The most dangerous passage to Cold War was the Cuban Missile crisis during the 1960’s. This is a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States in Cuba. Robert F. Kennedy’s Thirteen Days is the portrayal of the tensions surrounding the Cuban Missile crisis and the analysis of the said conflict. Two sides of the conflict was presented during the conflict between Union Soviet and United States. One side of the ordeal was the Communists of the Soviet Union desire to bring entire European countries under their supremacy and conquer the world.
The other side of the conflict was the goal of Americans to the vindication of right and to stop the spead of Communism. During the Cuban Missile crisis, two significant people played important roles. They were America’s president John F. Kennedy and Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev. Both leaders were pressured with what is happening that time. They performed different tactics and strategies on how to deal with the scenario. Drama took place and a lot of negotiations were arranged for the Cuban Missile crisis.
The pressure was triggered after Berlin and Germany were separated and divided among the victorious countries, Allies were formed and three different blocs occured. Nations that has been established after the war remained neutral while western countries which were governed by America and Soviet Union together with their new allies had formed the other two blocs. Soviet Union established allied countries around them and spread and imposed communism to each and every country.
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America was alarmed and imposed the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan to control Soviet Union in spreading communism. However according to Robert F. Kennedy’s Thirteen Days; two things came to pass that sent threat and tension through the U. S. First was, the Chinese government was overthrown by Communism, which is a big alarm for the threat of superiority of Communism. And the second was the “CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” “page # 2” knowledge and ability of Soviets when it comes to nuclear and atomic issues. There was a fear in the U. S. because of the threat of a nuclear war.
The crisis began when Soviet Union Leader Nikita Krushchev plans to install missiles in Cuba because of the American’s Missile were installed in Turkey which is adjacent to Soviet Union and he did not want that America would take over Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro’s communist government. The Soviet Union leader also considered newly elected John F. Kennedy’s reaction to his plans. Krushchev conclude that Kennedy was a weak, faulty and could not bear pressures and tensions. He (Krushschev) was a leader who based his premises on hasty generalizations because he pre-judged Kennedy because he was a newly elected president.
On the other hand, John F. Kennedy was reluctant about what is happening around him. His administration issued a warning about the impending crisis in Cuba. This is the Memo 181; it states study of probable military, poitical and social impacts in the installment of missiles in Cuba which could reach the United States. Kennedy made a decision which was effective because he first consulted people around him and querried for facts so that his plans would be perfect and would not lead onto decisions which will lead to more seroius problems like a world nuclear war.
He also kept the informations for himself first before broadcasting it to the American nation because he wanted that his administrations plan would be a secret and would not leak for the enemies. When National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy learned a bad news that Soviets were constructing an offensive missile in Cuba was positive. He did not first told the president about what’s taking place in Cuba. Instead he gets more information and he wanted the president to have a rest for a more challenging decisions for America. On October 16, the Thirteen Days had began, Bundy told the president about the construction of missiles and the
“CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” “page # 3” president immediately ordered a meeting for the senior officials which he termed as Ex Comm. They planned secretly and develop their strategies on how to destabilize the construction of ballistic missiles. John F. Kennedy was a leader who wants everything to be clear and concise. After the deliberations and discussions were done, strategies were finally made and ready for execution. But first Kennedy briefed his people and made his first decision: to hold all military military equipment under ship to Cuba.
This was the Proclamation 3504 known as the quarantine order. And during his speech on October 22 he said to the Soviets, “And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission. ” JFK exudes a leader whose strong and tough with his decisions which Krushchev miscalculated when he planned to test Kennedy with his plans. Then the crisis even worsens each day passed. Secret negotiations were made. And trying to avoid the war the two leaders resorted by changing of letters. A naval blockade was implemented by America in the Carribbean and Cuban coast which triggered the Soviet nation.
Because of it, on the 26th day of October, Krushchev seemed to be willing to remove the missiles in Cuba in exchange for America’s commitment not to invade Cuba. But on the next day, Krushschev proposed a different argument and that is if Soviets will remove their missiles in Cuba, it follows that US must also remove their missiles in Turkey. This proposal from Krushchev was just, but he is so demanding about this matter. He was insistent about the matter because of the loss of arms and military equipment in Cuba which disband their operations and still he remained confident with his decision.
Thus, Kennedy made the right decision. Kennedy did not support Krushchev’s second proposal, instead he wrote Krushchev and made a deal to remove the blockade and agree not to invade Cuba if Krushchev would remove the missiles in Cuba. JFK also secretly proposed the dismantling of US missiles in “CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” “page # 4” Turkey. The Soviet leader agreed and the crisis ended. The result was Krushchev lost prestige while Kennedy gained. Cuba remained under communist dictatorship and US left it.
Both Leaders were good leaders and have their own political and social will. They both fights for what they know what is right for their country and beliefs. I can say that John F. Kennedy was one of the best presidents of US because of his courage and making rational decisions. While Nikita S. Krushchev fights for what he believes in and his people but he failed. Essay2 (Vietnam War) United States played a big role in the Vietnam War and it was the biggest and longest military conflict of the nation. Many lives were affected not only in Vietnam but also in America.
US army troops were sent to South Vietnam to fight against North Vietnam and National Liberation Front because they want to unify the North and South Vietnam to become a Communist Republic. And protesters from the US were greatly affected. The main issue during the Vietnam war was the opinion of the american people toeards the issue which had caused a lot of speculations in the government and also the US academic institutions. According to Turley (1986), even at the start of US escalatory moves in the beginning of 1965 there were limits to American public and congressional tolerance of the war's expenses and duration.
Turley (1986) moreover explained that these limits were worsen by the administration under Johnson: its refusal to arouse popular emotion on the war's behalf, its failure to make an effective strategies for massive US intervention, its public misrepresentation of the war's denelopment and of its own political and social intentions, and its refusal to make solid and tough political choices. Americans treated Vietnam War as unpopular and insignificant and yet it is the longest war americans fought for. To sum it all it is the most disastrous war that involved the American
“CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” “page # 5” people. Many soldiers have lost their lives during those time. Many people in the United states protests on the intervention of US in the said war and also many americans supported the war for Vietnam not to be under a communist government. During those times US was so divided and turmoil and chaos happened, wounds that Vietnam caused will never heal for many of the more than two million American veterans life from the war was given to fight against communism in Vietnam (Herring, 2002).
More or less sixty thousand Americans lost their lives in fighting for the war. The United States spent about $150 billion dollars. American got involved in the war during 1955 when the first american advisors arrived in Vietnam. Then, American combat troops arrives in 1965 and had finished fighting for the civil war in Vietnam up to the end when cease-fire was ordered and reconciled on January of 1973. I can say now that Vietnam War was a story of the olden times for the new generation americans.
Cambodian Invasion was a played a big scene in the Vietnam this is when President Richard Nixon ordered an attack against North Vietnam and NLF (National Liberation Front), the main goal why Nixon ordered an attack, according to Turley (1986), was to demolish bases of communism and provide arms and military support to the war in Vietnam, for the protection American troops, and to make sure of the withdrawal of America from Vietnam.
Students and faculties in different universities in US that time who were not in favor of the Vietnam War felt that President Nixon had deceived them, that the hated war was to be expanded and be pursued (Turley, 1986). Students from Oberlin, Princeton, and Rutgers demonstrated against Vietnam War and Nixon that very night. Many academic institutions had closed and a lot of organizations who opposed Vietnam war had formed demonstrations all over the country. “CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS” “page # 6”
Different ways of expressing their sympathy for the Americans who catered their lives for Vietnam and dismay for the decision of the president was obvious by that time. Many protest across the country took every possible form and were carried out under every ban, slogan and chant. Strikes, boycotts, and shutdowns were carried out together with rallies in the campus, marches and convocations; across the country there was massive flag lowering, wearing of black armbands, several memorial services, portrayal of funerals and vigil; there were seminars with workshops, and research projects.
Vigilant students have also had an interaction with the public especially with the residents and invited each and every household to come in their campus and talk about the issue of Vietnam War. American students and academic institutions played a big role in protesting against the Vietnam War. The heart of the young american people was awaken for the love of their country and countrymen. They displayed brotherhood, camarraderie and oneness during the Vietnam War protests.
America stood as one in fighting for each and every american whose fighting for the right for Vietnam and all nations as well. Many lives were transformed during the war. And still many lives were taken. Vietnam War was an untold story for Americans. But it made United States a country with strong people and united nations. References: Herring, George C. (2002). America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975. retrieved April 21, 2007 from http://www. vietnamwar. com/ Kennedy, Robert F. (1969).
Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis; ISBN 0-393- 31834-6. retrieved April 20, 2007 from http://www. lawbuzz. com/movies/thirteen_days/thirteen_days_ch1. htm Pope, Ronald R. , Soviet Views on the Cuban Missile Crisis: Myth and Reality in Foreign Policy Analysis; University Press of America, 1982. from http://www. lawbuzz. com/movies/thirteen_days/thirteen_days_ch1. htm Turley, William S. (1986) The Second Indochina War: A Short Political and Military History, 1954–1975.. Retrieved April 21, 2007 from http://www. vietnamwar. com/politicalprotests. htm.
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