Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4x4 ("four by four") is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drive train that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. While many people associate the term with off-road vehicles, powering all four wheels provides better control in normal road cars on many surfaces, and is an important part of rally racing. In abbreviations such as 4x4, the first figure is the number of wheels; the second is the number of powered wheels. 4x2 mearns a four-wheel vehicle in which engine power is transmitted to only two wheels the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. The main objective of our project is to perform to introduce the advance technology in the field of automobile.
Here the four wheeler is carry out for the purpose of changing the gears using with the help of air power. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word, vehiculum, are non-living mearns of transport. Most often they are manufactured (e. g. bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft), although some other mearns of transport which are not made by humans also may be called vehicles; examples include icebergs and floating tree trunks. Vehicles may be propelled or pulled by animals, for instance, a chariot, a stagecoach, a mule-drawn barge, or an ox-cart. However, animals on their own, though used as a mearns of transport, are not called vehicles, but rather beasts of burden or draft animals.
This distinction includes humans carrying another human, for example a child or a disabled person. A rickshaw is a vehicle that may carry a human and be powered by a human, but it is the mechanical form or cart that is powered by the human that is labeled as the vehicle. For some human-powered vehicles the human providing the power is labeled as a driver. Vehicles that do not travel on land often are called craft, such as watercraft, sailcraft, aircraft, hovercraft, and spacecraft Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, tracked, railed, or skied. The true inventor of four-wheel drive is not really known; the history of such was not well recorded.
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In 1893, before the establishment of a modern automotive industry in Britain, English engineer Joeseph Bramah Diplock patented a four wheel drive system for a traction engine, including four-wheel steering and three differentials, which was subsequently built. The development also incorporated Bramagh's Pedrail wheel system in what was one of the first four-wheel drive automobiles to display an intentional ability to travel on challenging road surfaces. It stemmed from Bramagh's previous idea of developing an engine that would reduce the amount of damage to public roads. Ferdinand Porsche designed and built a four-wheel driven Electric vehicle for the k. u. k.
Hofwagenfabrik Ludwig Lohner & Co. at Vienna in 1899, presented to the public during the 1900 World Exhibition at Paris. The vehicle was powered by an electric hub motor at each wheel, a design later used by NASA in the lunar rover. Although clumsily heavy, the vehicle proved a powerful sprinter and record-breaker in the hands of its owner E. W. Hart. Due to its unusual status the so-called Lohner-Porsche is not widely credited as the first four-wheel driven automobile. The first four-wheel drive car, as well as hill-climb racer, with internal combustion engine, the Spyker 60 H. P. , was presented in 1903 by Dutch brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker of Amsterdam.
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