Last Updated 16 Jun 2020

Developing Regionalism

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Developing Regionalism 1790 * South produces 3,135 bales of cotton * Scarcely 100,000 white settlers lives in Trans-Appalachia * Great cities such as Chicago and Pittsburgh are still small villages * Land companies start hawking vast areas of New York, Ohio, and Kentucky to prospective settlers * Huge increase in national population start 1793 * Eli Whitney develops cotton gin, designed to strip fibers from the seeds. Speed up laborers’ work and raised value of southern land, opened economic opportunities 1800 Average farm at this time is no more than 100 to 150 acres, due to division of farms

* Nearly 20 percent of male taxpayers in southeastern Pennsylvania are single (evidence that young men delayed marriage until they could establish themselves financially. ) * Southern agriculture is in disarray… low prices, land exhausted for its fertility, and the loss of laves during the revolutionary war left Chesapeake economy in shambles * Absentee landlords have engrossed much of present-day West Virginia, Tennessee, and western Carolinas. 1803 * Georgia and South Carolina alone import 20,000 new slaves 1805 Cotton accounts for 30 percent of the nation’s agricultural exports * Human tide appears to grow in trans-Appalachia. 1808 * Slave trade ends 1810

* Number of people living in trans-Appalachians grows to 1 million 1820 * South’s cotton output mushrooms to 334,378 bales 1830 * As Northeast’s population and demands grow, the region’s once heavily forested landscape depletes. * Dramatic changes in port cities of Northeast: region contains four cities of more than 50,000 * Cities in trans-Appalachia like Chicago and Pittsburgh hold 30 percent of nation’s population. New York finally establishes safe and adequate water supply with the construction of the Croton Aqueduct. * Indian-White Relations 1790 * Vast areas of trans-Appalachians still controlled by Native American tribes * Federal govt. starts to establish policies that would govern Indian-White relations

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* Non-intercourse act of 1790: declares that public treaties that were ratified by Congress would be the only legal means of obtaining Indian land. 1793 * Congress appropriates $20,000 to promote literacy, agriculture, and vocational instruction among Indians. 794 * President Washington sends General Anthony Wayne to smash Indian resistance in Northwest. White settlers won against Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Treaty of Grenville is passed, opening the heart of the Old Northwest to white control. 1799 * Iroquois prophet, Handsome Lake begins preaching combination of Indian and white ways: temperance, peace, land retention, and a new religion combining elements of Christianity and traditional Iroquois belief. 1808 * Cherokee National Council adopts a written legal code combining elements of U.

S. and Indian Law 1809 * Shawnee leaders Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa start to warn regional tribes about the dangers that would come. They form alliances and established headquarters and Kithtippecanoe. Tecumseh carries his message south to the Creek and Cherokee, seeming very bitter. 1811 * Even though southern tribes refuse to join, more than 1,000 fighting men gather at Kithitippecanoe. 1813 * Red Sticks (fighting Creeks) carries out series of devastating raids and assaulted Fort Mims on the Alabama river, killing 500 men, women, and children. 1814 Climax of Creek War: While American cannon fire rakes the Red Stick’s town of Tohopeka, Cherokee warriors cut off all hope of retreat. More than 800 Native Americans dies afterwards as Andrew Jackson finishes his victory with destroying the rest of the Red Stick towns. 1820 * More than 1,300 black slaves in the Cherokee nation. 1822 * Congress abolishes factory system where Indians would go for fairer treatment 1824 * Tribal law forbids intermarriage with blacks in Cherokee nation. 1827 * Cherokee National Council devises written constitution similar to those of nearby states.

Council also issues bold declaration that Cherokee were an independent nation with full sovereignty over their lands. 1829 * Cherokee government makes it an offense punishable by death for any member of the tribe to transfer land to white ownership without the consent of tribal authorities. Perfecting a democratic society 1790 * Second Great Awakening starts to sweep across nation. Americans by the tens of thousands sought personal salvation and social belonging in the shared experience of religious revivalism. * Charitable institutions in the nation are only at around 50. Establishment of female academies starts.

* 20% of Methodist church members are black 1794 * Bethel African American Methodist Church in Philadelphia is organized by Richard Allen and small group of black Methodists. 1800 * 20 year old slave Gabriel devised a plan to arm 1,000 slaves for an assault on Richmond, VA. 1805 * New York’s Mayor DeWitt Clinton asks state legislature for help 10,000 impoverished New Yorkers/ 1814 * Relief agencies assist nearly 1/5 of the city’s population. 1816 * Women and children suffers disproportionately from poverty, outnumbering men. American Colonization Society found: supported colonizing free blacks in western Africa enjoyed widespread support among northern white men and women. 1819

* Depression of economy: triggered by financial panic caused by the unsound practices of hundreds of newly chartered state banks 1820 * Depression was lifting, but left behind broken fortunes and shattered dreams * Most blacks in northern cities lived in autonomous households * In New Orleans, free blacks accounted for 46 percent of the black population. 1823 Proslavery mob in Illinois torches state capital and threatens Governor Edward Coles for his efforts to end de facto slavery in the sate 1829 * One of every 10 residents in Cincinnati was black, city leaders announces that they would begin enforcing Ohio’s black laws by requiring black residents to carry certificates certifying their free status. 1830

* Rich cultural ad institutional life takes root in the black neighborhoods of American cities. War of 1812 1810 * Election of 1810 brings Congress new members, firmly Jeffersonian in party loyalty but impatient with administration’s foreign policy and demanding tougher measures 1812 Madison declares war against Britain: due to general British arrogance and America’s continuing humiliation * Emotions ran high among Federalist critics and Jeffersonian Republican supporters of the war. Bloody riots emerge in Baltimore. Several people were badly beaten in the streets. 1813 * Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats British fleet on Lake Erie. Marked an impressive American victory in war of 1812 and ends any threat of British invasion from Canada and weakens British-Indian alliance that menaces American interests in the region. 1814 August- British troops torch Capitol in Washington DC

* December- Hartford Convention: 5 New England states meet to debate proposals for secession. * Christmas Eve- Treaty of Ghent ends war, British agreed to evacuate western posts, but ignores other outstanding issues. 1815 * Andrew Jackson’s smashing victory against British and New Orleans- Most dramatic American triumph but had little to do with the war’s outcome. * Nation starts to focus energies around internal development- occupying more land, building economy, and reforming American Society Politics in Transition 816 * Madison signs bill creating second Bank of the United States to help stimulate economic expansion and regulate the loose currency-issuing practices of countless state-chartered banks 1820

* Henry Clay with National Republicans proposed more tariffs and internal improvements in the American System 1824 * Election of 1824: Adams wins, marks the fall of the Federalist-Jeffersonian party system * Louisa Catherine Adams: launched strong campaign for Adams in the election of 1824, showing women’s increase role in politics.

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Developing Regionalism. (2018, Jul 22). Retrieved from

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