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Strengths And Weaknesses Of Studies On Job Satisfaction Education Essay

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    Job satisfaction is a province whereby an employee is content with the state of affairs around him/her. Satisfaction occurred when you get everything you desire from your work. The accomplishment of one desire to work leads to occupation satisfaction. The desire may be fiscal, prestigiousness, societal acknowledgment or merely to happen something to make or somewhere to travel, etc.

    Locke ( 1976 ) defined occupation satisfaction as a enjoyable emotional province ensuing from the perceptual experience of one 's occupation as carry throughing one 's of import occupation values, provided these values are compatible with one 's demands.

    Bram Steijn ( 2000 ) cited ( Hackman & A ; Oldman 1980 ) that believed a higher occupation satisfaction is associated with increased productiveness, lower absenteeism and lower employee turnover.

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    A batch of research or surveies had been carried out on occupation satisfaction. Many of them are carried out to set up the degree of occupation satisfaction among a group of employees or a profession, many establishes the relationship between occupation satisfaction and concepts like committedness to work, motive at work, managerial attacks, productiveness etc.

    This chapter will discourse the strengths and failings of many of these surveies and besides highlight how this present research will lend to them.

    Job satisfaction among the professionals

    Roberto & A ; Jon, ( 2003 ) analysed the degree of occupation satisfaction by certified athletic trainers in selected National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I-AA establishment holding football programmes. They made usage of an first-class occupation satisfaction graduated table called the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires to roll up the information from the 240 samples around the state, 138 questionnaires were returned among which merely 31 % were immature employees. The one - manner analysis plus station hoc which were perfect were used to analyse the information. The per centum of the immature employees used for the analysis was low. In these present surveies 100 % of the samples will be immature employees in order to set up the factors impacting occupation satisfaction among them.

    The findings or the consequences of analysis found that there is important difference ( P less than 0.05 ) in trainers ' occupation satisfaction and their assorted employment places. While those in high/upper place ( which assume to be among the old employees ) were most satisfied with their occupations, those in low station were non and these are chiefly the helper trainers and alumnus helper ( chiefly immature employees ) . Even though the survey did non advert the theory used, it was established that the older trainers experience greater occupation satisfaction than immature trainers. This present survey will see utilizing some established theories to buttress its findings.

    The above survey was supported by K. Chandraiah et Al ( 2003 ) 's survey that investigated the consequence of Age on Occupational emphasis and occupation satisfaction among directors of different age groups. They made usage of the Occupational Stress Index and Job Descriptive Index to garner informations from the 105 samples out of which 35 were immature employees. One of the consequences of the findings found that the immature employees/managers are more nerve-racking due to the burden of work and thereby occupation unsated.

    The graduated tables used were good, the samples were good selected in and around Calcutta metropolis but the figure of the immature employees involved were few. This research aims to concentrate on the immature employees who happen to be the future strength of any administration.

    Patrick & A ; Manuel, ( 2007 ) besides supported the above in their survey that investigated occupation satisfaction among rehearsing pharmaceutics. They made usage of Rasch Rating Scale Model, gathered informations from 5000 samples throughout the United States but eventually made usage of 840 for the intent of informations analysis. One of their findings which I am really much interested in found that the older, higher-wage earning druggists working at independency pattern sites experience greater sum of occupation satisfaction. .This meant that the immature pharmacists/employees in this survey were less occupation satisfied.

    Ibrahim et Al, ( 2005 ) investigated occupation satisfaction of primary wellness attention doctor at capital wellness part discovered that age affect occupation satisfaction and that the higher the age the higher the occupation satisfaction. This consequence indicated that the immature employees are non occupation satisfied. Ibrahim et Al ( 2005 ) did a really good occupation but the Numbers of immature employees used were few. This survey will utilize 100 % of immature employees as its samples.

    Sharon and Zhan, ( 2003 ) made usage of bottom-up theory as on one of the theories and questionnaires with high dependability and cogency values in their study of occupation satisfaction of recent alumnus in fiscal service. One of the consequences of the findings indicated that alumnus were reasonably satisfied with their occupations and non highly satisfied.

    The usage of immature alumnus which I can sort as immature employees was first-class but the survey focused on a peculiar professional. This survey will do usage of the bottom-up theory as they did but will include immature employees from other professional Fields such as instruction, nursing, call centre, attention workers, conveyance etc.

    A.O. Okaro et Al ( 2010 ) evaluated the occupation satisfaction degree of Nigeria radiographers working in the South-Eastern, Nigeria. Using 28 item self-completion questionnaires and subsequently analysed the informations with Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) , concluded that Nigeria radiographer working in the South - Eastern are non occupation satisfied with their occupation and would prefer another occupation if given a pick.

    Susan J Linz ( 2002 ) analyzed the nature and range of occupation satisfaction among the Russian workers. The survey was in four different creases, among them was the usage of study informations to place degree of occupation satisfaction by 1200 study participant ; look into the fluctuation in occupation satisfaction explained by differences in worker features e.g. age. Sexual activity.

    Her findings found that respondents were by and large satisfied with their ain occupation and the sort of work they do in their occupation. It was besides revealed that the older workers ( born before 1965 ) were significantly more satisfied with their occupation and work more than immature workers and older workers besides thought less often about discontinuing. The concentration will be on the immature employees in this survey and will affect merely those in the metropolis.

    Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad ( 2009 ) investigate the degree of occupation satisfaction and purpose to go forth among Malayan nurses. The consequences of the survey found that the nurses were reasonably satisfied with their occupation in all six aspects of occupation satisfaction i.e. satisfaction with supervisors, occupation assortment, closing, compensation, co- workers and HRM/ direction policies. They besides found that the nurses perceived a lower degree of purpose to go forth.

    In support of the above research and some others, Bram Steijn ( 2002 ) cited Reiner and Zhao ( 1999 ) who reported merely a important consequence of age and Ting ( 1997 ) who reported assorted consequences with important effects for age and race but non for instruction and gender.

    Contrary to the above findings and some others Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit Tansel ( 2002 ) observed a non-linear relationship between age and the four steps of occupation satisfaction. This non-linearity showed a U- shaped relationship. Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit Tansel ( 2002 ) cited the survey of Clarks ( 1996 ) and Clarks et Al ( 1996 ) that besides reported significantly U shaped form in age for several occupation satisfaction steps.

    Safdar Rehman Gehazi and Umar Ali Khan ( 2007 ) conducted a survey to mensurate the general and facet specific occupation satisfaction of the caput instructors and the influence of gender and school location on their occupation satisfaction.

    They made usage of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires ( MSQ ) and self developed Individual Data Sheet ( IDS ) to roll up informations from the respondents. Using the SPSS-10, the findings of the survey showed that ; caput instructors were by and large satisfied with their stations ; the female caput instructors were more satisfied that the male caput instructors and that the caput instructors located in the urban countries were more satisfied than those located in the rural countries. This survey will set up among other things the relationship between the occupation satisfaction and metropolis life utilizing 100 % of metropolis based immature employees.

    Job satisfaction in relation to other concepts

    Many research plants had been done to set up the relationship between the occupation satisfactions and other concepts such as organizational committednes, life satisfaction, compensation, managerial manners, working status, personality, etc.

    Stranglen ( 2009 ) defined an organisational committednes as how employee identifies him/herself with the organisation.

    L.K. Stranglen ( 2009 ) carried out a research to find whether occupation satisfaction correlates with organizational committednes. 76 nursing place foodservice employees were the participants. Job satisfaction and organizational committednes study were used to roll up the information.

    The findings of the research indicated that satisfaction with work itself correlates to organizational committedness and to other three subcategories: organizational designation, engagement in the administration and trueness. Harmonizing to the survey, satisfaction with work did non correlate with satisfaction with wage, benefit or operational process.

    It was besides found that the old ages employed did non correlate with designation, engagement or trueness for the organizational committednes study.

    Stranglen ( 2009 ) cited the survey of Sneed and Herman ( 1990 ) that found hospital nutrient service employees 29 old ages old and younger were less committed to the organisation than were employees over 30 old ages. Stranglen ( 2009 ) besides cited Shen, Pitt-Catsouphes and Smyer ( 2007 ) , they reported that older employees are more likely to describe high committedness to employer than either immature employees or employees at the mid - life.

    Stranglen ( 2009 ) besides indicated that immature employees scored lower on trueness which was one facet of committednes.

    Stranglen ( 2009 ) cited Feinstein and Vondrasek ( 2001 ) who found that employees could be more committed to the organisation by increasing compensation, working conditions and bettering policies.

    All the above research plants indicated that immature employees have less organisational committednes. This I think may be as a consequence of occupation dissatisfaction. This survey will look into the factors that really act upon occupation satisfaction among metropolis based immature employees and besides analyses the possible correlativity between occupation satisfaction and metropolis life, managerial attacks and chance gained at work. The survey will do usage of 100 % immature employees as the participants.

    Adeyinka, et Al ( 2007 ) investigated work motive, occupation satisfaction and organisational committedness of library forces in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. They used a modified questionnaire tagged `` Work motive, Job satisfaction and Commitment ( WMJSCS ) to roll up the information from 200 library forces. The instrument consisted of 3 parts viz. motive, occupation satisfaction and committednes.

    The consequences of the survey found that there is a correlativity between perceived motive, occupation satisfaction and committedness although the correlativity between motive and committednes was negative. In other instance, motive is seen as an ingredient that increases employees ' public presentation and occupation satisfaction.

    The findings besides confirmed that there is a relationship between the organisation committednes and occupation satisfaction. This indicated that those employees who are occupation satisfied may be committed to the organisation.

    Life satisfaction

    Andrew J Wefald et Al ( 2008 ) studied the relationship of life and occupation satisfaction to emerging attitude, utilizing 532 participants of 62 % males and 37 % females. They made used of ego developed questionnaires and many others studies such as Life Satisfaction ( Diener, Emmons, Larsen & A ; Griffing, 1985 ) . The survey found a correlativity between life satisfaction and occupation satisfaction was important at 0.36 ( P less than 0.01 ) . Their hierarchal arrested development analysis revealed that, after commanding for demographic variables, occupation attitude predicted both life satisfaction and occupation satisfaction nevertheless the relationship was stronger for occupation satisfaction.

    This survey will analyze a possible correlativity between occupation satisfaction and metropolis life among the immature employees.

    Training and Workplace public presentation

    Melanie K. Jones et Al ( 2008 ) in their paper analysed the relationship between preparation, occupation satisfaction and workplace public presentation utilizing the British 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey ( WERS ) found that workers who receive really short sum of preparation ( less than one twenty-four hours ) in the old twelvemonth are really less satisfied on several dimensions than those who received no preparation at all. They besides considered an interaction between age and preparation and discovered a important for workers in their mid-thirties. The interaction footings used were besides important for those whose term of office is either 2 or less than 5 or 5 to less than 10 old ages. This survey will analyze a possible correlativity between occupation satisfaction and chance ( developing, pay etc ) gained from the occupation among the immature employees `

    Melanie K. Jones ( 2008 ) cited the survey of Siebern-Thomas ( 2005 ) , who found that occupation satisfaction tended to be greater where there was handiness of work preparation. Besides cited Hersch ( 1991 ) , he found that over educated workers were less satisfied than adequately educated workers.

    Job emphasis

    Nilufar Ahsan, et Al ( 2009 ) investigated the relationship between occupation emphasis and occupation satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia ; the purpose of the survey was to place stressor issues that will act upon the academy staffs ' occupation satisfaction. They made usage of 300 respondents from the public university in Klang Valley and besides use transverse - sectional analysis, descriptive analysis and arrested development analysis to analyze the information collected. The followers are some of the findings of the study- there was a relationship between direction function and occupation emphasis ; the association between relationship with others and occupation emphasis was non important ; the relationship between function ambiguity and occupation emphasis is important ; the relationship between the occupation emphasis and occupation satisfaction is important.

    Nilufar Ahsan, et Al ( 2009 ) cited the UK survey of ( Townley 2000 ) that indicated that the bulk of the workers were unhappy with the current civilization where they were required to work drawn-out hours and header with big work loads while at the same time run intoing production marks and deadlines. They besides cited ( Alexandros-Stamatios et Al, ( 2003 ) that concluded that direction function of an administration is one of the facets that affect work related emphasis among workers.

    Individual and occupation related factors

    Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit ( 2002 ) observed the occupation satisfaction in Britain sing single and occupation related factors. The four steps of occupation satisfaction considered were ; satisfaction with influence over occupation, satisfaction with the sum of wage, satisfaction with sense of accomplishment and occupation satisfaction with regard from supervisors.

    The paper analysed the above steps of occupation satisfaction utilizing a information of 28240 British employees Workplace Employee Relations Survey ( WERS97 ) and investigated their relationship to single and occupation features.

    The findings of the survey indicated that adult females were more satisfied with assorted facets of their occupation compared to work forces. They besides observed that satisfaction with the sense of accomplishment and satisfaction with regard from the supervisor reached a lower limit at the ages of 22 and 28 old ages severally. They observed that those with higher degrees of instruction have lower satisfaction than those with low degree of instruction. They besides observed that developing chance in the past twelvemonth led to occupation satisfaction as compared to no preparation. A non-linear relationship between constitution size and the four steps of satisfaction was besides observed.


    Jennifer S. Skibba ( 2002 ) evaluated how personality and occupation satisfaction affect occupation public presentation in employees at a Central Wisconsin fire section. The chief aim of her survey was to see if there was any relationship between occupation public presentation, personality and occupation satisfaction. Among other graduated tables used were Cattell 's 16 Personality Factors and the participants were all the 38 fire combatants in a local fire section. She found that most of the employees were by and large satisfied with the occupation, work on present occupation and people on present occupation. The survey besides pointed out that most of the employees were unsated with wage, supervising and chance for publicity.

    The consequences of the 16 Personality Factors graduated table used indicated Warmth and Sensitivity factor as the lowest while the highest mean was found for the Self-Reliance factor. Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the personality factors of animation, leading possible and self-esteem but was negatively correlated with laterality, tenseness and independency.

    Jennifer S. Skibba ( 2002 ) cited Abraham ( 2000 ) that found that personality cynicism was the best forecaster of occupation satisfaction.

    Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad ( 2009 ) cited Purani and Sahadev ( 2007 ) who argued that while issues like supervisory behavior and compensation signifier a portion of the micro issues sing a gross revenues individual 's battle with the organisation, the overall policies and schemes sing the forces is associated with a macro position with respect to the individual 's rating of the organisation.

    Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad ( 2009 ) saw compensation as one of the most extrinsic indexs of occupation satisfaction and argued that this dimension determines the degree of occupation satisfaction of employees by cognizing how much they are satisfied with the wage or compensation or any other security their occupations have provided to them. They cited Churchill et Al ( 1974 ) that considered compensation as one among the dimensions of occupation satisfaction among gross revenues people.

    Bottom-up theory and the top-down theory.

    Sharon and Zhan, ( 2003 ) conducted a research to explicate how two societal theories compete to explicate what determines occupation satisfaction: the `` bottom-up theory '' and the `` top-down '' theory. The bottom-up theory fundamentally indicates that individuals have desires and they will be glad if their desires are met or satisfied. The sum of positive and negative effects is used to set up felicity.

    If the positive effects are larger than the negative effects, persons will judge their life as happy. Sharon and Zhan, ( 2003 ) explained that top-down theory indicates that there is `` a planetary leaning to see things in a positive manner. '' In other words, all persons have a desire to be happy and this attitude will be the major influence on their lives. Therefore, feelings about occupation satisfaction are generated in one of two ways: from the underside up by adding positive effects and deducting negative 1s, or from the top down by the diffusion of one 's desire to be happy.

    Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) cited and explained Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs as the theory that is based on a hierarchy of demands. Besides cited Bor, Kraft and Sjunnesson, 2007 ) that indicated that the theory can be showed as a pyramid that has five degrees get downing from physiological, safety, love/belonging, regard and so self-actualisation which are grouped as lack demands. Maslow believed that to actuate an single he/she must run into the basic demands of nutrient, shelter and heat, and so travel to the following degree until he/she reached the highest degree self-actualisation, a degree where one purses interior endowment, creativeness and seeks fulfillment.

    Herzberg 's Two - Factor Theory

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) , besides Herzberg 's Two - Factor Theory that was developed by Frederick Herzberg. The theory suggested Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are influences upon employees from two factors known as Incentives ( intrinsic factors ) and Hygiene ( extrinsic factors ) . ( Allen, 1998 ) .

    It was further explained that Dissatisfaction is related to fortunes near to the work environment such as working conditions, security, wages, quality of supervising and relationship with colleagues instead than from the occupation itself. Deficiency of any of these conditions could do dissatisfaction but has small consequence on long-run satisfaction. These factors are referred to as hygiene or care factors by Herzberg.

    Satisfaction is the relationship to the occupation itself or aspect from it. This includes the nature of occupation, acknowledgment, accomplishment, personal growing and promotion. Herzberg regards them as incentives.

    Locke 's Value Theory

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) besides cited and explained Locke 's Value Theory. A portion of the theory indicated that satisfaction is achieved when occupation consequences the employees receive matche those results they desire. It besides indicated that the more consequences people value and receive from the occupation, the more they are satisfied and frailty versa.

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) besides cited ( Greenberg and Baron, 1997 ) who stated that the chief intent of Locke 's theory is understanding the disagreement between what one desires in a occupation and what one has in a occupation that affects satisfaction. For illustration, if one desires to be recognised in a occupation and that same employee received acknowledgment, he/she will be satisfied. If such an employee was non recognised, he/she may be dissatisfied.

    Expectancy Theory

    Expectancy Theory emphasised that employees are motivated to make their occupations when they achieve what they want or really expected from the occupation. It besides explains the function of motive in the overall work environment.

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) besides cited ( Greenberg and Baron, 1977 ) who stated that an of import portion of anticipation theory is motive coupled with an employee 's expertness and capableness, function perceptual experience and chance which influence occupation public presentation. There are managerial methods of anticipation theory that can assist to actuate employees. Harmonizing to them, good directors will inform the employee what is expected from and will assist them to make the coveted degree of public presentation.

    Equity theory

    A.O. Okaro et Al ( 2010 ) cited the equity theory which views motive as reliant upon the demand for just intervention ( Porter, 1961 ) and the end or purpose theory which postulates that public presentation is determine by the end to which an employee is committed ( Vroom, 1964 )

    Stranglend ( 2009 ) the theory explains that the employee is satisfied if the input ( disputing work, making ) is equal to the end products ( wages, benefits ) . This is what it 's referred to as equality.

    Job Characteristic Model

    Rajah ( 2009 ) cited Hackman and Oldham that proposed the Job Characteristic Model, which states that there are five core occupation characteristic which impact three critical psychological provinces. The five nucleus occupation characteristic accomplishments assortment, undertaking individuality, undertaking significance, liberty and feedback. All these are combined together to organize a motivative possible mark. The three critical psychological provinces are experient meaningfulness, experient duty for results and cognition of the existent consequences. All these influence work outcomes ( occupation satisfaction, absenteeism, etc ) .

    Job satisfaction - The graduated tables

    In mensurating occupation satisfaction of the employees, the most common agencies of informations aggregation is Likert Scale. Others are yes/no inquiries, true/false inquiries, points systems, checklist, and forces pick replies. ( Rajah, 2009 )

    The major and common graduated tables used for mensurating occupation satisfaction apart from the ego developed questionnaires.

    The occupation descriptive index ( JDI )

    Stranglen ( 2009 ) explained that the graduated table or questionnaire is based on yes, no or a inquiry grade replies. The inquiries are based on how satisfied the employees are about their occupations and non on how they feel about it. The scale consists of five aspects of occupation satisfaction which are ; satisfaction with colleagues, satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with the wage, satisfaction with the chance for publicity and satisfaction with supervising. ( Greenberg and Baron, 1997 ) as cited by Stranglen ( 2009 ) . Many research workers had made usage of this graduated table.

    This survey will do usage of this graduated table to look into the factors that really act upon occupation satisfaction among metropolis based immature employees.

    The Minnesota satisfaction questionnaires ( MSQ )

    Strangled ( 2009 ) explained MSQ as a graduated table that is developed into two signifiers. The short signifier that contains 20 points step overall satisfaction. The long signifier contains one hundred points and steps 20 aspects. Harmonizing to ( Greenberg and Baron, 1997 ) in ( Strangled, 2009 ) , the graduated tables allow the employees to rate their dissatisfaction to satisfaction about assorted facets of aspects of the occupation. Besides harmonizing to them, the higher the mark on the Likert scale the higher the satisfaction.

    MSQ have been used by tons of research workers. For illustration, Safdar Rehman Gehazi and Umar Ali Khan ( 2007 ) cited McCann ( 2001 ) who made usage of MSQ in his survey to mensurate the occupation satisfaction of managers in California and Dutka ( 2002 ) besides use the same questionnaires in his survey on occupation satisfaction and organisational clime relationship for female decision makers of higher instruction establishment.

    Roberto & A ; Jon, ( 2003 ) besides made usage MSQ to analysed the degree of occupation satisfaction by certified athletic trainers in selected National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA ) Division I-AA establishment holding football programmes.

    The occupation satisfaction study ( JSS )

    This graduated table was originally developed by Paul Spector ( Field, 2002 ) cited by Strangled ( 2009 ) to measure occupation satisfaction for the human service organisations. It has 36 inquiries based on a Likert graduated table with nine aspects that assess attitudes and facet of the occupation. There are four points within each of the nine aspects. Some of the inquiries in the graduated table demand to be rearward when marking.

    Richard A. Murray ( 1994 ) made usage of somewhat modified version of JSS to look into occupation satisfaction of professional and paraprofessional library staff at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    The occupation diagnostic study ( JDS )

    Siti Zawiah Dawal and Zahari Taha ( 2006 ) made usage of the JDS to look into the relationship between occupation satisfaction, occupation characteristic and environmental factors that affect work design in two automotive fabrication companies in Malaysia.

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