Human development has led to have an insight into the developmental processes in humans throughout the life cycle. Biological, cognitive and personality are some of the aspects of development, which have been explored. The development in life cycle at all points can be understood by taking into account some primary forces; these are the mixture of past temporal conceptualizations, current developmental themes, and environmental influences. They constitute “Time sense”.
According to the reports on American family history, the four approaches perceived by social scientists to study family are household composition, generations, family cycle and life-course. The study of life-course has been proved the most fruitful approach for a dynamic, complex view of families that acts as a linking line between domestic sphere and wider societal trends and concerns. The analytical approach of life-course contributes historiographically in four areas of family: life- childbearing, early child development, adolescence and old age.
Development of health problems with growing age is another area to be focused on; study of difference in adjustment level of people in mid-life, late life transitions and stressful life events, the effect of family conditions on mental health is studied, the frequency of occurrence of mental disorders such as organic problems, schizophrenia and depression, with age. Age related sexual problems, substance abuse and psychosomatic problems are other areas of research during early, middle, late and elderly hood.
However, it is quiet usual that most dramatic developmental changes takes place during infancy and early childhood. Researchers have accepted adolescence as the age of major changes. Middle-aged people are often found to be indulged in severe life events such as redundancy or divorce. In early old age (i. e 50s and 60s), people are encountered with the problems of retirement and reduced standard of living. The late old age consists of death of life partner and serious health problems. In nutshell, important developmental changes take place throughout our life.
1998). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 53:113-140
A Developmental Line of Time Sense: In Late Adulthood and throughout the Life Cycle
Calvin A. Colarusso, M.D.
Changing Perspectives on the American Family in the Past
Susan M. Juster, Maris A. Vinovskis
Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 13, 1987 (1987), pp. 193-216
Clinical Issues of Middle Age and Later Life
Boaz Kahana, Eva Kahana
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 464, Middle and Late Life Transitions (Nov., 1982), pp. 140-161
Adolscence, adulthood, and old age
Michael W. Eysenck
Dated 21st July 2007