A most important step for sustainable development is the shifting of dependence from petroleum to resources which are renewable. The production of bio fuels take place due to the bio refineries.
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Microbial process is the oldest process for the production of low cost at a high volume organic acid is the citric acid by fungus filamentous. The production of industry is depending on the extraction of lemons from Italy. It was found that Aspergilli gather this acid at high quantity in specific condition (Papagianni, 2007). The production of citric acid is proved efficient by Y. lipolytica from other sources of carbon such as sucrose and glucose (Forster, 2007). Facility available to incorporate the conversion of bio mass method and tools for the production of fuels, chemical and power from biomass is bio refinery.
Five percent petroleum uses for the chemical products and transportation, energy and fuels uses rest of it. Biomass is explained as organic matter which is obtainable on a renewable basis which includes animal waste, forestry residues, agricultural and energy crops. The industry of classical corn wet milling is a perfect example for the concept of bio refinery. Plastic polylactide led to improved attention of pure lactic acid. Bacteria of lactic acid is a critical nutrient requirement and it uproar sugar through various pathways (K. Hofvendahl and B.
Hahn-Hagerdal, 2000). This bacterium is not only to build up lactate but the natural produces is filamentous fungus Rhizopus oyzae. There is a small market for succinic also known as amber, but it could replace petroleum based malic anhydride if the prices were competitive. The use of succinic acid in building block commodities can lead to the decrease in environmental pollution. So this process can be competitive in the market. It was discovered later that many bacteria of anaerobic rumen normally produce huge quantity of succinic acid.
But the process of cultivation on these bacteria in mainly depends on complex and costly nutrients sources H. Song and S. Y. Lee, 2006) To get the most of producing organism, the procedure should be optimized as considering into biological account plus economic limitations. High concentrations of succnic acid and productivity were achieved as the product was frequently eliminated. High concentration of product appears to be injurious for cells. Large amount of base is required to meet the demand of high ph. In addition, the free lactic acid is the most wanted product.
To solve this problem, the adaptation to low ph from lactobacilli is necessary. There is another approach which is baker’s yeast, which can be considered as another biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid. It grows in medium of mineral and tolerated low ph naturally (Porro, 1999). On the other hand, S. cerevisiae uproar ethanol from glucose as a substitute of lactic acid. By using metabolic engineering, the flux of carbon has been transmitted from ethanol to lactic acid, which leads o the course based on the medium of mineral with the ending ph lower than 2. 5 (Valli, 2006).
This certain decrease in the cost of purification make this approach exciting, and there is no effect if the product concentrations finally lower than the obtained by the bacteria of lactic acid. The problem of by-product formation can be solved by metabolic engineering. For instance, M. succinici producers gather acetic acid, ethanol and lactic acid, additionally to succnic acid. Metabolic engineering is very useful in a combination with culture conditions, to increase the production and to reduce cost of the product. It is also useful in adapting the micro organism to meet the constraints technically.
It should be recognized that only few approaches are applicable in real scenario of industry. Most of the process of metabolic engineering fails while dealing with scale up stage. One reason is to expose the bio catalyst to a diversity of stress. This requires the cell to contribute more work to maintain the natural equilibrium. This effort leads to various results which includes the modification in metabolic activity. Therefore it is a major factor to determine the viability of microbial process in the industry. For instance, the amount of lactic acid produced at low ph by S.
cerevisiae looks still to be restricted by the yeast cells ability to stay alive the approach intended to enhance strain vigour decreasing the production of highly reactive oxygen specie. Central players are ROS which are involved in stress of cells, harming the cells and finally leads to the death. Production of recombinant of ascorbic by using metabolic engineering led to a reduction in ROS and increased feasibility of yeast cells which are stressed, indicating a new and key direction for optimization of process by metabolic engineering.
By gathering all the findings, it becomes apparent that fastest way to set up a process of industry for the production of microbial organic acid is the utilization of producers which are natural with detailed bio process engineering. A consideration of species of the biodiversity is normally suitable for the bulk amount of small organic acids and the existence of natural produces might occur. The solution for the defined problems is metabolic engineering. For instance, by the limitation of broadening the series of sources of carbon which is used in the process by product formation (Kern, 2007).
So the focus in the future should be influencing critical processes of cells and properties like morphology and transport because they are naturally linked with performance process. On the other hand, we don’t know very well about the rational changes regarding these areas. The aspects discussed in this article related to the microbial organic acid production are small. But taking it into account, this path is leading to a society with sustainable development. References Forster, A. et al. (2007) Citric acid production from sucrose using a recombinant strain of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
Appl. Microbial. Biotechnol. 75, 1409–1417. Hatti-Kaul, R. et al. (2007) Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based succinate in fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 67, 148–154. Hofvendahl, K. and Hahn-Hagerdal, B. (2000) Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources (1). Enzyme Microb. Technol. 26, 87–107. Kern, A. et al. (2007) Engineering primary metabolic pathways of industrial micro-organisms. J. Biotechnol. 129, 6–29. Lee, S. J. et al.
(2006) Genome-based metabolic engineering of Mannheimia succinici producers for succinic acid production. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 72, 1939–1948. Papagianni, M. (2007) Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus Niger: biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modelling. Biotechnol. Adv. 25, 244–263. Porro, D. et al. (1999) Replacement of a metabolic pathway for large-scale production of lactic acid from engineered yeasts. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 65, 4211–4215. Song, H. and Lee, S. Y. (2006) Production of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation. Enzyme Microb. Technol
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