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A New Design Based Software Coupling Metric

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A New Design Based Software Coupling Metric


The term “coupling” was foremost used in package technology by Stevens et Al. [ 1 ] in the yearss when structured scheduling was the norm. It was defined as “the step of the strength of association established by a connexion from one faculty to another” . In the context of object-oriented design, yoke is seen in footings of how one category is connected to another. Matching indicates the dependence of a category on the other category. High dependence may diminish reusability of the category and increase care attempt. A turning figure of dependences indicate an increasing likeliness for the functionality of the category to be broken by alterations made to other categories. Changes in one category might take to ruffle consequence. Besides, high yoke will take to more testing attempts and more clip spent on proving. Low yoke and high coherence facilitate comprehension activities, proving attempts, reuse, and care undertakings. Hence, there is a demand to cipher matching automatically to cut down the measuring attempt, subjectiveness and possible mistakes. This paper introduces a manner to calculate matching prosodies. Since yoke is the grade of interaction between categories, the basic thought underlying all matching prosodies is really simple: number how many interclass interactions there are in the system. Nevertheless there is considerable fluctuation depending on what counts as an interaction, how the numeration is done and how the sums are normalized.

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Besides the figure of dependences, every dependence has a certain strength associated with it. The strength of a dependence indicates how interconnected these two categories are. A high value for strength means two categories use each otheraˆYs methods and/or types really often. As a consequence, take downing matching between two categories that are strongly coupled is more complex. The strength of yoke is influenced strongly by the manner two categories are coupled:GramOvitamin Dchlorineass- In this instance there is merely a individual category. Multiple categories are merged into one doing a individual category. This type of yoke is the strongest as all methods/properties of the category can be called. A god category will typically hold low coherence as unrelated categories are merged into one.

Chlorineass-chlorineassBivitamin DangerNutmeg StateIONacubic decimeter- Two different categories which are

dependent bi-directionally. This yoke is still really strong as a alteration in a individual category might ensue in a alteration to the other category. This type of matching is less strong compared to the god category as the communicating is re-strained to the public api ( application programming interface ) of the category.

Chlorineass-chlorineassUNIdahoIRvitamin Edegree CelsiussTIONacubic decimeter- Two different categories with one category

being dependent upon the other. This type of matching is less strong compared to the bidirectional yoke because lone alterations to the one category potentially alter functionality of a different category.

The undermentioned facets of a dependence besides affect the strength of yoke:

NitrogenUmberOdegree Fahrenheitinteradegree CelsiussTION- Two categories that are coupled but the sum of yoke is minimum have a less strong yoke compared to two categories with a batch of interactions. Because the increased figure of interactions it becomes more complex to divide the two categories doing them coupled more strongly.

This paper proposes a yoke metric which is based on

interaction between category methods. The matrix developed utilizing the proposed attack can be used to find bidirectional or uni- directional interaction. Besides, this matrix can be easy verified through category diagram.


Survey of the Troy and Zweben [ 2 ] on matching suggests that the yoke is one of the most important properties impacting the overall quality of the design. No by and large accepted metric exists

for matching ; nevertheless, by and large, it is accepted that excessively much yoke in a design leads to increased system complexness [ 3 ] ; hence, high yoke is considered as unsought belongings. Following describes some of the known attempts that are made for mensurating yoke. Yourdon and Constantine define the yoke as a grade of mutuality between faculties [ 4 ] . Bansiya [ 5 ] besides defines matching as a dependence of an object on other objects in a design. He uses DCC ( Direct Class Coupling ) metric that counts the figure of categories that a category is straight related to. This metric includes the categories straight related by property declaration and message passing ( parameter list ) in methods. Chidamber and Kemmerer [ 6 ] have besides discussed the yoke in the context of OO paradigm, in their sentiment ; two categories are coupled ; if the method of one category uses any method or case of other category. CBO ( Matching between object categories ) prosodies counts the figure of conjugate categories. In CBO metric, a category is coupled to other category if it uses the method or property defined in other category. CBO gives insight into of import facets of package design. Excessive CBO does non advance reuse as an object relies excessively to a great extent on another to be reused independently. If inordinate yoke is found between objects it is advised to cut down the sum of matching through refactoring. If non, alterations to the conjugate objects in the hereafter could ensue in relationships being modified that are unexpected. Making mock objects to prove within the conjugate objects besides provides extra complexnesss between objects further increasing the boundlessly hard job of proving a system.

However, CBO metric does non separate among different types of interactions between two categories. Briand et Al. [ 7 ] present a package metric suite which accounts for class-attribute, class-

Montazeri [ 11 ] argue that matching between two categories should be multi-faceted instead than being a remarkable relation. In other words there should be many facets taken into history when mensurating the matching relationship between categories within a system.

To capture the run-time analysis of matching which can alter because of the polymorphism - an array of dynamic matching prosodies have been proposed. Beszedes et Al. [ 12 ] proposed a Dynamic Function Coupling ( DFC ) metric to capture the propinquity of maps on the run-time stack to foretell change-proneness and impact sets. Hassoun et Al. [ 13 ] prove the construct of dynamic yoke and that it is so a new dimension of matching between objects within a run-time environment. They find that polymorphous systems demonstrate less matching overall compared to an indistinguishable system that does non utilize polymorphism. Arisholm [ 14 ] introduces a dynamic yoke suite to mensurate run-time behaviour of a system and happen similar consequences to Emam et Al. [ 15 ] in that the best prosodies among the suite were those that dealt with export.


Class yoke is calculated by mensurating the dependence relationships between methods of different categories considered. Depending on the maps calls made to methods of different category, we have came up with matching metric. Matching between categories is shown is signifier of matrix [ I ] [ J ] where I and J are both symbolic Numberss for categories.

matrix [ I ] [ J ] = Number of times the „class iaˆY calls the maps of

„class jaˆY . Using this matrix, we can besides cipher entire yoke as:

method, and method-method relationships and show that there is

correlativity between these matching measurings with fault- proneness. In add-on, they inject that the usage of friend within C++

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maTRIten[I] [J]


where N is to

can increase the fault-proneness of categories even more than other types of yoke. Binkley and Schach [ 8 ] propose a Yoke

entire figure of categories. Besides, the mean yoke for a undertaking

can be calculated as:

Dependency Metric which measures alteration and fault-proneness at a finer grain compared to other prosodies that restrict their range to the category degree. Fenton and Pfleeger [ 9 ] recognize yoke as a

pair-wise measuring of the faculties. They have discussed about

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where N is entire figure of categories.

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mensurating the yoke on ordinal graduated table and they have classified the yoke in six pair-wise faculty relationships on ordinal graduated table. To mensurate matching, an thought of set of categorization of pair-wise relationships between faculties x and Y is used ; get downing from relation R0, R1, R2 to Rn. Relationss are subscripted from the least dependent at the start and the most dependent at the terminal, so that Ri

& A ; gt ; Rj for I & A ; gt ; j. Modules x and Ys are said to be the slackly conjugate if one value is someplace in the start ( near to zero ) and modules tens and Ys are said to be tightly coupled if one value is someplace in the terminal ( near to n ) . In [ 9 ] , they have non described their Model for mensurating matching in footings of OO paradigm.

Most of OO prosodies to mensurate matching are the numeration prosodies, which counts the figure of times a category establishes an OO relationship with other category. Liu and Xu [ 10 ] have proposed an object-oriented metric suite that measures the magnitude of matching between categories and show that their suite offers a new dimension of measuring complementing other prosodies. Hitz and

The elaborate model of the proposed metric calculation is shown in figure 1. The procedure of computation of this matrix and its

confirmation can be divided into four stages: -

Phase 1 purposes at developing the information constructions need for farther computations. The information constructions ( List ) developed aid in designation of methods, categories to which they belong and the bundles to which they belong.

Phase 2 purposes at designation of tuple ( naming map, naming category, called map, called category ) for each map call made inside maps of a category

In stage 3, the procedure of stage 2 is repeated for each category nowadays in undertaking.The matrix [ I ] [ J ] is developed in this stage

In stage 4, the confirmation of consequence against category diagram is done by formalizing that each non-zero value in matrix implies a

connexion between two matching categories.

Fig. 1.Framework of Proposed Approach


There is a Java Project 'Product Tree ' holding categories: Custom Dialog, Dynamic Tree, Dynamic Tree Product and Product. Class diagram of 'Product Tree ' is shown in figure 2.

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1 ) Classs along with their bundles:

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GetProductText = Product, componentShown = CustomDialog, SetProduct = Product, GetProductType = Product, GetProduct=Product, main=DynamicTreeProduct, actionPerformed

{ Merchandise = prdtree, DynamicTree = prdtree, CustomDialog = prdtree, DynamicTreeProduct = prdtree }

2 ) List of method along with their categories: -

{ clearAndHide=CustomDialog, getHash=DynamicTree, windowClosing=CustomDialog, SetHashCode=Product, Product= Product, cretatAndShowGUI = DynamicTreeProduct, CustomDialog=CustomDialog, DynamicTree = DynamicTree, DremoveCurrentNode=DynamicTree, edit = DynamicTree,

=DynamicTreeProduct, GetProductSymbol=Product,

GetProductName = Product, getProduct = CustomDialog, GetHashCode=Product, DynamicTreeProduct=DynamicTreeProdu Nutmeg State, propertyChange = CustomDialog, addObject = DynamicTree }

3 ) List of get downing Lines Numberss of method inside category file: -

{ Merchandise = [ 9, 14, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, 36, 39 ] , DynamicTree = [ 21, 36, 47, 56, 111, 125, 130 ] ,

CustomDialog = [ 30, 35, 78, 91, 104, 109, 171 ] , DynamicTreeProduct = [ 25, 54, 115, 130 ] } .

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The map call to GetHashCode ( ) is found at the line figure

77,92 and these figure lies between 56 and 111 in list 3, therefore matching by sing the list 4 for Dynamic Tree, we can place the naming map - removeCurrent Node ( ) . Besides, utilizing List 2, we identify that GetHashCode ( ) belong to category Product. Hence, Called category, called map, naming category, naming map

, no. of times call is Product, GetHashCode ( ) , DynamicTree, removeCurrentNode ( ) and 2 severally.

C.Phosphorushour anglesvitamin E3:COUPLiNgMeteraTRnine The yoke matrix obtained for this undertaking is shown in tabular array I. Table I: Matching Matrix for 'ProductTree '

TABLE II: Proposed Coupling and DIT For Different


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Kea 1.68 0.17
Anagram 3.75 0.42
Lamistra 1.33 0.16
JavaOperation 1.75 0.09
ProductTree 4.30 0.92

Besides a comparative graph is drawn to analyse the behaviour of proposed matching metric and DIT, as shown in Figure








Avg. DIT

Avg. Matching

n the first row the value 2 in cell ProductTree [ CustomDialog ] [ Product ] implies that Custom Dialog calls 2 maps of Product which are viz. ( as confirmed from codification ) - GetHashCode ( ) , GetProductSymbol ( ) . Other nothing values in the row implies that no map of other categories is used in Custom Dialog.

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As evident from the category diagram,

1.Class Custom Dialog is merely dependent on category Product, therefore verifying the non zero value in Product column and other nothing values in row 1.

2.Class DynamicTree is merely dependent on category Product, therefore verifying the values in row 2.

3.Class DynamicTreeProduct is dependent on CustomDialog, DynamicTree and Product which is besides implied from row 3.

4.Class Merchandise in non dependent on any of other categories therefore all zero value in row 4 are right.


To analyse the truth of proposed metric, the norm of proposed yoke and Depth of Inheritance Tree ( DIT ) is computed and compared for five big size Java based Open Source Software ( OSS ) . Comparative consequences are shown in Table 2

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Fig. 3.Comparative Graph for Avg. Proposed Coupling and Avg. DIT

Figure 3 shows that proposed matching gives more accurate value of matching since it considers heritage relationship along with other dependences like association, generalisation while DIT merely considered the heritage relationship between the categories.


In decision, the attack developed in this paper provides a manner to develop prosodies for matching at category degree. The metric can easy be verified through category diagram. The consequence can besides be used to analysis the undertaking and develop suggestion to better its yoke. The attack is developed into codification merely for Java undertakings. In future, we aim to develop the merchandise for other common linguistic communications like C # , C++ etc. Besides,calculation of matching at higher degrees, bundle degree will be done to demo how faculties of undertakings are dependent on each other. The constructs of polymorphism will be taken into consideration for future enterprises.

VII. Reference

[ 1 ] .W. Stevens, G. Myers, and L. Constantine. Structured design.

IBM Systems Journal, 13 ( 2 ) :115-139, 1974.

[ 2 ] . D.A. Troy and S.H. Zweben, `` Measuring the Quality of Structured Designs, '' Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 1981, pp. 113 - 120.

[ 3 ] .Harrison R. , Counsell S. , Nithi R. , “Coupling prosodies for object-

oriented design” , Journal: Software Metrics Symposium, Metrics

1998. Fifth International pages: 150-157, 1998.

[ 4 ] .Yourdon, E and Constantine, L.L. , Structured design, Prentice

Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1979.

[ 5 ] . J. Bansiya, “A Hierarchical Model for object- orientated Design Quality Assessment” IEEE Transaction on package technology, Vol.28, No.1, January 2002.

[ 6 ] . S.R. Chidamber, C.F. Kemerer, Towards a prosodies suite for object-oriented design, Proceedings of the Conference on Object- Oriented Programming: Systems, Languages and Applications ( OOPSLA aˆY91 ) , 1991.

[ 7 ] . Briand, L. , Devanbu, P. , Melo, W. : “An probe into matching steps for C++” , Proceedings of ICSE 1997, Boston, USA, 1997.

[ 8 ] . B. Binkley and S. R. Schach. Validation of the yoke dependence metric as a forecaster of run-time failures and care steps. In Proceedings of the 1998 ( 20th ) International Conference on Software Engineering, pages 452-

455, Apr 1998.

[ 9 ] . Norman E. Fenton, Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, “Software Prosodies: A Rigorous and Practical Approach” , PWS Publishing Company,


[ 10 ] . D. Liu and S. Xu. New quality prosodies for object-oriented plans. In Eighth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, pages 870875, Jul 2007.

[ 11 ] . M. Hitz and B. Montazeri. Measuring matching and coherence in object oriented systems. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Applied Corporate Computing, Monterrey, Mexico. , 1995.

[ 12 ] . Beszedes, T. Gergely, S. Farago, T. Gyimothy, and F. Fischer.

The dynamic map matching metric and its usage in package

development. In CSMR '07. 11th European Conference on Software

Care and Reengineering, pages 103-112, Mar 2007

[ 13 ] . Y. Hassoun, S. Counsell, and R. Johnson. Dynamic matching metric: cogent evidence of construct. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 152 ( 6 ) :273-279, Dec 2005.

[ 14 ] . E. Arisholm. Dynamic matching steps for object-oriented package. In Proceedings of the Eigth IEEE Symposium on Software Metrics, pages 33-42, Jun 2002

[ 15 ] . K. E. Emam, W. Melo, and J. C. Machado. The anticipation of faulty categories utilizing object-oriented design prosodies. Journal of Systems and Software, 56 ( 1 ) :63-75, Feb 2001

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