Livestock plays an important role in the national economy of Bangladesh with a direct contribution of 2. 95% percent to the agricultural GDP (Bangladesh Economic Review, 2006) and providing 15 percent of total employment in the economy. The livestock sub-sector that includes poultry offers important employment and livelihood opportunities particularly for the rural poor, including the functionally landless, many of whom regard livestock as a main livelihood option.
About 75 percent people rely on livestock to some extent for their livelihood, which clearly indicates that the poverty reduction potential of the livestock sub-sector is high. According to Bangladesh Economic Review, (2006), the growth rate in GDP in 2004-05 for livestock was the highest of any sub-sector at 7. 23%, compared to 0. 15% for crops, and 3. 65% for fisheries sub-sector. These changes have been prompted by a rapid growth in demand for livestock products due to increase in income, rising population, and urban growth.
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It is an established fact that high quality animal protein in the form of milk, meat and eggs is extremely important for the proper physical and mental growth of a human being. In Bangladesh, around 8% of total protein for human consumption comes from livestock (BBS, 2000). Hides and skin of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep is a valuable export item, ranked third in earnings after RMG and shrimp. Surprisingly, Bangladesh has one of the highest cattle densities: 145 large ruminants/km2 compared with 90 for India, 30 for Ethiopia, and 20 for Brazil. But most of them trace their origin to a poor genetic base.
The average weight of local cattle ranges from 125 to 150 kg for cows and from 200 to 250 kg for bulls that falls 25-35% short of the average weight of all-purpose cattle in India (“Agriculture for 21st Century in Bangladesh” by Z. Karim, 1997). Milk yields are extremely low: 200-250 litre during a 10-month lactation period in contrast to 800 litre for Pakistan, 500 litre for India, and 700 litre for all Asia. Despite highest cattle densities in Bangladesh, the current production of milk, meat and eggs are inadequate to meet the current requirement and the deficits are 85. , 77. 4 and 73. 1% respectively (DLS, 2000). If 5% GDP growth rate is considered then the current production of these commodities need to be increased 2. 5 to 3. 0 times by the year 2020 to feed the growing population in the country. This illustrates how urgent is the need to increase the production of milk, meat and eggs. The PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) stresses the importance of the livestock sub-sector in sustaining the acceleration of poverty reduction in the country. The dynamic potential of this emerging sub-sector thus requires critical policy attention.
In the past, due importance was not given to the development of the livestock sub-sector despite its significant contribution to the national economy. In the Financial Year 2006-07 the livestock sub-sector received only about 1. 0 percent of the total budget allocation, or only about 3. 5 percent of the agricultural sector budget. Though production of animal protein has maintained an upward trend, daily per capita availability of animal protein presently stands at around 21 gm meat, 43 ml milk and 41 eggs vis-a-vis the recommended intakes of 120 gm meat, 250 ml milk and 104 eggs.
Shortage of quality inputs, inadequate services and physical infrastructure, institutional weaknesses in terms of weak regulatory framework and enforcement, limited skilled manpower and resources, and inadequate research and technological advancement are all continuing to act as constraints to livestock development. The growth opportunities in the livestock sub-sector vary significantly among the species.
Qualitative rather than quantitative development of large ruminants (cattle and buffalo), a parallel increase of the productivity and population size of the small ruminants (goat and sheep), and poultry keeping emerges as promising to offer substantial growth potentials with a positive impact on nutrition, employment and poverty alleviation. Research and technological development merit priority to counteract allied problems in the fields of feed, breed and disease and meet the challenge of the country’s livestock sector in the 21st century National Livestock Development Policy has been prepared to address the key hallenges and opportunity for a comprehensive sustainable development of the Livestock sub-sector through creating an enabling policy framework.
Objectives of the National Livestock Development Policy
The general objective of the National Livestock Development Policy: To provide the enabling environment, opening up opportunities, and reducing risks and vulnerability for harnessing the full potential of livestock sub-sector to accelerate economic growth for reduction of rural poverty in which the private sector will remain the main actor, while the public sector will playa facilitating and supportive role.
The specific objectives of the National Livestock Development Policy:
- To promote sustainable improvements in productivity of milk, meat and egg production including processing and value addition;
- To promote sustained improvements in income, nutrition, and employment for the landless, small and marginal farmers; and
- To facilitate increased private sector participation and investments in livestock production, livestock services, market development and export of livestock products and by-products.
Legal Status of the National Livestock Development Policy
All the government and autonomous organizations, multi-national institutions, NGOs, CBOs (community based organizations), and persons who are working within the geographical territory of Bangladesh for the management, development and conservation of Livestock resources, import-export or other business related to the livestock sub-sector will be under the preview of National livestock Development Policy.
Scope of the National Livestock Development Policy
The following ten critical areas have been identified for formulating the National livestock Development policy:
- Dairy Development and Meat Production;
- Poultry Development;
- Veterinary Services and Animal Health;
- Feeds and Animal Management;
- Breeds Development;
- Hides and Skins;
- Marketing of Livestock Products;
- International Trade Management
- Access to Credit and Insurance; and
- Institutional Development for Research and Extension
The key policy issues for each of these critical areas are outlined in the following section:
Dairy Development and Meat Production
The opportunity for development of large-scale dairy is limited in Bangladesh due to scarcity of land.
However, the potential for development of smallholder dairy is high. Over the last few years, small-scale dairy farming has increased significantly with the support of credit, feed, veterinary services and provision of self-insurance systems. Small-scale dairy farming provides employment for the poorer segments of the population. The availability of this form of traditional self-employment to rural dwellers, not least women, is important where there is scarcity of alternative income generating opportunities. Smallholder dairy thus widens the scope for the poor with limited access to land to enhance their income.
Dairy animals can playa crucial role in household food security, through improved income and nutritional of the low-income groups. Daily farming in Bangladesh is affected by myriads of constraints such as: (i) limited knowledge and technical skills of smallholder dairy farmers; (ii) scarcity of feeds and fodder; (iii) poor quality of feeds; (iv) frequent occurrence of diseases; (v) limited coverage of veterinary services including poor diagnostic facilities; (vi) lack of credit support; (vii) limited milk collection and processing facilities and low prices at collection points; (viii) lack of insurance coverage; (ix) absence of market nformation; (x) lack of appropriate breeds; and (xi) absence of a regulatory body. Policy framework for dairy development is:
- Cooperative dairy development (Milk Vita model) would be expanded in potential areas allover the country;
- Successful pro-poor models for community-based smallholder dairy development including appropriate contact farming schemes would be replicated;
- Smallholder dairy farming, integrated with crop and fish culture would be promoted;
- Supply chain based production, processing and marketing of milk and milk products would be promoted;
- A National Dairy Development Board would be established as a regulatory body to promote dairy development;
- “National Dairy Research Institute” would be established to carryout research in various aspects of dairying.
Around 3. 5 million cattle are slaughtered annually in the country of which 40 percent are imported through cross-border trade. Around 15 million goats are slaughtered annually mostly of local origin. Of the total slaughter of cattle and goats, around 40 percent is performed during Eid-ul-Azha.
Increased demand for quality meat, beef fattening has become an important income generating activity for small fanners, and a potentially important tool for reducing poverty. Beef fattening is considered to have high income generating potential, but faces constraints such as lack of appropriate breeds, knowledge gaps of farmers, lack of proper veterinary services and quality feeds. Most meat is handled under unsatisfactory sanitary conditions in both rural and urban areas. Enforcement of legislation relating to slaughtering or meat inspection is weak.
There is generally poor pre-slaughter conditions, sanitation, removal of waste materials, and disposal of offal. The Black Bengal goat is a highly prolific local breed, resistant to many diseases and can be easily raised under most environments on low quality feed and with little investments. Rearing of Black Bengal goat is an appropriate option for many subsistence farmers. Its demand is growing in both domestic meat markets and internationally for its skins and high quality leather goods.
Policy framework for meat production:
- Animal Slaughter Act, Animal Feed Act and Animal Disease Act would be approved and enforced in order to promote hygienic production of quality meat;
- Butchers would be trained on scientific methods of slaughtering, meat processing and preservation techniques;
- Development of beef breeds for increased productivity at farm level;
- Development of backward and forward linkage system to help improvement of existing cattle fattening system into private enterprises;
- Private sector would be encouraged to establish mechanized slaughter houses with Static Flaying Frame in Divisional cities; and Local Government would be encouraged to establish slaughter slabs in municipality and Upazila headquarters;
- Production of Black Bengal Goats would be promoted by ensuring disease prevention, availability of quality bucks and semen for artificial insemination, and knowledge transfer through special projects;
- Buffalo and sheep farming would be developed in selected high potential areas through special projects.
The backyard poultry units require minimum inputs and are often part of integrated crop- aquaculture-livestock farming systems. Their level of production is relatively low but profitability can be high due to low inputs costs and recycling of on-farm by-products. Commercial production systems use birds of improved genetic stock and reared under semi- intensive or intensive management. There are currently an estimated 120,000 commercial poultry farms in Bangladesh, supported by 04 Grand Parent Farms and 69 Parent Stock Farms.
While the growth of the poultry industry has contributed to economic growth and income of commercial farmers, indiscriminate and unplanned growth of breeder farms and commercial poultry farms, particularly in and around cities and towns is creating environmental hazards. There are at present no guidelines for environmental protection and bio-security when establishing poultry farms. The use of antibiotics in feeds is thought to be common and a cause of public health concern.
The constraints facing the sector in general include: (i) lack of infrastructure beyond the Upazila Head Quarters for providing services to poultry farmers; (ii) shortage of skilled manpower; (iii) shortage of quality chicks and breeding materials; (iv) shortage of poultry , feed/feed ingredients and high prices; (v) poor quality of inputs; (vi) lack of quality control facilities for medicine, vaccines and biological products, feed and feed ingredients, chicks, eggs and birds; (vii) drug and vaccine residues in poultry meat; (viii) shortage of vaccines; (ix) lack of organized marketing systems; (x) poor provision of veterinary services; and (xi) insufficient credit and capital especially for the poor. The possible threat of Avian Influenza exacerbates some of these concerns and shortcomings and would require additional measures to be taken. Policy framework or Poultry Development:
- Successful pro-poor models would be replicated for semi-scavenging poultry development;
- Formation of poultry smallholder groups, CBOs, and producers associations would be facilitated;
- Quality control of poultry feeds and feed ingredients would be ensured through establishment of a legal body and enforcement of regulations;
- Production and consumption of safe (antibiotic residue free) including organic meat and eggs would be promoted;
- Criteria and guidelines would be established to ensure supply of quality day-old chicks;
- Specific guidelines would be developed and enforced for establishing environment-friendly commercial poultry farms; Small commercial farms would be converted into profit oriented large farms following cooperative system.
- Poultry farms of the DLS would be utilized as breeding and multiplication farms / centres for smallholder training, technology testing and demonstration etc
- Smallholder production and marketing of ducks and minor poultry species (e. g. Quail, Goose, Pigeon, Guinea fowl) in selected areas would be promoted;
- National Reference Laboratory for detection of Avian Influenza virus and other emerging diseases would be established; and
- National Avian Flu Preparedness Plan would be implemented.
Veterinary Services and Animal Health Inadequate veterinary services are one of the major obstacles for livestock development in Bangladesh. The ratio of Veterinary Surgeons to farm animals and birds was estimated at I: 1. 7 million in 1995, and according to a 2003 estimate only 5-10 percent of farm animals receive routine vaccination. Private sector investment in the animal health sector remains low and is only expanding slowly.
The quality and quantity of vaccines produced and delivered by the DLS are inadequate. The use of subsidies in vaccine production in present form is a possible deterrent to private investors. There is no. Independent authority to check the quality of domestically produced or imported vaccines. Vaccination is done in a haphazard manner without any strategic plan for controlling the targeted diseases. There are no provisions for movement control and quarantine during disease outbreak or epidemics. No registration is required for feed additives such as toxins binder, antibiotics, and vitamin- mineral premixes, animal protein, many of which are potentially detrimental to human health.
Most of the drugs traders and shop keepers have no formal training on drug handling, transportation, storing and dispensing, and readily sell drugs such as antibiotics, hormones, and sedatives across the counter without prescription. Disease diagnostic facilities are limited. The DVH (District Veterinary Hospitals), Regional FDIL (Field Diseases Investigation Laboratories), and the CDIL (Central Disease Investigation Laboratory of DLS are responsible for providing diagnostic services. However, due to shortage of skilled manpower and non-availability of funds they cannot provide the intended services. There IS no provision for residue analysis of drugs, heavy metals, hormones, pesticides and toxins in foods of animal origin.
There are only few local veterinarians trained in clinical pathology to diagnose diseases properly. The disease surveillance system is almost non-existent. 'The Veterinary Public Health Unit in the DLS has the mandate to perform diagnosis, surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, ensure food safety of animal origin, and liaison with the Health Department. The Unit is however, suffering from serious shortages of human capital, funding and laboratory facilities. It has no legal framework to implement its mandate. Coordination between animal and human health bodies is virtually non-existent. Veterinary research is similarly constrained due to shortages of staff and funds.
Very limited fund is available for veterinary research. There are important areas of public goods services like veterinary epidemiology, veterinary public health, food safety and diagnostic techniques within which research needs to be expanded urgently. The Animal Quarantine Act was recently passed by the Parliament, but quarantine stations, manpower and funds to enforce the Act are not in place yet. Laws and Regulations are essential for high quality service delivery and quality assurance of products for trade. Some laws and regulations are in place but overall regulatory framework and implementation remain very weak. Policy framework for Veterinary Services and Animal Health:
- Soft loans would be provided to accelerate the development of private veterinary services;
- Community-based veterinary service would be developed through special projects;
- An autonomous Quality Control Agency would be established to ensure quality of veterinary drugs, vaccines, feeds, feed ingredients and breeding tools and materials;
- A licensing system for veterinary pharmacists and a quality monitoring system of veterinary services would be introduced;
- Veterinary research would be strengthened in critical areas, particularly those related to provision of public goods and services;
- Veterinary public health services would be strengthened and closer linkages with the Department of Health would be established;
- Capacities of disease investigation network of DLS would be strengthened for disease surveillance, quarantine services and emergency planning to manage major disease outbreaks including Avian Influenza and other emerging diseases;
- Specific strategy would be developed for controlling economically important trans-boundary animal diseases;
- Veterinary Council would be strengthened to help ensure quality veterinary services;
- “National Livestock Health Disaster Committee” would be formed including all trade organizations to combat such crisis;
- A separate “Veterinary Cell” would be established in Department of Drug Administration for facilitating decision making on veterinary drug registration and approval in Bangladesh. Animal Health Companies Association and related trade association would be included in the committee to represent the private sector.
- Promote and encourage private sector to set-up compliant veterinary diagnostic center, clinics and hospitals to cater the needs of the farmers and other beneficiaries.
Feeds and Animal Management
The acute shol1age of feeds and fodder is one of the single most impOJ1ant obstacles to livestock development in Bangladesh. The main constraints for feeds and feed management include: (i) shortage of feeds and fodder; (ii) scarcity of land for fodder production; (iii) seasonal fluctuations of feeds and fodder; (iv) low quality feed; (v) high feed prices; and (vi) poor husbandry practices. Feed resources for large livestock are primarily derived from crop residues and cereal by- products as well as grasses, tree leaves and aquatic plants.
Very little grain is available for animals. Feed concentrates contribute only a small portion of the feed. Feed resources for scavenging rural poultry comprise scattered grains from threshing floors, left over grains, pulses, broken rice, kitchen wastes, green grasses, insects, worms, left over boiled rice, etc. Because of increasing demand for human food land is intensively used for cereal production. Neither sufficient grazing land, nor spare land is available for growing fodder. This has resulted in shortages of quality forage for ruminant livestock, causing stunted growth, reproduction problems, reduced lactation, working inability, lower growth rates, and reduced productivity.
Most of the dairy and poultry farmers are facing the problem of adulterated and inferior quality of commercial feeds and feed ingredients. Feed labeling and control is inadequate. Most feed millers do not disclose the necessary information on the packaging with regards to feed composition, ingredients, date of manufacturing, date of expiry, storage guidelines, energy levels, and protein and vitamin contents. Feed millers are widely suspected of minimizing feed production costs either by use of inferior quality ingredients and/or inclusion of lower proportions of high value ingredients. Poor packaging materials contribute to reduced quality and shelf life. Policy framework for Feeds and Animal Management:
- Feed and fodder development strategy would be developed for community- based fodder cultivation along roads and highways, rivers and embankments, in Khas lands, and in combinations with crops;
- Necessary support would be provided to the private sector for utilization and promotion of crop residues, agro-industrial by-products and unconventional feed resources as animal feed;
- An Animal Feed Act would be approved and implemented to ensure feed quality; and
- Resources would be provided for training of dairy farmers on improved animal management and husbandry practices.
- Organizational support system development for coordination of support services for smallholder dairy development in private sector;
- Private sector support system development for strengthening manufacturing and marketing of feed and feed additives;
- Human resource development.
Breeds Development Livestock development through the application of science-led methods of breeds and breeding in Bangladesh is still at a rudimentary stage. There is however enthusiasm for applying breeds and breeding interventions to enhance livestock performance. Lack of a national breeding policy, use of inappropriate breeds, weak infrastructure (human capacity, national service delivery, breeding farms), and limited technical knowledge has constrained the development of improved breeds.
Available high yielding seed materials (in cattle and chicken industry) are mostly exotic and imported. However, not all of these imported exotic species adapt well under Bangladesh climatic conditions. There are a number of promising well-adapted native livestock breeds in the country (e. g. Red Chittagong cattle, Black Bengal goat, Bengal sheep, Naked Neck chicken etc), which could be developed into high yielding breeds through cross breeding in a systematic manner. Importation of inappropriate genetic material coupled with indiscriminate crossbreeding and a clear neglect of indigenous breeds has created a situation, where a number of native breeds of livestock are under threat of extinction.
Unplanned and sporadic attempts that were made for breed improvement of various species failed, because the initiatives were not based on thorough breed/ genotype testing results and not based on well-thought out and sound breeding goals, breeding criteria, animal recording systems, animal evaluation procedures, and animal selection and mating plans. Breeds and breeding program inherently requires heavy initial investments and regular and timely flow of resources. Sustained funding support for breeding work has not been forthcoming. As a result, the limited expertise available in this field remains underutilized. There is no regulatory body or national Breeding Act to regulate breed imports, prices of breeding materials, merits and quality of breeds, breeding materials and breeding services. Within the existing cattle breeding services (including artificial insemination), farmers have little or no idea of the merit and quality of the semen being provided for insemination.
The same is true for other species such as goats and buffaloes, and applies also to imported germplasm (live animals, semen, embryos, etc). Policy framework for Breeds Development:
- A National Breeding Program would be finalized and approved;
- Conservation and utilization program of potential indigenous breeds for poor smallholders in the pertinent locality would be developed;
- A comprehensive human resource development program in animal breeding would be developed;
- Frozen semen production unit would be established for wide scale artificial insemination of Black Bengal Goats to face the challenge of service storage of proven buck throughout the country;
- Breeders Association’ would be established for monitoring and coordination of livestock breeding activities in the country.
Hides and Skins Leather including crust as well as finished leather and leather goods is an important export earner contributing about 6 to 7 percent of total export earnings. A large proportion of leather materials are however downgraded and rejected due to poor quality. Leather defects are reported to be responsible for a more than 50 percent cut in the value of leather. Cattle and goats are the major skin and hide producing species followed by buffalo and sheep. Most slaughtering takes place with inadequate facilities for electricity, water, and sewerage.
There are an estimated 192 improvised slaughter houses at district level, 1215 at Upazila level and more than 3,000 slaughtering points in hats and bazaars as well as by road sides of cities and towns. Hides are in most cases removed by unskilled persons using inappropriate tools, giving rise to irregular shapes and flay cuts. Defects in goat and sheep skins have been significantly reduced in recent years with the introduction of hang and pull systems of flaying. Besides hides and skins, the slaughtering of animals generates potentially valuable by- products including blood, bones, hoofs, rumen and visceral contents, hairs, etc. Only a part of certain by-products, generated mainly in organized slaughter houses, are collected and processed by cottage level factories.
Most of these by-products are discarded and thrown away, resulting in large economic losses and environmental pollution. Tannery operations are further impacting negatively on the environment. Financing is a major problem, particularly the primary market intermediaries like farias and beparis suffer due to lack of adequate working capital and inadequate access to finance. The shortage of capital reduces the purchasing capacity of intermediaries and consequently, a large quantity of hides and skins are pilfered in the neighbouring country, especially during Eid-ul-Azha. Ful1hennore, prices drop during Eid-ul-Azha, when large quantities of hides and skins are produced.
The low prices in turn provide little incentive for proper flaying, handling and preservation. Policy framework for Hides and Skins:
- Butchers and merchants (Farias, Beparis and Aratdars) would be trained on basic knowledge of flaying, curing and storing for improved management and quality of hides and skins;
- An autonomous agency would be established for quality control and cet1ification of hides and skins;
- Environmental legislation on slaughter and tannery operations would be framed and enforced;
- Private sector would be encouraged to establish small to medium scale industries to utilize slaughter and tannery by-products for producing high quality feed supplement for animal feeds; and
- Access to micro-finance and banking facilities would be improved for intermediaries.
Marketing of Livestock Products Milk
There is no systematic marketing network and market information system for milk and milk products to support smallholder dairy farmers in the rural areas. Farmers sell milk either in the local market or to goal as (traditional milk collectors) who continue to render useful services to the rural community, and sometimes work as supplying agents to private firms. Commercial marketing of milk started in the late 1970s by Milk Vita. Milk Vita has established milk-processing plants in various places and collects milk from its cooperatives members.
BRAC, Pran and CLDDP (Community Livestock and Dairy Development Project) have also recently installed milk processing, and a small number of other private farms are dealing with pasteurized milk. These enterprises however, only cover a part of the country. Most small-scale dairy farmers in rural areas sell their milk in local markets at around a third to half of the price at which milk is sold in the cities. Low prices and price fluctuations are found to be important constraints to increased production and higher income of milk producers. Milk production costs are largely determined by feed prices (wheat and rice bran), which are increasing, in some cases rapidly.
There is a high demand for meat in the local markets. In the past, the beef price was relatively low due the ready supply of cattle from neighbouring country.
The supply has recently been restricted and as a result meat prices have increased sharply. Constraints to long-term development of the beef industry include lack of improved breeds, low meat quality, and limited access to credit and insurance amongst smallholders. Eggs: The egg marketing system can be characterized as oligopolistic, under control of the Aratdars who extend credit to the poultry farmers who in turn are obliged to sell through the Aratdars for loan repayment. The price of eggs in large city markets is usually not known to the rural poultry farmers The time and distance from collection to marketing is often long with traditional means of transportation. Spoilage and broken eggs are common
Policy framework for Marketing of Livestock Products:
- Farmers groups and cooperatives formation would be encouraged and supported for collective marketing of livestock products by community based organizations and associations;
- Access to micro-finance and insurance schemes for poor smallholders including women would be improved;
- Farmer's information network for price data and processing of trade related information would be established with private sector support;
- An Internet-based communication system would be established alongside regular broadcasting of trade related information and monitoring and forecasting of prices of livestock products;
- Management Information Systems (MIS) would be established in the DLS on livestock product marketing;
- Government if required will intervene the market to ensure minimum price of egg and meat for farmers;
- Private sector would be encouraged to be involved in egg processing and other value added product manufacturing industries.
International Trade Management
In order to derive the full benefits of globalization and trade liberalization, Bangladesh must further develop its export products to satisfy product standard requirements of importing countries and obtain up-to-date information from different markets. Bangladesh is signatory of the WTO (World Trade Organization) Agreement on Agriculture (AOA).
The AOA provides a framework for the long-term reforms of agriculture trade and domestic policies to move forwards market orientation in agricultural trade. The obligations and disciplines incorporated in the AOA relate to four aspects, viz, i) agreement on market access; ii) agreement on domestic support; iii) agreement on export competition/subsidy; and iv) agreement on SPS (sanitary and phytosanitary) measures. Bangladesh is not fully able to meet the recommended safety and quality standards for livestock products consistent with the SPS guidelines as regulated by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
The main problem stem from: (i) inadequate veterinary services; (ii) lack of skilled human resources; (iii) lack of diagnostic facilities; (iv) lack of financial support; (v) lack of disease surveillance and monitoring of animal health; (vi) lack of updated food legislation; and (vii) need for an improved national food export inspection and certification program. Incidences of TADs (trans-boundary animal diseases), such as foot and mouth disease, are preventing Bangladesh from entering potential markets for livestock products. As the problem of TADs is being addressed on a larger scale, regional initiatives are becoming important and Bangladesh will seek the opportunity to enter into regional agreements to control TAOs.
This will necessitate significant changes in the veterinary service system, particularly within diagnostic services and veterinary public health. Most export-oriented enterprises are small and medium size, with limited capacity to undertake market research, invest in technologies, and collect, store, and process trade information. Other important challenges relate to meeting labour and environmental standards, improving design and packaging, and accessing and using up-to-date information on consumer preferences and trends in global markets. Many enterprises have neither the in-house capacity to gather the necessary trade-related information nor the networks to access such information. Policy framework for International Trade Management:
- Focal points would be set up in the OLS and the MoFL (Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock) to deal with the international and regional trade agreements and ensure implementation of notifications and obligations;
- Training would be provided to the officials in the OLS, MoFL and livestock related industries to enable them to fully appreciate and deal effectively with international and regional trade agreements;
- Requirements of trade related technical assistance for the DLS, MoFL and private exporters would be assessed and required assistance would be provided;
- The capacity of DLS would be developed through institutional reform to address SPS and HACCP requirements;
- An Internet-based communication system would be established to facilitate international market networking for livestock products;
- MIS (management information systems) would be established in the OLS and MoFL for international trade management of livestock products; and
- Private sector people would be included with all activities of international trade management.
Implementation Strategy of the National Livestock Development Policy
The implementation strategy would be to provide support that will specifically target factor productivity, investments and risks as follows:
- Public investment would be increased in livestock infrastructure to provide public goods and services delivery, and promoting private investment;
- Public investment would also be increased in livestock research for technological innovations to enhance productivity, income, employment;
- Market regulatory measures would be taken to shifts in relative prices of inputs and outputs to correct market distortions, rationalize the incentive structures for investment and mitigate negative impacts on environment;
- An appropriate legal and regulatory framework would be put in place; and
- Institutional reforms would be carried out and good sectoral governance would be put in place making both public and private sectors more transparent, accountable and mutually supportive.
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