Critical Analysis of Leadership Capabilities
Indira Gandhi is the India’s only female prime minister to date, she remains the world’s longest serving female Prime Minister. She is the only daughter of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and kamala Nehru People loved Indira due to her ‘charmless, sincerity, intelligence and charisma.’
Life and career
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhiwas born on 19 November 1917, in AllahabadIndia.
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She was the one and only daughter to her parents. She was very traditional, once Gandhi went to meet Indira’s family. Since Gandhi was also a lawyer, he had been returned from South Africa, he had fought against racial discrimination. Hence Indira’s parents and Indira joined politics. Indira grew up in politics like anything, she was inspired by the political atmosphere at home, though she was exposed to politics in the age four and it made the beginning of the family members in the political affairs of the country. Everything was going good but her mother health was very poor, Indira used to take care of her mother like anything, but due to Tuberculosis she died in the year 1936. But Indira was only 18year old at that time.
When Indira was three year old, she was joined St. Cicilias private school, after 3 years her parents took her to Switzerland were she got admsission in I’Ecole Novelle.
In December 1927, she came back to India and she joined to St.Mary’s convent in Allahabad, though she was very young she took active part in the Freedom struggle.
In May 1931, she was admitted to Jahangir vakil’s public school, in Poona she cleared her matriculation examination in that school in the year 1934 April
Again from July 1934 to April 1935 she studied in vishwa bharathi shanthinikethan. She was greatly influenced by the poet Rabindranath Tagore.
In 1936, February 28th, Indira Gandhi mother expired, and then Nehru took her to England and admitted her in badminton school Bristol.
In 1938, she took university of oxford entrance examination but for her there was no luck and she got failed in examination after clearing the examination Indira joined to Somerville college, oxford in the year 1938, February. In the same year and time she met Harold Laski and she became member of the Indian national congress.
When she was 12 years, she joined to politics to learn the power of politics. They did not that when at what time they would arrest them or search of Homes due to the time of British Imperialism. They were about to find out when can this occur, Indira claimed and she thought of an idea. Indira made her job very sincerely and seriously. One day Indira went to meet the congress top officers, who were organizing a civil disobedience movement, though the meeting was finished the documents were kept in the car safely at the back seat. She was supposed to leave the area the police inspector rushed and made her to stop the car to search. Indira was in very urgent that she did not leave the police to inspect the car; she told I have to go arrive at the school, since it is already late, I have to reach there. Hence policeman did not search Indira’s car, trust on her and sent her from that place.
When Indira Gandhi was born, she was been loved by each and every person of her family. She is being the one and only daughter of the family members. Many of her family members sent a Telegram that new soul of India is born, Congratulations. After this Indira Gandhi was given the nick name Indu by her father. She was brought up like a princess doll; she used to play with the expensive toys.
Many incidents have been occurred in Indira Gandhi’s life which left a great impact on her. Once such incident was, Motilal and Nehru were arrested and were fined some amount of five hundred rupees; because of many problems they did not pay the fine. At that time, Indira was very young aged, she felt bad and helpless, and she started to fight with the police. This entire incident made Indira to fight the evil in future also.
One day Indira Gandhi was playing with her loving doll, where she was emotionally attached to it, because of some reasons she burned her doll; she was very much depressed, after some time she contributed to the great cause of Freedom.
Since Indira Gandhi was wearing lonely foreign clothes, as that were the elders of the family members were she always used to wear suit; one day Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to stop foreign goods, Hence Indira Gandhi stopped wearing foreign clothes. The dressing sense of Indira Gandhi made dedication towards Indian Country
Indira Gandhi’s childhood was very unique, she used to keep always lone, her father used to stay in prison many times and her mother very ill since the loneliness become here one of the part of life. This loneliness made her to love and make friend with Feroze Gandhi.
Feroze Gandhi was very friendly with Indira Gandhi days went he proposed her when she was sixteen year old. She went to join shanthinikethan founded by famous Nobel poet Rabindra Nath Tagore. There she became very much popular among the students welfare society, she was considered as an asset to the shanthinikethan.
Indira Gandhi’s mother expired, after that she went to England to learn classics. There she saw Feroze Gandhi and both became friends, after some time their friendship turned into deep love. She agreed to Feroze Gandhi, but her father abused her selection as Feroze Gandhi was a Parsi. Later, Jawaharlal Nehru agreed for their marriage, though Indira was stubborn and marriage between those two made much controversy. They got married on March 16, 1942 on Ramanavami day. Soon after their marriage, they two were arrested in connection with a Quit movement, but Indira Gandhi was treated very badly in the prison, this made her physically and mentally strong. After a month, Indira was released, one year later Feroze was released. After release of Feroze Gandhi, he started working in the national Herald newspaper as an Editor. At that timer Jawaharlal Nehru was the current prime minister, but Indira was the backbone to her father. She was use to assist and she was working as a principal. Feroze Gandhi also joined politics, he got a name and fame in the parliament, he stood for elections he did not take any of the support from Nehru, he made a separate party and he was one in the general election. He was elected and chooses to live separately in New Delhi.
In 1944, August 20th Indira’s first son was born when her father was in jail, she sent a telegram that the first grand son is born and asked to choose a name for his grandson. Jawaharalal Nehru chooses Raju, Indira added another name Ratna. The full name was Raju Ratna Gandhi he became popular as Rajiv Gandhi.
In the year 1947, Hindu and Muslim communities took part in the transfer of power took place since none of the congress party were ready to accept the portioning of the country. But on August 15, 1947 India and Pakistan came into existence. At his time Indira got second son, named Sanjay Gandhi
Indira Attaining Independence
On August 15, 1947 mid-night, India got Independence. Mahatma Gandhi said to Indira to work towards affected areas, but Indira did not say no. Though she was having two small kids, she worked hard day and night in the hit areas. From childhood, she had an innate desire to meet and greet the people, explore the arts and investigate a life. When Jawaharlal Nehru became Prime minister, she went to Delhi to assist her father but at that time Feroze had become Member of Parliament. She had to take care of two kids and her husband and also she used to work hard, she was daring and bold lady. She worked very hard for the child welfare and she was involved in many communities.
Indira in Politics
In the year 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was died were Indira was so much attached to Mahatma Gandhi she followed all his rules and regulation, since she was quite close to him, from early days.
On 1950, January 26thIndia got democratic republic and the Indian constitution was adopted. Jawaharalal was to control, authority and diligence. She was the member of UNESCO. The executive board name union’s nation Educational, scientific and cultural organization. This was a great opportunity for her to meet the foreign country peoples. Her whole life was shaped with political influences from her father; he used to support her in all sorts of activities and her husband Feroze used to support her always to participate in the political activities.
She got impressed by her Father’s achievements, she was going to different places and she got a good background, she became the member of congress, working committee in February 1995, she got herself involved in politics.
In the year 1959, February 2nd she was elected as the President of Indian National Congress. Indira as a President she showed courage and proved herself, after sometime she dismissed the Kerala Government but her father used to impose President Rule in Kerala. After sometime the entire Kerala ministry was dismissed and fresh elections were made in 1960. Indira Gandhi worked a lot this made her father to feel proud of her, “I am proud of her good nature, her energy, courage, boldness, willingness to work for the country, Integrity and Truthfulness”. Due to poor health her husband Feroze Gandhi suddenly died in the year 1960, which was the great loss to her, she suffered a lot; her whole life was shaken when her husband was expired as she was attached to her husband very much. She took some time and came out, she made herself busy in politics, and day by day she made her mind strong. Her will power and Fearlessness and confidence made her works. After this she travelled to various countries in the year 1961. In the year 1962, Chinese attacked India. Defense minister Krishna Menno worked very much hard to boost the armed forces; slowly his Health started declining his popularity. In the year 1964 May 27th Jawaharalal Nehru passed away, it was on very bad incident, which was a great loss to Indira and to the Indian country. His death caused a vacuum in India and in other countries also for with the Nehru working way.
Indira Gandhi had no more guide or philosopher, because everything was her Father. She had only two sons left, she was found of them, her mad time for them, she firmly believed that and quality time was much more Important than the quantity time.
She guided her sons, with a sense of security, as another she motivated her sons, guided thought them good manners, self respect, and self discipline and strengthen their character, with love. Children grew up in different personalities like that sanjay and Raju Gandhi also gowned. Where sanjay was bold and daring, but Rajiv was shy and bit feared as Indira childhood was lonely, she was determined to give affection and love, as they grew older, they were sent to a boarding at Dehradun.
Indira’s Development in Politics
After Jawaharlal Nehru expired in 1964, the next prime minister was Lal Bahadur Shastri, he was sincere man with an right politics. In the year 1965 September, Pakistan attacked India and it lasted for 22 days continuously. During this war Indira sent a more soldiers. There again election took place, there was only choice, after Shashtri, so she was elected for the Congress Parliamentary party.
Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister
Indira was the first woman to become the Prime minister of India, she accepted in whole heartedly in the honor by politicians, diplomats. Her confidence level, her will power made her to grow in politics, she kept going on and on the moral strength willingness to work all made her to work throughout her life, she had also energy in her, when she became prime minister, she made her role clearly and in confidence. She used to think all are equal, no caste or no religion nothing all are equal, all citizens who belongs to an Indian Constitution are equal without making separate all sex, languages, state are equal to me. I am just an Indian to serve the country.
When Indira became prime minister, India got twenty year Independence; she made it very much clear that, everyone has to work independently without laziness. Indira was going very crucial at that phase. There was no power generation, irrigation, agriculture, education, proper food to the people, and also no improvement in any field there was an economic crisis occurred.
In India’s period there was a lot of poverty, she took loan in commercialized Bank, and she explained the necessity to the people.
By taking bank loans the small farmers, the cottage industries, the small entrepreneurs and self employed were greatly benefited.
Indira Gandhi granted statehood to Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura. Not only had these she still taken still more daring decisions. Soon after becoming the prime minister, she travelled widely to many countries like France, USE, UK and UAE. These trips made her very clear to make the India’s position, to bring it to the top place.
In the year 1969, VV Giri won and emerged as the fourth president of the Republic of India. Earlier our nations were divided into more than 500 states.
Indira gave much Importance to science and technology, in upgrading the deference machinery. She was very much in favor of using nuclear energy and it was against the misuse of science. Science is culture, it is been brought in better life. If we use more science, until earn a lots of money. The peoples are using science for their own purpose. Using the nuclear power nuclear science was launching of India’s first space satellite “Aryabhatta”. In India ISRO was launched on April 19, 1975. In 1977, India’s second earth satellite communication station was inaugurated by Indira Gandhi.In1980, the second experimental satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 in 1977.
The Rise and Downfall of Indira Gandhi
When Indira was four year old, her Father and Grandfather were in jail due to some political activities. And the Jail became a part of her life.
The downfall of Indira Gandhi began after India won the war against Pakistan in 1971. The Allahabad High Court found Indira Gandhi guilty with electoral corruption for the 1971 elections. In 1975, Indira Gandhi called a State of Emergency, in which she ordered the arrest of her opposition, who later joined together and formed the Janata Party In 1977, Indira Gandhi and her party, Indian National Congress, lost the election to the Janata Party. After the elections, Gandhi found herself without work, income or residence.
On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi’s election to the Lok Sabha on grounds of electoral malpractice, in an election petition filed by Raj Narain. The court thus ordered her to be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years.
In July 1982, a Sikh group occupied the Golden Temple. In response, on 6 June 1984, during one of the holiest Sikh holidays, Indira gave permission for Operation Blue Star, in which the Indian army opened fire, killing a number of Sikhs. The State of Punjab was closed to international media. On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards, assassinated her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister’s residence.
A national nuclear program was started by Gandhi in 1967, in response to the nuclear threat from the People’s Republic of China. She wanted to establish India’s stability and security interests as independent from those of the nuclear superpowers. In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. India became the world’s then youngest nuclear power.
Being the first woman Prime Minister of India, and an influential leader, in a male-dominated society, Indira Gandhi is a symbol of feminism in India
Indira Gandhi, her life started with an unending quest to achieve something as she is been said by someone that “Great minds have purposes others have wishes”. She was the most dedicated lady having a commendable personality and leadership Qualities. Indira Gandhi Became prime minister and she served for 15 years continuously.
As prime minister between 1971 and 1977, two important happenings marked her term as the prime minister. She went around the world to explain the ghastly condition of the refugees. Indira made USA and other countries to understand the tragic and agonizing plight.
Indira Gandhi was always in favor of peace. Hence Indira was conferred with Bharat Ratna by the president by VV.Giri in March 1972. Indira’s contributions to the people of India include reservations to the poor people. She used to mingle with the common people without worrying of the castism .She used to believe in secularism, she made herself responsible for the well being of weaker sections, she was the role model to the younger generations.
Most of people is steel remembered has indira amma, (amma means mother) because she strangled to get a great scarifies to India and to her respect, in New Delhi the international airport is named as indira Gandhi international airport.
“URL:http:// www.cncw.com/india/indira.html (Accessed 3 Nov 1998)
“http://www.nebulasearch.com/encyclopedia/articles/gandhi.html (accessed 30 Jan 2004)
Written by Maria ulincy, 1998 last revision: 16 November 2004.
Indira Gandhi. A biography series. Published by shree book centre, Mumbai
Indira Gandhi Biography series published by Vee Kumar publication (p) Ltd., New Delhi.