Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 0 Introduction The chapter describes the research topic, background of the study, research problem, research objectives, research methodology, and importance of the study, limitations and chapter outlines. 1. 1 Research topic Training and development Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization.
It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization. 1. 2 background of the study This section will display important of the study and background of the study. Definition: “Training and Development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then organizational overall performance. Thus T&D improves employee’s capabilities in a way that will make him perform well in current job. The skills, abilities and attitudes obtained from T&D make a better demand for the employee in the job market. In organizational environment there are service oriented organizations such as banks, hospitals, educational institutes and production oriented organizations such as garment factories, motor vehicle companies… etc. Usually both kinds of these organizations are using same methods to give sufficient training for their employees.
And also most organizations are using common procedures in the training process. This may sometimes become a success while sometimes does not appear as a really efficient way to give a proper training to the employees in the organization. In this research, I have considered about clearly identifying the difference between the service oriented training methods and production oriented training methods. These two training methods differentiate from each other by the specific characteristics that are unique to each of these training methods.
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My research issue is arising within this environment. So in this project I’m expecting to find out the most suitable training methods based on the nature of the organization (service oriented or production oriented). And also I’m going to find out that is there any other modifications that should be used in traditional training process in selected organizations. 1. 3 Research problem The specific problem addressed in this study is to identify the most suitable training and development methods for production oriented and service oriented organizations.
The employee training and development programs and necessary to improve employee’s morale as well as encourage the workers to perform their jobs in a proper way. So with that purpose organizations should choose most suitable training and development methods considering about their nature of functions. Some training methods may not suitable for service oriented organizations and some methods may not suitable for production oriented organizations. The research design is used for this study was the descriptive survey research design, to determinate proper training for both production and servile oriented organizations. . 4 Objectives of the study In this project I expect to achieve these objectives through a pre designed methodology. These objectives are aimed at finding a reasonable solution for the research issue. * Identifying the training methods using currently in service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. * Identifying the relationship between training methods and performance improvement of the employees in the organization. * Identifying the necessary modifications for the training process and finding out most suitable training methods for service oriented and production oriented organizations. Directing employees to follow pre identified training methods in the purpose of enhancing employee productivity. 1. 5 Methodology To achieve these objectives there should be a pre planned methodology. In this sector I’m going to describe that methodology which consist the following steps. * Selecting Organizations * Selection of samples * Data collection * Analyzing and presenting data 1. 5. 1 Selecting an organization – organizations are selected on both production oriented and service oriented basis. A brief description about the organizations which have been selected for this research appears below:
Production Oriented organization – Dong Young Company This is a rice mill manufacturing company located in Kurunegala area. This is a small scale organization. Mother company of this firm is located in South Korea. Importing Single Phase rise mills, assembling them and distributing and selling them island wide are the major operations of this company. Currently more than 30 employees are working in this company. Service oriented organization – Sampath Bank PLC This is one of the most reputed commercial banks in private sector of Sri Lanka.
There are more than 200 branches in island wide and more than 2000 work force. But for this project I have selected a sample of more than 25 people from 4 branches in area 7 located in western province due to the difficulties in collecting data in a large sample. 1. 5. 2 Selection of samples Dong Young Company – Total population = all the permanent employees working in Dong Young company (more than 30) Sample size = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20 people) Sampath bank PLC - Total population = all the permanent employees working in Sampath bank (more than 2000)
Sample size = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20 people from Minuwangoda, Gampaha ,Ja ela , Mirigama branches ) These samples will include all the operational level staff including staff assistant, executive officers, branch managers, assistant managers, labors, technicians in both organizations. 1. 5. 3 Data collection The relevant data for the purpose of study were collected through the both primary and secondary sources. 1. 5. 3. 1 Primary data: The research was used following methods for collecting the data. In this research primary data were collected through the questionnaire.
To collect the relevant data questionnaire was designed as follows. Questionnaires are the most common data collection method for any research. In this research, survey questionnaires have been formulated by consisting 18 questions and it has been categorized in to tow sections as follows * Seven questions for personal characteristics * Eleven questions for employee training and development related data. Section One- Personal Profile The personal characteristics of employees are requested in the first section of the questionnaire and it is included five question items, they are 1. Age 2.
Gender 3. Civil Status 4. Education Level 5. Designation In this section, it was given the range of answers and respondents were requested to mark the relevant cage that was extremely matched with their personal characteristics. Responses from the questionnaire were analyzed to form of the study’s sample Section two in this section question designedwith the pupose of gatherin data related to training methods of both organizations. 1. 5. 3. 2 Secondary data Following sources use for research as secondary data. 1. Using Bank of Ceylon annual report, central bank report and other magazines 2.
News papers 3. Using internet 4. Using various books that related to the topic 1. 5. 4 Data presentation and analysis Presenting of data- following methods use for presenting the data. * Figures- Figure is one of data present method in this research. It was used this method to present the collected analyzed data, because this method is very simple and easy to understand * Tables- Table is other method for presentation of analyzed data. It also easy to understand and very simple method in this research. There columns, under relevant data column, number of employees and percentage columns. Chart- Chart is most popular method for presenting the data. In this study it was used bar charts & Pie charts to present the data illustrated by relevant table. 1. 6 Importance of the study As Schuler& Youngblood, 1996 the need of training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency and it is computed as follows. T & D need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance So from this definition we can understand that the T & D has a very strong relationship with the performance of the employees.
With the achieving above mentioned objectives I believe this kind of befits can get to the organization. * Most important thing is can have a clear idea about what different kind of training methods is suitable for service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. * So both kind of organizations can direct their employees to get training more effectively * If any kind of modification needs is discovered in training process using currently on this organizations, they can change the process and move in to a better training method. So the both kind of organizations an give most suitable training to their employees to the point and enhance their job related knowledge. By giving a good training employees can have following benefits. * Increase the quality of products * Increase the productivity * Reducing unnecessary wastage * Improve employee’s moral & motivation. * Create a better demand on employees in the job market by having proper T & D * Increase efficiency and effectiveness * Employees can have more self confidence and reduce the degree of supervision * Increase salaries, promotion opportunities, rewards and job security.
When all of the above mentioned matters are considered T & D is advantageous for the organization as well as individual employees. 1. 7 Limitations * The research exercise will be conduct in a limited duration. Hence a detailed study could not be made * The sample of selected employees is limited only to kurunegala and western province. * The finding conclusions are based on the knowledge and experience of the respondents, sometimes may subject bias. * Primary data is collected only through a questioner. The production oriented organization is a small scale organization when considering with the service oriented organization. CHAPTER 2 Literature review 2. 0 Introduction The chapter describes the review of the literature, concerned the concept of training and development with relevant theories, definitions, concept and models. 2. 1 Human Resource Management Introduction to HRM Every organization irrespective of its nature and size has four resources namely men, material, and machinery. Of this men I. e. , people are the most vital resources and they only make all the differences in an organization.
In this connection L. F. Urwick says that “Business houses are made? Broken in the long –run note by the markets or capital, patents, or equipments, but by men”. Peter F. ducker says that, “man, of all the resources available to name can grow and develop”. This gives geneses to the concept of HRM, the sub –system. HR is the central sub-system of an organization. As the central sub- system, it controls the functions of each sub –system and the whole organization. Concept Human resource management is concerned with the human beings in an organization.
It reflects a now philosophy, a new outlook, approach and strategy, which views an organization’s manpower as its resources and assets. Human resource management is a managerial function which facilitates the effective utilization of people (manpower) in achieving the organizational and individual goals. Simply, HRM is a management function that helps the managers to recruit, select, train and develop the organizational members for the purpose of achieving the stated organizational goals. Definition HRM is defined as follows, “The part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise.
It aims to bring together and develop into and effective organization of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success” -National institute of personnel management, India. “Human resource management is a series of decisions that affect the relationship between employees and employers; it affects many constituencies and is intended to influence the effectiveness of employees and employers”. -Milkovich l boudreau.
So finally we can say HRM is the efficient and effective utilization of human resources to achieve goals of an organization. There is a series of functions to be followed order to accomplish the goals and the objectives of the HRM. This series of functions includes: * Human resource planning * Recruitment, selection, and placement * Orientation, training and development * Job analysis and design * Role analysis and role development * Career planning and communication * Performance appraisal * Human relation * Safety and health * Wage and salary administration * Compensation and reward * Grievance handling Quality of work life and employee welfare * Organizational change and development * Industrial relation From this series of functions training and development takes most important place and it is defined as the HRM function that formally and systematically provides new learning to increase employee’s capabilities so as to increase their current job performance and future job performance as well. Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization.
It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization. 2. 2 Training and development Definition Training and development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then ornisatonal overall performance.
Employee Training is distinct from management or Executive Development. While the former refers, training is given to employees in areas of operations, techniques and allied areas, while the latter refers to developing an employee in areas of important techniques of the Management Administration, Organization and allied areas. Training means to continuously nurture the employees or workers towards better performance in a systematic way. This can be either at the work spot or at the workshops. This is mainly to improve the technical skills of the employees or workers.
Development means bringing out the actual potentialities and thus willing to high motivation and commitment standards towards work. This will be generally with regard to improvement in the behavioral skills. Training and development will increase employee job related abilities through the following three primary ways. * By imparting job related knowledge. * By creating job related skills. * By generating positive attitudes for proper organizational functioning. In the HRM literature clear distinctions about knowledge and skills are hardly available.
But following definitions can found bout above terms and they will help to get an idea about these three factors. Know means ‘to learn or to have information about something” and knowledge means ‘what is known”. * English business dictionary (1986) “Skills is the ability to do something because of training” * Dictionary of personal management, 1988 So knowledge is for having information and understanding that information. Skills are for doing and applying the obtained knowledge. And also the terms education and training are highly interrelated.
But there are some differences among these terms. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training- Refers to the process of imparting specific skills Development- refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow Education - is theoretical learning in classroom Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee for example who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education.
Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with their clients.
Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning their training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes will be helpful for employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programs, are generally voluntary. 2. 3 Purpose of the training and development
The fundamental aim of the training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key recourse – people- employees. In here it is defined like this, “Training helps the organization, the individual, and the human relations of the work group. “ * Werther and Davis , 1989 – As this definition training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. And that investment pays dividend to employee, organization and other employees. Importance of Training and Development Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level.
It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness.
It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.
It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. 2. 3 Climate for Training With all these things organization must have a climate or suitable environment for deliver a successful training programme. so to create a necessary environment, fulfill the following requirements may helpful. * Incentives that encourage employees to participate. * Managers who make it easy for employees to attend T& D programs. Employees who encourage each other. * Rewards for the use of new competencies. * No hidden punishments for participating. * Rewards for managers who are effective trainers With this kind of proper environment, an organization can develop and implement an effective training and development program. There are short term and long term effects for both employees and organization. 2. 4 Effects of training and development 2. 4. 1 Short-term effects * Reactions to T & D activity * Learning * Changes in behavior & attitudes * Performans on a task 2. 4. 2 Long-Term effects – For the organization Improved productivity * Lower cost * Improved customer services * Pool of competent global leaders * Improved retention rates * Applicant pool increases 2. 4. 3 Long-term effects – For the Employees. * Greater self confidence * Increased job satisfaction * Career advancement * Employability * Ability to resist unethical influence 2. 5 Principles of the training The principles, which have been evolved, can be followed as guidelines to trainees. Clear objectives about the Training Program are: * Training policy for designing and implementing the training programme. Acquisition of knowledge and new skills through motivation. * Reinforcement to trainees by means of awards and punishments. * Organized material should be properly prepared and provided to the trainees. * Learning periods has to be fixed as it takes time to learn. * Preparing he instructor who is both good at subject and job. * Feedback regarding the performance of the trainees in the jobs. * Practicing the skills taught by the trainee. * Appropriate techniques related to the needs and objectives of the organization. 2. 6 Roles and responsibilities in Training and Development
In the subject of training and development, there are many roles in an organization hierarchy contributes up to various limits. And also they have deferent responsibilities relevant to T & D 2. 6. 1 Line managers * Cooperate with HR professionals in identifying the implications of business plans for T & D * Work with the employees to determine their individual training and development needs. * Participate on the delivery of T & D programs. * Support employees participation in T & d opportunities and reinforce the transfer of newly learned behaviors to the job. Do much of the on-the-job socialization and training. * Participate in efforts to assess the effectiveness of T & D activities. 2. 6. 2 HR Professionals * Identify training and development needs in cooperation with the line managers. * Assist employees in identifying their individual T & D needs * Communication with employees regarding training and development opportunities and the consequences of participating in them. * Develop and administer T & D activities. * Train the line managers and employees in how to socialize; train and develop employees. * Evaluate the effectiveness of the training. 2. . 3 Employees * Seek to understand the objectives of training and development opportunities and accept responsibility for lifelong learning. * Identify own T & D needs with HR Professionals and line managers. * Consider employment opportunities that will contribute to your own personal development opportunities. * Assist with the socialization, training, and development of co-workers. 2. 7 Systematic training and Training process A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.
The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. There is a formal order of doing the training. If isn’t, the trainee will have to learn everything in his own, he will take long period to perform as organizations expectations. But if he has a opportunity to get a well designed training , it will be easy to learn how to perform well in the organization. So through a systematic training process trainee will learn appropriate methods of doing the duties resulting in achieving organizations’ goals. In here the steps of systematic training process is listed 1.
Identify training needs 2. Prioritize training needs 3. Establish training objectives 4. Determine training evaluation criteria 5. Make other related training decisions 6. Implementation 7. Evaluation the success of training 2. 7. 1 Identifying training needs. Training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization and the individual employees. A Training Program should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a Training Program can be judged only with the help of training needs identified in advance.
In order to identify the training needs, a gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specific. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified. Without training need identifying any kind of training effort may not be done. In training process tow major errors are possible. One is training for a wrong training need. In this cause because of the wrong identification of training needs of the employees of the organization, a real training program may implement but for worthless training need. Second major error is training owing to wrong performance diagnosis. There must be genuine need of training. Generally training need is arise when there is a gap between expected job performance level and actual job performance level. But we cannot say the gap is created only because of the need of training, but there will many factors influence that job performance level. When considering about identifying training needs there are three types of analysis, organization analysis, and job needs analysis, person needs analysis.
Organizational needs analysis Organizational needs analysis refers to identifying training needs in the organizational level. It can define like this, “organizational needs analysis tries to answer the question of where the training emphasis should be placed in the organization and what factors may affect the training” -Bernardin and Russell- In the organizational level there are three factors affecting to decide organizational needs. They are Human recourse analysis, climate indexes and efficiency indexes.
Human recourse analysis conceder translating strategic plans, demand for products, customer requirements etc. The climate indexes are acting as indicators of the quality of the working life of the organization. They includes employee turnover, absenteeism , grievances , productivity etc. efficiency indexes are measures or indicators of the current efficiency of work groups and the organization. They includes cost of labour, wastage, gap between input and output, late delivers etc. Job needs analysis The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is examined through job analysis.
For existing jobs, information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job descriptions), the skills necessary to perform those tasks (drawn from job qualifications), and the minimum acceptable standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are gathered. This information can then be used to ensure that training programs are job specific and useful. The process of collecting information for use in developing training programs is often referred to as job needs analysis. In this situation, the analysis method used should include questions specifically designed to assess the competencies needed to perform the job.
Job needs analysis can be defined as below ” Job needs analysis tries to answer the question of what would be taught in training so that the trainee can perform the job satisfactory. “ - Bernardin and Russell- By finding answers for these three questions below mentioned, may give a clear idea of job need analysis. What are the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job? What types of abilities, qualifications and experience are needed to perform the job? What are the minimum acceptable performance standards? So deretmined training needs by job analysis can be used to train employees.
Person need analysis After information about the job has been collected, the analysis shifts to the person. A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person's current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. The broader approach compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. The narrower approach compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill.
The first method is based on the actual, current job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be used to determine training needs for the current job. The second method, on the other hand, can be used to identify development needs for future jobs. Person need analysis can be defined as below, “Person need analysis tries to answer the question of who needs the training in the firm and specific types of training needs. ” - Bernardin and Russell- 2. 7. 2 Prioritize training needs Identifying training needs is possible but identifying or prioritize training needs is difficult.
And also meeting all kind of training needs with training programs is difficult due to many reasons. Main reasons are limited recourses especially financial recourses and limited time. Any kind of organization cannot spend too much for training as investment than their day to day functions. And also if there available financial support, finding enough time is also difficult. Here are some factors influence prioritizing training needs, 1. Time to be spent 2. Budget essential for training 3. Desires of top management 4. Possibility of measuring the results of the training 5.
Trade union influence 6. Competencies and interests of the trainers Considering these factors the need of special process or technique to prioritize training needs is arise. So there is a special technique can be used to prioritize training needs. It is called Nominal Group Technique. Nominal Group Technique Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is designed to encourage every member of a group to contribute, and prevents the more vocal group members from dominating the discussion. Simply we can say, NGT method is group method that drawing out ideas from people on a specific topic.
NGT facilitates discussion, stimulates creative contributions, increases group productivity, uncovers divergent viewpoints, and leaves group members feeling satisfied that they have contributed and that their voices have been heard. NGT is especially effective when difficult decisions must be made with input from every person, and when discussion has become heated and/or when group members are attempting to influence other members of the group. NGT requires a facilitator. A step-by-step process to implement NGT follows. If the group is small (15 or fewer members), the steps can be accomplished working as a hole. If the group is large (more than 15 or so), you may find it easier to organize members into groups of six or eight and let these small groups work together. In step 3, for example, each table would take a turn contributing an idea. So it can be used in second step in systematic training process like prioritizing training methods. From the viewpoint of Human Recourse Management NGT can defined as technique that uses a group of seven to fifteen people who are competent for the purpose do identifying training needs of the organization. Nominal Group Technique process 1.
Generating Ideas: The moderator presents the question or problem to the group in written form and reads the question to the group. The moderator directs everyone to write ideas in brief phrases or statements and to work silently and independently. Each person silently generates ideas and writes them down. 2. Recording Ideas: Group members engage in a round-robin feedback session to concisely record each idea (without debate at this point). The moderator writes an idea from a group member on a flip chart that is visible to the entire group, and proceeds to ask for another idea from the next group member, and so on.
There is no need to repeat ideas; however, if group members believe that an idea provides a different emphasis or variation, feel free to include it. Proceed until all members’ ideas have been documented. 3. Discussing Ideas: Each recorded idea is then discussed to determine clarity and importance. For each idea, the moderator asks, “Are there any questions or comments group members would like to make about the item? ” This step provides an opportunity for members to express their understanding of the logic and the relative importance of the item.
The creator of the idea need not feel obliged to clarify or explain the item; any member of the group can play that role. 4. Voting on Ideas: Individuals vote privately to prioritize the ideas. The votes are tallied to identify the ideas that are rated highest by the group as a whole. The moderator establishes what criteria are used to prioritize the ideas. To start, each group member selects the five most important items from the group list and writes one idea on each index card. Next, each member ranks the five ideas selected, with the most important receiving a rank of 5, and the least important receiving a rank of 1.
After members rank their responses in order of priority, the moderator creates a tally sheet on the flip chart with numbers down the left-hand side of the chart, which correspond to the ideas from the round-robin. The moderator collects all the cards from the participants and asks one group member to read the idea number and number of points allocated to each one, while the moderator records and then adds the scores on the tally sheet. The ideas that are the most highly rated by the group are the most favored group actions or ideas in response to the question posed by the moderator. Advantages of NGT Generates a greater number of ideas than traditional group discussions. * Balances the influence of individuals by limiting the power of opinion makers (particularly Advantageous for use with teenagers, where peer leaders may have an exaggerated effect over group decisions, or in meetings of collaborative, where established leaders tend to dominate the discussion). * Diminishes competition and pressure to conform, based on status within the group. * Encourages participants to confront issues through constructive problem solving. * Allows the group to prioritize ideas democratically. Typically provides a greater sense of closure than can be obtained through group discussion. Disadvantages of NGT * Requires preparation. * Is regimented and lends itself only to a single-purpose, single-topic meeting. * Minimizes discussion, and thus does not allow for the full development of ideas, and therefore can be a less stimulating group process than other techniques. According to the ranking of training needs, organization or the authorities can select most important training needs for their organization and deliver the rest steps of systematic training process. 2. 7. 3 Establish Training Objectives. Objectives can be defined as ‘criterion behavior’, i. e. the standards or changes of behavior on the job to be achieved if training is to be regarded as successful. This should be definition of what the trainee will be able to do when he or she goes back to work on completing the course: in other words, terminal behavior. Transfer of training is what counts: behavior on the job is what matters. ” -Armstrong (1992 p. 433)- Objectives are established based on training needs, in other words after completing training program there should no lack of training or performance in relevant field.
Establishing objectives in time related is very important. And also success of the program can be measured by checking whether pre established objectives are completed or not. There are several proposes of establishing training objectives. 1. When a trainer deciding contents of the training program the objectives are very much helpful. 2. Objectives are essential for formulate criteria and standards in order to measure success of the training program 3. By noticing objectives of training program , participants will know what’s going to be happen 4.
Establishing training objectives related to organizational goals may helpful to achieve them 2. 7. 4 Determine Training evaluation Criteria Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective. Training evaluation criteria provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company. There are two types of evaluating training program, Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process * Helps to ensure that: the training program is well organized and runs smoothly * trainees learn and are satisfied with the program * Provides information about how to make the program better Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program * May also measure the return on investment (ROI) that the company receives from the training program Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? * To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job * To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program * To gather data to assist in marketing training programs * To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs * To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments * To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose 2. 7. 5 Make other related decisions 2. 7. 4. 1 Training contents
Training contents refers to all the things trainees going to learn in training program. Training contents are decided after the analyzing of training needs and training objectives. In training contents there are 3 parts regarding any kind of training objective or training need. They are Knowledge, Attitude and Skills. E. g. : Training objective - After the training program accidents and health issues in the organization should minimize by 15%. Training contents – The participants should gather knowledge about what are the accidents and health issues, how to revent them, how to identify them before arise, what are the steps to be followed if an occupational accident happen and basic first aid knowledge. Attitudes – attitudes refers to believing positively, feeling positively and tending to behave positively about the knowledge gathered by the training program. Skills – Skills are ability to do things that learned by the training program, in this cause skills related to first aid and preventing occupational accidents is important. 2. 7. 4. 2 Trainers When we choosing trainers to the training program there are some factors should be consider about them.
Their educational background, their knowledge about relevant subject, previous experience in training and skills in delivering a effective training program. Managers, supervisors or peers (senior) can utilize in-house training programs. Because they are already know about organization and its culture. Training specialists or consultants or university professors, tutors can be utilized to in-house but off the job training. And also when we selecting lecturers should careful that they are able to train educated people and non educated employees like drivers, technicians at the same time.
Because when the university lecturer delivers the training program , non educated people may not affected by the program because the their education level not sufficient for understand the important thing in the training program. 2. 7. 4. 3 Training methods The most suitable training method should select considering training objectives and training contents. Not only the objectives and contents, but also should consider about training budget, availability of trainers, number of trainees availability of time and other relevant factors. Sometimes more than one method have to be used when consider about these kind of factors. . 7. 4. 4Training budget This refers to hoe much can spend to this kind of training program. Normally organizations are allocating funds for their training and development activities from their annual budget. Allowances to the trainers, expenses to meals and refreshments, rental and travelling fees, expenses on training materials are some expenditures that taking place in a training program. If the training program effective for the employees and their knowledge, attitudes and skills are developed as expected ROI will be high. 2. 7. 4. 5 Training time
In a proper training program specific time table or time schedule must prepared. When preparing a time table training programmers should consider about availability of trainers, holidays, availability of trainees. If the training program is held in outside the organization, organizers should care about availability of lecture hall and other facilities. In time table it is necessary to mention about starting time, ending time, intervals, and how many days training will continue. And also organizers are responsible for continue training program as time table.
When the program is running as the time table it will motivate participants at the same time trainers also will satisfy with the program and will give maximum output for trainees. 2. 7. 4. 6 Training place Training place refers to where the training to be conducted. There are three kinds of places to held training program. When conducting on-the-job training the training place will be office room or site, other employees also working. And when a training program conducting in the organization premises but not in the working site or office room , can be identified as second method. Third one is off-the-site.
That means the training program will be conduct in a lecture hall, university or conference hall. Some organizations have their own lecture halls for training programs. 2. 7. 4. 7 Meals and refreshments This is a most important factor that influences a success of a training program. Sometimes organizers may ask from participants supply meals for themselves. In addition a some payment can be done to get meals. But commonly organization is provides meals and refreshments to the participants. If financial ability is not sufficient to provide meals for everyone, organizers can provide meals for trainers.. . 7. 6 Implementation In this step the pre planned training program will implement. All kind of dictions taken in above steps will be taken in to action under this step. When a training program implementing it should supervise by organizers whether the program is running as the schedule. Before implementation of the training program trainees should evaluate. It will be making easy to evaluate trainees and measuring what kind of knowledge gathered by trainees after the training program. 2. 7. 7 Evaluate the success of training Training evaluation defined as, Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information. ’ Evaluation leads to control, which means deciding whether or not the training was worthwhile (preferably in cost/benefit terms) and what improvements are required to make it even more cost-effective. ” - Hamblin (1974)- Evaluation is an integral feature of learning activities. In its crudest form, it is the Comparison of objectives (criterion behavior) with outcomes (terminal behavior) to answer the question of how far the event has achieved its purpose.
The setting of objectives and the establishment of methods of measuring results are, or should be, an essential part of the planning stage of any learning and development program. Levels of evaluation 1st level - Reaction At this level, evaluation measures how those who participated in the training have reacted to it. In a sense, it is a measure of immediate customer satisfaction. * Determine what you want to find out. * Design a form that will quantify reactions. * Encourage written comments and suggestions. * Get 100 present immediate responses. 2nd Level - Evaluating learning
This level obtains information on the extent to which learning objectives have been attained. It will aim to find how much knowledge was acquired, what skills were developed or improved, and the extent to which attitudes have changed in the desired direction. So far as possible, the evaluation of learning should involve the use of tests before and after the program – paper and pencil, oral or performance tests. 3rd Level - Evaluating behavior This level evaluates the extent to which behavior has changed as required when people attending the program have returned to their jobs.
The question to be answered is the extent to which knowledge, skills and attitudes have been transferred from the classroom to the workplace. Ideally, the evaluation should take place both before and after the training. Time should be allowed for the change in behavior to take place. The evaluation needs to assess the extent to which specific learning objectives relating to changes in behavior and the application of knowledge and skills have been achieved. 4th Level - Evaluating results
This is the ultimate level of evaluation and provides the basis for assessing the benefits of the training against its costs. The objective is to determine the added value of learning and development programs – how they contribute to raising organizational performance significantly above its previous level. The evaluation has to be based on ‘before and after’ measures and has to determine the extent to which the fundamental objectives of the training have been achieved in areas such as increasing sales, raising productivity, reducing accidents or increasing customer satisfaction. . 8 Issues on Training and Development When an organization tries to deliver a training program there are many kind of issues that influence the training program. Trainers and organizers are often forced to deal with a wide variety of important issues that arise from inside of the organization and outside of the organization. * External environmental pressures influence training practices: * Legal issues related to training practices * Cross-cultural preparation * Diversity training * School-to-work programs * Hardcore-unemployed training programs Internal environment pressures which influence training practices * The need to train managerial talent * Training and development opportunities for all employees (regardless of their personal characteristics) * Use of the company’s compensation system to motivate employees to learn In here some of issues are described briefly. * Legal issues related to training practices There are some legal issues that can be arising during the training sessions. These legal issues can be due to external and internal influences. * Employee injury during a training activity Employees or others injured outside the training session * Breach of confidentiality or defamation * Reproducing and using copyrighted material in training classes without permission * Excluding women, minorities, and older Americans from training programs * Not ensuring equal treatment while in training * Requiring employees to attend training programs they find offensive * Revealing discriminatory information during a training session * Not accommodating trainees with disabilities * Cross-cultural preparation
To successfully conduct business in the global market place, employees must understand the business practices and the cultural norms of different countries. So organization may had to sent their employees to foreign countries and let them gather knowledge about global market place and new trends in market. Cross-cultural preparation involves educating employees and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country. * Diversity training Diversity training refers to training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or developing skills needed to work with a diverse work force.
When talking about attitude, this will focus on increasing employees’ awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, physical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others. The assumption is that by increasing their awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes. At the same time in behavioral changing it will focus on changing the organizational policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growth and productivity. One approach is to identify incidents that discourage employees from working up to their potential.
Another approach is to teach managers and employees basic rules of behavior in the workplace. Here are some important characteristics related to Successful Diversity Efforts * Top management provides resources, personally intervenes, and publicly advocates diversity. * The program is structured. * Capitalizing on a diverse work force is defined as a business objective. * Capitalizing on a diverse work force is seen necessary to generate revenue and profits. * The program is evaluated * Manager involvement is mandatory. * The program is seen as a culture change, not a one-shot program. Managers and demographic groups are not blamed for problems. * Behaviors and skills needed to successfully interact with others are taught. * School-to-work programs Combine classroom experiences with work experiences to prepare high school students for employment. This is a common activity in most of high schools and universities in today. These training opportunities will a huge advantage to students. * Training and development opportunities for all employees In an organization, all employees have a right to participate relevant training and development programs.
So if only selected employees only gets chance to participate training programs rest of other employees will take actions against training programs because the selected employees only gets high demand for their skills and knowledge than other workers. 2. 9 Training methods In practical usage there are many training methods available for organizations for the purpose of the training their employees. In this section some of training methods are briefly described. Mainly training methods can classified as on-the-job training and off –the-job training. In below there is a brief description on commonly using training methods. 2. 9. On the job training This is most popular job training method and it is also known as Job Instruction Training (JIT). Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform the job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker instructor. On-the-job training has advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform the job, he is also a regulars worker rendering the serve for which his paid. The problem of transfer of the trainee is also minimized as the person learns on the job.
The emphasis is placed on rendering the services in the effective manner rather than learning. This method is using commonly both service sector companies and production oriented companies because of following advantages * Most simple and low cost method * Allowed to the trainee to be active * Allow trainee to repeat * Allow trainee to participate 2. 9. 2 Job rotation This trainee involves the movement of trainee form one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments.
Though this method of trainings common in training managers for general management position, trainees can also be rotated from hob to ob in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees of other jobs and respect them. 2. 9. 3 Coaching The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides the feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers his some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves his of his burden.
A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to ex press his own ideas. 2. 9. 4 Committee assignments Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given an asked to solve an organizational problem. The trainee solves the problem jointly. It develops teamwork. 2. 9. 5 Cause study Is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes, in the reader, the need to decide what is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are, and what can and should be done.
Taken from the actual experiences of organizations, these cases represent to describe, as accurately as possible, real problems that managers have faced. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems, analyses causes, develop alternativesolutions, select the best one, and implement it. Case study can provide stimulatingdiscussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. 2. 9. 6 Vestibule training
Utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. The trainee is thenpermittedto learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing operations. A primaryadvantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job.
Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. This method using mostly to train pilots in aircraft industry. in pilot training airlines use flight simulations for safety, learning efficiency, and cost savings, including savings on maintenance, pilot cost, fuel and cost of not having a aircraft in regular service.
And also this method is using to train astronomers. It is huge advantage for trainers because there is no place to give training to astronomers in the world other then vestibule training. And also there are some disadvantages of this method, i) It is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making none the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-lifesituations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. 2. 9. 7 Role playing Generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones.
The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to responds they expect others to do. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Case study and role playing are used in MDP s. 2. 9. Apprentice training Training is given to people who are new to the jobs which are craft jobs such as plumber, machinist, carpenter, printer, electrician and tool and die maker. This training is for new employees. It is designed to give employees an understanding of the rules and procedures they must follow in carrying this job in future. This type of training has high levels of participation, practice, relevance and transferability. Most suitable method for production oriented organizations. 2. 9. 9 Sensitivity training Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than12 in a Group.
They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. Meeting have no agenda, are held away from workplaces, and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do, how they perceive one another, and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Specific results soughtincludeincreased ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness,increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills.
The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others, and increased understanding of group’s process. 2. 9. 10 Programmed instruction This is a method where training is offered without theintervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book of thought a teaching machine.
After reading each block of material, the learner must answer question about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner 2. Allowing the person to respond3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the program meet their own speed.
Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Material is also structured and self-contained, offering much scope for practice. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. The scope for learning is less, compared to other methods of training. Cost of preparing books, manuals and machinery is considerably high. 2. 9. 11 Skill builders A skill builder is an assignment or an exercise that aims at allowing the trainee to develop a certain skill or certain skills rather than his/ her knowledge. The learner is given the skill builder and is required to do it.
Later trainer will gives a right feedback. 2. 9. 12 In-basket method The trainee is given a special box that includes a number of business papers such as memoranda, reports, letters, emails and telephone messages that would typically come across manager’s desk, and it required to act on the information contained in these business papers. This training most suitable for managers and it more practical training that has realism, high participation, high relevance, high transference and built-in motivation. 2. 9. 13 Lecture method
Lecture method is most frequently used method for training and development. Lectures are verbal presentations that deliver subject knowledge to participants by expert on relevant subject. To increase effectiveness of the method lectures can use presentations, hand outs and other extras. This method can use to a large number of participants in a one time. It is one of huge advantage of this method. And also cost per trainee is very low. This method can use both service oriented and production oriented organizations. 2. 9. 14 Conference
It is a method obtaining the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine a those facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and draw concussions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. It is possible to classify the above discussed methods in training and development according to these bases. 1. On-the-job method An on-the-job method gives training to the trainee while he/ she is performing the duties of the job 2. Off-the-job method
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