Carlos P. Garcia is the eighth president of the Philippines and the fourth president of the Third Republic of the Philippines after he succeeded the remaining eight months of the term left by Pres. Ramon Magsasysay after dying from a plane crash.
He was president again after winning the 1957 election. He was one of the presidents who has been exposed to politics for long and have had many experiences. He has been a governor, congressman, senator, and vice- president. Indeed, he is one of those educated presidents, proven by a Law degree. Even before he was president, he has already shown his willingness to make Philippines a better country. He was one of those who helped in collaborating with USA to seek for assistance just for the recovery and reconstruction of the Philippines from the war.
The highlights of his administration were the Filipino First Policy (which is said to be what he is known for), Austerity Program (that didn’t became that successful), Bohlen–Serrano Agreement, and many more. They said that the main focus of his administration is to improve the economy of the Philippines and make it independent to other countries from its needs. Can we really consider former Pres. C. P. Garcia one of the best presidents of the Philippines? Did his programs and laws benefited and made Philippines a better country? Did he fulfill conscientiously all his duties as a president?
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Let us know more about the economic policies Pres. C. P. Garcia has made for the improvement of the Philippines. But first, let us discover who Carlos P. Garcia before he became a president. BIOGRAPHY Carlos Polistico Garcia was born in Talibon, Bohol on November 4, 1896. His parents, Policronio Garcia and Ambrosia Polistico, were both natives of Bangued, Abra. His father, Policronio was a sailor and farmer who became the town mayor of Talibon for fifteen consecutive years. While his mother, Ambrosia was a devout Catholic and an exemplary housewife who was proficient in leading the novena or prayers for the patron saints.
He had four brothers; Leoncio, Cosme, Cipriano and Lucio and one sister named Primitiva being him the second to the oldest. Garcia pursued the primary course in the Talibon Central Elementary School during the school year 1903-1904. His first teacher in Spanish and the vernacular was Catalina Auguis Torrefiel (“Maestra Talina”). Lucio Alingasa, Sr. was his first teacher in English. He completed his elementary education in Talibon graduating at the head of his class in 1910. He then studied in the Cebu High School completing only the second of the secondary course.
His father Policronio, advised him to become a public school teacher in the belief that at the age of sixteen he was yet too young to pursue his studies. After two years of teaching in the public schools of Trinidad and Ubay, he resigned to continue his studies. As a classroom teacher, he was under regular status at P25. 00 per month. He took his third year secondary studies at Silliman Institute in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental. In his senior year in high school, he decided to return to the Cebu High School graduating as class valedictorian in 1916.
It was during this time when he won the Carlock gold medal for excellence in oratory. He was once an editor of the school paper when he was in the Cebu High School. He was at the same time a reporter of Cebu’s weekly newspapers in English. He took law at Philippine Law School, now Philippine College of Criminology in the school year 1919-1923. He was permitted to pursue the law course because at that time a preparatory law course was not required for admission. He obtained many titles and won prizes in different contests. In 1919, he was elected president of the freshman class.
He was also elected speaker pro-tempore of the Junior House and senator of the Junior Senate. He became secretary of the law school’s Club Cervatino, member of the Lex Club, and the 1921 winner of the Callaghan prize in oratory. In 1922, he was awarded the West Publishing Company prize for obtaining the highest general average during his first year in the College of Law. The Lawyer’s cooperative Publishing Company Prize was awarded to him as law class valedictorian in 1923. He had been recipient of the Malcolm’s four-year law course scholarship prizes for academic excellence.
He finished the Bachelor of Laws degree in 1923, at the Philippine Law School as Valedictorian (magna cum laude). He placed 7th in the bar examinations of 1923 despite serious illness, obtaining the highest rating among the Manila law class valedictorians of that year. Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol". He started his political career on 1925.
In 1925, he was elected as Congressman of the third District of Bohol and served for three consecutive terms. In 1933, he was elected as Governor of Bohol. He was elected as a senator in 1941, but his service was interrupted by the war in the Pacific. But he did not surrender and he did not serve in the government sponsored by Japanese of the Philippines. He joined the guerillas and went to the mountains. He was married to Leonila Dimataga on May 24, 1933. Leonila was known as “Inday”, a native of Opon and a professional pharmacist. They had only one child named Linda Garcia-Ocampos.
When the Commonwealth government was re-instated, he reassumed his position as a senator and became the Majority Floor Leader. He participated in several missions to Washington to work for the approval of the Philippine Rehabilitation and War Damage Claims. He was a delegate to the World Conference at San Francisco to draft the charter of the United Nations Organization in May 1945. He was elected again as a senator in the 1946 elections. When he was in the Senate, he was chairman and member of numerous key committees, among them government reorganization, foreign affairs, public works, army and navy, and justice.
He was also a member of the Senate Electoral Tribunal. From 1947 to 1953 he was vice president of the Nacionalista party directorate Garcia He was the running mate of Ramon Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramon Magsaysay, for four years concurrently serving as vice-president. As secretary of foreign affairs, he negotiated to Japan to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement in April 1954. He maintained the strong ties with the United States and stood for opposition of communism.
He acted as chairman of the Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, known as SEATO. He was in a conference in Australia when President Magsaysay died in an airplane accident on March 17, 1957 in Cebu. He became his successor, having been elected vice president in November 1953. He became president of the Philippines starting March 18, 1957 and lasted for eight months. In the elections of 1957 he won over three other candidates and became fourth president of the republic since its independence in 1946.
He exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known and popularized the “Buy Filipino” program. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. Programs were initiated to improve Filipino production. He also encouraged the renewal of interest in Philippine culture. He also initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program" that characterized his administration. However, he was criticized for his travels at the time of Austerity Program. He was accused of graft and corruption which had damaged his image. He was defeated in the 1961 presidential elections to Diosdado Macapagal partly due to these ontroversies. Garcia lived as a private citizen in Tagbilaran, Bohol after his defeat from the election. Garcia was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention on June 1, 1971. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, he passed away. He died because of heart attack on June 14, 1971 in Tagbilaran City, Bohol. Garcia became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.
STRENGTHS OF HIS ADMINISTRATION
Carlos P. Garcia’s significance in the Philippine history is that he has made Philippines to be one of the innovative countries in Asia during his administration. Philippines was just recovering. And because of this, Pres. Carlos Garcia made programs that helped Philippines, especially with its current situation. He saw the need for economic independence because Philippines depended on products from America although they can produce with their own. Among these is the Filipino First Policy that is said to be the most significant act during his administration.
It gave Filipino businessmen opportunities to widen their business and provide for the Filipinos. Their products were preferred more than imported ones and was given more priority. Through this act, local products were expanded and favored. This gave way for the Philippines to supply their own personal need for everyday living and it also helped in improving the economy that time. He wanted the Filipinos to provide for their own so there would not need imports from foreign countries. Thus, it would lessen their expenses.
One of the Filipino businessmen who was benefited with the Filipino First Policy was Filemon Rodriguez, who founded a management company and became the co-founder of FILOIL, the first Filipino-owned oil refining company. The concern of his administration was to make Philippines a self sustaining and independent country. Also one of the strength of his term is that he was able to revive the culture. He placed an emphasis to our culture because colonization took over and he felt that he needed to revive it. This helped the Filipinos to know their own culture and to be proud of it.
He awarded some Filipino artists, scientist, historians and writers to encourage them. Although there were many economic problems arising, Pres. Carlos P. Garcia managed his country well enough. He was able to prioritize Filipinos and made laws that would increase the economic growth in the Philippines. Pres. Carlos Garcia did his part for the improvement of the Philippines. He promoted our local products and at the same time promoted it worldwide. It showed how much he is really aiming for the improvement of the lives of his Filipino people. The Garcia administration supported the local industries.
He was able to shape and have Philippines to its good condition. Stated below are some of the achievements of Carlos P. Garcia’s administration.
There were many achievements made by President Carlo P. Garcia. These are as follows; As secretary of foreign affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and other Asian problems, Garcia as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U. S. policy in the Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954, the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu, Garcia repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition of communism. After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. Garcia signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957. With this legislative piece, the sustained government campaign for peace and order achieved considerable progress and success.
He also acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. President Garcia initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". Garcia's administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy.
He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry. " Garcia was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts. The main points of the Austerity Program were:
- The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
- There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
- Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
- The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
- An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
- The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
- There would be an intensification of food production.
President Garcia exercised the Resolution No. 204 also called as the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors.
From the word itself, Filipinos and local products were prioritized more than foreign and imported products. Local enterprises were also given assistance. It also encouraged the Filipino businessmen to be part in the economy in the Philippines. Through this, the country was able to provide their own needs and lessen the imported products from foreign countries. In line with the Filipino First Policy, he also made Laws for local Industries like the Republic Act 2207 that is about the Rice and Corn Import Ban that prohibited imported rice and corn by any corporation.
This helped the local producers to broaden their business. The effects of these are shown with the informations we have browsed. “Since its enactment in 1958, new Filipino-owned business organizations continued tosprout. Total capital investments of new Filipino businesses in 1958 was only P108,831,000whereas the Americans had P2,537,000. By 1959, new Filipinos businesses’ investments rose toP143,012,000 and those of the Americans declined to P2,433,000. In the 1960, the trendcontinued. Filipinos had P157,631,000 and Americans had P1,375,000. Although, investments of new
American businesses rose to P2,881,000 in 1961, those of Filipinos still had the bigger advantage with an increase to P209,398,000. ” Not only that, his administration increased the employment rate and reduced the unemployment rate too. There is no perfect administration. President C. P. Garcia also faced many controversies. Which will be discussed in the next.
WEAKNESSES/ ISSUES/ CONTROVERSIES
During the time of Carlos P. Garcia, he made the policy called “Pilipino Muna”. In this policy as stated above, he wanted to steer away the country from a colonial dependence.
He limited the imports so that the domestic industry would be encouraged and its production will increase. Magsaysay is a Business oligarch. He restricted foreign ownership so that the Americans could only own 40 % of the business. Compared to the countries that can be considered progressive, this policy the ‘’foreign owner restriction’’, is not a good policy if you want your country to make your country progressive. The only mistake Carlos P. Garcia made during his term is for being an anti-US business platform. And due to this there were many who criticized him and there is also much hearsay about that.
Many people hated Garcia just like Macapagal, who said that Garcia was just using economic nationalism to cover up the corruption on his own government. The policy ‘Filipino First’ by Garcia should have been first consulted to the Americans. This policy hurt the Americans, which are why they are against the administration of Garcia. During Garcia’s administration, there’s always a room for misunderstanding between Garcia and foreign business importers (especially Americans) that thought that the aim of this policy is just a cover up of his fallacies. And this resulted many oppositions to Carlos Garcia.
One of these is the American CIA, who again misunderstood the objective of Garcia. That’s why the US disliked Garcia and wanted another Magsaysay. And his Magsaysay that will be the follower of Americans that will agree on whatever the Americans want. And it’s Diosdado Macapagal, vice president during the time of Garcia, who is the next opponent of Garcia on the 1961 elections.
Throughout Garcia’s administration, he was faced with a great challenge, specifically in its economis issues. He stated the problems and made solutions to fix this.
Philippines was dependent to foreign countries, resulting to some disadvantages like higher exchange rates. He was known for Filipino First Policy. It was because he wanted Philippines to be independent, industrialized, self-sustaining and wouldn’t rely to anyone but themselves for everyday needs. He didn’t tolerate foreign and imported products because he wants local firms to expand nationally so that local stocks would increase and will help in the economy growth of the Philppines and thus he was successful because employment rate increased, there has been imrovement and growth in the economy.
He was able to make Philippines in a good shape, but not in best. Also through his Austerity Program, he tried to lessen and if possible, eliminate graft and corruption that was exisiting in the past administration and also to his as well, and also to teach moral values to the leaders of the country. Garcia was also known as he revived Filipino cultural arts. At the end of his term, Garcia was criticized by many because they say that programs were not enough for the common people. That is why he lost the elections to Pres. Diosdado Macapagal.
Everything you do, there are people what you love to do. Just like Carlos P. Garcia, he was hated by the Americans by helping his fellow Filipinos. (Kelvin Angeles) The value that i learned from Carlos P. Garcia is to love my own country. He emphasized nationalism. He was the one who exercised the Filipino First Policy, wherein Filipinos where given priority over foreign investors. He passed bills that made the Philppines more peaceful and inorder. He gave importance to the Filipino businesses and gave them the economic freedom that they've wanted for a long time.
He taught me to patronize local goods over imported products, which i usually buy because i thought that it was stronger and safer to use. He taught me to give importance to our country and be proud to be a Filipino. (Shaira Bravo) I learned that the environment you grew up really affects the way you act and think. Former Carlos P. Garcia grew up in a middle class family that enabled him to study in school. Having also a father that was a farmer then became a politician, he saw how the poor and the rich lived and acted. He was opened to a broad environment and saw the world not a simple place to live.
He learned that this world composed of different class of people and each class had responsibilities to perform service in the country. This knowledge led him to take up public service as his life career. He lived his life serving Filipinos. I also learned that Garcia was a man that lived with his principles. He fought for what he knows right for the people. He was a symbol of nationalism and an epitome of democracy and justice. (Ahiah Chan) I can say that by doing this term paper, I have browsed the Speech made by former President Carlos Garcia. And in the concluding part, I read this...
But man is finite and God is infinite and eternal and so we need Him in all our national efforts. Let us therefore pray for His guidance and mercy and that He abide with us forever and fill our days with the abundance of His blessings. “For His Kingdom is a Kingdom of all ages, and dominion endureth throughout all generations. They shall publish the memory of the abundance of His sweetness and shall rejoice in His Justice. ” (Psalm 144) With Him nothing is impossible; without Him nothing. I thank you. It tells me that in whatever we do; God will always be with us.
Anything is possible if we keep on believing in God. Pres. C. P. Garcia did not forget God and he put his trust on God so he would be successful in attaining all his plans for the Philippines. Also in His Austerity program, he focused not only in the economy but also for the values of the Filipinos, teaching them to be thrift, to be efficient, to save money, and to live simply, avoiding luxurious materials. It showed that he was also after the morals of the Filipinos. (Ana Docallos)
- Carlos Garcia. (n. d. ) Retrieved on Sept 17, 2012, http://www. cribd. com/doc/72422288/
- CARLOS-GARCIA Carlos P. Garcia. (n. d. ) Retrieved on September 18, 2012, http://www. scribd. com/doc/37537872/
- Carlos-P-Garcia Carlos P. Garcia biography. (n. d. ) Retrieved on September 18, 2012, http://www. bookrags. com/ biography/carlos-p-garcia/
- Carlos P. Garcia. (n. d. ) Retrieved on September 18, 2012, http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/
- Carlos_P. _Garcia Philippine Economy under President Garcia. (n. d. ) Retrieved on September 16, 2012,http://www. scribd. com/doc/36176205/Philippine-Economy-under-President-Garcia
on Carlos P. Garcia Term Paper
Carlos Polestico Garcia, commonly known as Carlos P. Garcia, (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist, organized guerrilla and Commonwealth military leader, who was the eighth President of the Philippines.
Carlos Polistico Garcia (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist, guerrilla, and Commonwealth military leader who was the eighth President of the Philippines.
President Garcia's first actions were to declare a period of national mourning and to preside over the burial ceremonies for Magsaysay. President Garcia won a full term as President with a landslide win in the national elections of November 12, 1957.
In addition to his laws and programs, the Garcia administration also put emphasis on reviving the Filipino culture. In doing so, the Republic Cultural Award was created. To this day, the award is being given to Filipino artists, scientists, historians, and writers.
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