Outside, it is a virtual replica of the original; inside it is testimony to what smart hotel operators (in this case the Skimpiness group) can accomplish with an investment of $260 million.

The hotel's 337 rooms and suites are the ultimate in luxury. Interiors, designed by England's Ezra TIA and Swede's Lars Minimalist, dazzle with marble, sandstone, stained glass, gold leaf, stockroom, cherry wood paneling, and damask draperies. This hotel is today equipped with the most advanced technology with regards to the Room Management System communicating with the Property Management System. Since 1992, the most important international chains have been wing with each other in ever greater imaginative feats related to the vital process of renovating their establishments worldwide.

Technology has started to take its rightful place in hotel administration (simplification of check-in and check-out procedures, global reservation systems, marketing management etc. ). In 1995, the first Hotel Room Management System is launched at the European level. It is linked to the most popular Property Management Systems to make the front desk more efficient and near to the guests. At International Technology Forums, speakers unanimously, underlined the impact of technology on hotel rooms. Hotel chains have been searching for alliances and some of them.

For example: Holiday Inn, Intercontinental, and Crown Plaza have merged to form Six continents hotels Chain; Marriott absorbed Renaissance and Ramada International; Sol Amelia opened a new line of Boutique hotels, Accord signed several joint ventures in the East and the Far East, etc. ) Forte acquired Mridden to reinforce its global position. Standards (Sheraton) absorbed the Italian CIA chain and Weston. China and India), the Middle East (above all, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt) and Latin America.

In Europe, hotel enterprises in the eastern countries (Russia, Croatia, Slovakia, etc. ) decided to renovate dilapidated palaces built at the turn of the century. All the European capitals started to invest in preparations for the major event of this fin De icicles period, that is, the celebration of our entry into the third millennium. The 3 star hotel Millennium enjoying top level of On-line Room Management System is situated at the best site in Optima at the Mediterranean coast. Optima in Croatia corresponds, in terms of reputation, to the level of SST. Morris in Switzerland.

Capitals throughout the world were busy developing the necessary infrastructure to welcome the millions of tourists for the celebration of this event. Major hotel chains are drawing up development plans in almost all parts of Europe. These plans primarily involve the renovation of numerous prestigious hotels in both western and eastern European countries. Gradually, the great capitals of Europe have been endowed with hotels boasting three, four and five stars, offering quality services, innovative architecture, style, charm, and interior design (city Boutique hotels).

Specialized hotels offer wellness programs including health and beauty centers, personalized services and treatments, anti-stress, reevaluating, regenerating programs, etc. Extravaganza - In 1995 construction began in Dubbed of one of the most ambitious and prestigious tourist complexes in the region, the Sumerian Beach Hotels Menorah Beach hotel, Bur] AY Arab, etc. ). These comprise several establishments capable of satisfying the needs of average tourists, business people and those who can afford real luxury.

The talk now is of six- and seven-star hotels, a surprising designation which is nevertheless perfectly Justified by the luxury of the bedrooms and the facilities they offer, the impeccable service, the high degree of modern technology, as well as the beauty of the surroundings and the high-quality environment. In 2004, another Emirate, ABA Dhabi, will welcome the delegates of the Gulf Council Countries. In the new Conference Palace Hotel (CAP). This superior construction has been specified "to offer the most outstanding services with a challenging 9 star definition"... We will, of course, report on it on a later stage.

On-line in seconds, work surf, communicate -everywhere -Today in 2003, travelers, mostly businessmen, carry their personal PC to make presentations, communicate with their office, via e-mails, etc. One possibility offered to them today consists in the use of so-called Pad offering, in particular,  Cable-free and universal access to Internet or intranet, wherever you happen to be  Brilliant color touch screen. Ready to go in seconds (instant on). Freedom in the selection of transmission standards by interchangeable PC cards . Unlimited flexibility by open platform Windows CE 3. Comprehensive office software package Virtual keyboard and handwriting recognition For sure, new technologies are continuously offering innovative and more comfortable ways to the traveler. The 160 rooms 5 star Palette Hotel in Monroe Nucleate(CHI) offers the visitors of the Swiss Expo 2002 a vision of so called in-room available technologies. Conclusion - Lodging facilities are not anymore corresponding architects, designers, developers, engineers, managers, more and more are conscious that taste of guests could be different, according to their wishes or needs.

Hotel specialists permanently analyses new trends, define better criteria, present modern tankards in order to improve quality of life in hotels. In the third millennium, the permanent competitive hospitality market of suppliers is definitely more and more able, combining "savoir fairer" and the good use of technology to offer their guests an "A la carte" environment. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks.

It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Track usually consists of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. However, other variations are also possible, such as slab track where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as airplanes, helicopters, hot air balloons,blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, or anything else that can sustain flight. Air travel can be separated into two general classifications: national/domestic. Travel class on an airplane is usually split into a wow, three or four class model sevens. US Domestic flights usually have two classes: Economy Class and a Domestic First Class partitioned into cabins.

International flights may have up to four classes:Economy Class; Premium Economy; Business Class or Club Class; and First Class. Most air travel starts and ends at a commercial airport. The typical procedure is check-in; border control; airport security baggage and passenger check before entering the gate; boarding; flying; and pick-up of luggage and - limited to international flights - another border control at the host country's border A highway is any public road or there public way on land; the term exists in distinction throwaway.

In North American and Australian English, the term frequently implies a major road such as a controlled-access highway or an arterial, generally under the control of a state or provincial agency instead of a local road authority. In British English, highway is primarily a legal term, and normal usage implies roads, while legal usage covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc. The term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, and highway patrol.

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