In this world, children exist with exceptional behaviors. Their behavior is hard to accept for the society. Teachers play a very vital role in making them educated. First of all teacher should be trained to work in the school where there are children with exceptionalities. Sometimes it becomes very hard for the teacher to react in a right manner when they teach. The students with behavioral issues needs extra of teaching and attention.
The small classes would help a lot in teaching them effectively. Also there must be a room for visiting faculty to come and take extra sessions. This not only comes out to be beneficial for children but also is a help to the teachers. There could be a new technique of teaching or handling the students and could be advantageous. The visiting faculty proves out to be change for the students.
The good teacher is, who emphasize on child's ability not disability. The disability must be removed but without depressing a child. A child must know about his disabilities, but he must also that he has abilities which are more in number than his disabilities. A teacher must teach with a mentality that every child has some incapacities. Teacher should help a child in bringing up his abilities and should curb the disabilities silently. Expectations should be high, because every child can achieve some position in a society according to his potential, but this needs assistance.
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Environment of class should be positive and friendly. This depends on a teacher that how she maintain the environment. Because the positive environment boost the learning capabilities of a child. Also the behavior of a child depends on his surroundings. If a child feels threatened by something then it is obvious that his behavior would change. Sometimes it become very important for a teacher to know about child's likes and dislikes.
Every child has an individual goal, so from time to time teachers should keep themselves updated that how far he has progressed. The grade does not tell everything about what the child has learned so far. The emphasis on grade should be low. Teacher should know what he has learned so far or in which field is he lacking behind. This also boosts up the confidence of a child.
The whole learning process makes a child tired. This not only effects their learning abilities but also distracts them. Therefore a teacher should employ proper techniques for relaxing in a class. A child with attention disorder gets mentally tired soon. There should be proper relaxing techniques like listening to soft music or playing games. Playing games not only ease a child but also keeps them healthy.
The first thing a child should learn is to take care of himself. They should be made self dependent. Taking, basic example a child must learn to tie his shoe laces. The dependent child always has a low confidence level. There must be short extra sessions to teach the students, how to take care of themselves, or how to be more organized. There should be also be sessions to prevent behavior issues. Sometimes teacher takes a child as a normal child, she does not lay stress on the behavior problems. But she does not know that the lack of attention by a teacher encourages the problem in a child.
But sometimes these session proves out to be futile as students continues to misbehave, then it is necessary to know that they are misbehaving because of these sessions. Because the sessions does not fit to their needs every time, and they wait for someone who can help them in personal.
In case of higher education there are many faculties who are taking a single class. The coordination between these faculties is a must so that the students does not get confused between all the faculties. A teacher has its own style of teaching and if another teacher comes and teaches them in totally different style it becomes hard for the students to know, which one they should follow. Therefore all the faculties teaching a particular class should know about each other teaching styles, it becomes easy for a student to learn.
Teacher should make sure the behavioral improvements and achievements generalize to other situations. They should make sure that what they teach should apply in most of the real world situations. The generalized teachings proves out to be more beneficial to the students, as they come to know the particular thing that they have learned can apply in the most of the problems. This type of teaching method proves out to be very beneficial because students can learn more things with less stress on their brains.
Students should learn to socialize with other students who may or may not be disable like them. The interaction with other students should be started at the beginning of their year. Their should be learning centers that promote social interaction for these children’s. Necessary social skills should be taught in the learning centers. If the school is finding it difficult to start learning centers then skills should be taught in the lunch time or in the free period.
Teaching strategies for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder:--
Unable to pay attention, hyperactivity, impulsive are the signs of ADHD. There are about three to five percent of the students in United States who are suffering from ADHD ( American Psychiatric Association, 1994 ). The students suffering from ADHD fail to finish their homework and are careless. Older students with ADHD are less communicative and react spontaneously. The main symptoms are:--
2) Unable to concentrate
3) Difficulty in following instructions
4) Losing things
5) Doing little mistakes
6) Great deal of mood swings
Teacher should start with evaluating the child's needs and strengths. The assessment should be done on the behavior and academic needs. After evaluating all their needs appropriate practice should be chose. The selected practice should gain the attention of the child and is appropriate to their age. It should be kept in mind that the practice that is selected should be a additional benefit to the students who do not have ADHD. After selecting all the practices they must be wrapped up in a single program.
After the conclusion of each lesson the selected practice should achieve its goal. The lessons must be presented in a different manner. Teacher should prepare the lesson and the activities planned in advance. The review of the previous lessons also proves out to be beneficial for the students. Teacher must identify all the materials needed in the classroom, because sometimes it becomes very difficult for the children to identify the materials on their own.
It is very hard for the students with ADHD to change from one topic to another. Therefore revision of the previous lecture is a must. The use of audiovisual materials helps the students a lot. Describe how students can identify and correct their own mistakes. For example, remind students that they should check their calculations in math problems and reiterate how they can check their calculations; remind students of particularly difficult spelling rules and how students can watch out for easy- to - make errors.
If the teacher tries to lower the noise level in the classroom it helps a child in maintaining his focus.
Teaching strategies for students with emotional behavioral disorder:-
For teaching the students with EBD teacher should encourage the positive learning techniques. The objectives of the lesson should be presented before which helps in predictability. The presentation should be exciting, and if the students performs well he should be given rewards. This helps a lot in dealing with the students with EBD. The vocabulary used in the presentation should be lucid and the feedback should be given immediately.
The lessons should be started with the interesting items or questions. It should be kept in mind that if a teacher wants a child to be excited about learning then teacher should be excited about teaching. While taking up the lessons students should know that they are learning and making progress. After completing, the lesson must be revised and the students should be prepared to move to next lesson. The long presentations must be cut into short presentations, so as in case of long assignments. Extra time should be given to students for completing their work.
The environment of a class should be healthy. Rules and regulations should be made and teach them to act in accordance with the rules. The environment of a class should be quiet as well active. Adequate materials should be provided to them so that they do not feel shortage of resources in between the lecture. There should be enough room for the students to move in the classroom without disturbing each other and adequate space must be provided to them for their personal belongings. The classroom rules should be less and positive. They should emphasize more on like what students must do in class.
Teacher should communicate with a child in a non threatening manner and should show the personal interest in a child. This makes a child feel good and boost up his confidence level. Proper gestures and body language is very important in communication. The gesture given should be holding longer than normal. Speaking slowly and clearly are also very important. Proper wait time should be included because some students are slow learners.
Managing behavior is very important in dealing with the EBD students. Sometimes it proves out to be very beneficial to ignore the negative behaviors, because sometimes a child behaves negatively in order to grab the attention. Punishment should only be used in a case when the behavior of a child is harmful for other students.
There must be a social problem technique, which effectively identifies the problems and provides the best solution for it. Anger management is the main problem with the child suffering from EBD. Anger is natural so it useful to teach anger control techniques rather anger elimination techniques. The first step in anger management is to convince a child that he should change, teaching relaxation techniques helps a lot.
Teaching strategies for the students having learning disabilities:-
Learning disabilities is a problem in which a child finds difficulty in organizing received information, remembering them, manipulating them. But with the effective learning strategies they can be taught effectively. The common symptoms are difficulty in learning, poor memory, difficulty in remembering facts, confusion among the basic words, spelling and reading errors, impulsive behavior etc.
· The course load should be low, because the course load will make them even more poor learners.
· Questions should be asked in a clarifying manner, the language used must be easy to digest.
· The key points of the chapter must be told before the beginning of the chapter.
· While writing on the board verbalize what is being written, the audio and video effects in teaching boost up the learning capabilities.
· The environment of the class must be peaceful so that the students do not feel diverted.
· The assignments should be given in oral form as well as in written form.
· They should be given more time to complete difficult assignments.
· The pace of teaching should be kept in accordance with their learning abilities.
· Using plenty of examples in the presentation makes their understanding level high.
· Encourage them to borrow the classmate’s notes if required.
· Colored apparatus must be used for high visual recognition.
Group discussion helps a lot for the students having learning disabilities, for them group discussion is fun as well as is beneficial in learning. Encourage them to ask questions during or after the lecture to make sure that they have understood completely. Teacher must pay individual attention towards every child. Frequent sessions with a child for proper assessment should be conducted. Using large fonts make their processing fast.
Give individual conferences to guide students with learning disabilities to monitor progress and understanding of the assignment and of the course content. Examples of science role models with disabilities should be given to them frequently so that they do not feel depressed. Encourage them to ask for help whenever needed.
It would be wrong to assess the potential of a child on the basis of test scores. Every child has its own strength and weaknesses.
The main aim of teaching is to educate individuals who are active members in the society at it’s various levels. Teachers are very important in our society because we need them to provide our youth with the knowledge and social experiences they will need to improve their future and the future of the entire planet.
While teaching students with exceptionalities teacher should keep in mind that every child is special. Teacher should not run from their responsibilities, they can change the life of these children’s. Every child likes different environment, so it better for a teacher to try to educate them keeping in mind their likes and dislikes. Teachers can apologies to the government to issue the policies which are in pure favor of these children’s. Like in maximum countries reservations are made for these children.
The teachers should motivate the society around them to take care of these children. We should all believe that there are hopes for those children’s and we can do something for them. These children have their own qualities like others and they can help our society uprising. No one should take it as taken for granted because this can happen to any body, what if they got suffered with the same. The society will surely turn their face around from those children. But if we all together work for them then changes can be there.
1) Did you ever felt frustrated in teaching students with exceptionalities?
2) What are the important strategies adopted by you?
3) How you will handle the disputes between the students?
4) Any special apparatus is required for teaching them?
5) What are the methods you have implemented to provide social exposure?
6) According to you what kind of environment do you think is best suited for them?
Adelizzi, Jane U. & Goss, Diane B., (2001), Parenting children with learning disabilities, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN: 0897897722
Dockrell, Julie, & McShane, John (1993), Children's learning difficulties: A cognitive approach, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN: 0631170170
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