Don't Miss a Chance to Chat With Experts. It's Free!

Business Research Yearbook Global Business Perspectives

Essay Topic:

BUSINESS RESEARCH YEARBOOK Global Business Perspectives VOLUME XVII 2010 NUMBER 2 RODNEY A.OGLESBY H.PAUL LEBLANC, III MARJORIE G.

Stop Using Plagiarized Content. Get a 100% Unique Essay on Business Research Yearbook Global Business Perspectives

for $13,9/Page.

Get Essay

ADAMS EDITORS Publication of the International Academy of Business Disciplines BUSINESS RESEARCH YEARBOOK GLOBAL BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES VOLUME XVII 2010 Number 2 Editors Rodney A. Oglesby Drury University H. Paul LeBlanc, III University of Texas at San Antonio Marjorie G. Adams Morgan State University A Publication of the International Academy of Business Disciplines IABD Copyright 2010 by the International Academy of Business Disciplines International Graphics 0710 Tucker Street Beltsville, MD 20705 (301) 595-5999 All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Co-published by arrangement with The International Academy of Business Disciplines ISBN 1-889754-15-3 PREFACE This volume contains an extensive summary of many of the papers presented at the Twenty-Second Annual Conference of the International Academy of Business Disciplines (IABD) held in Las Vegas, Nevada, April 8 – April 10, 2010. This volume is part of the continuing effort of IABD to make available current research findings and other contributions to practitioners and academics.

The International Academy of Business Disciplines was established in 1988 as a worldwide, not-for-profit organization, to foster and promote education in all of the functional and support disciplines of business. The objectives of IABD are to stimulate learning and increase awareness of business problems and opportunities in the international marketplace and to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The IABD hopes to create an environment in which learning, teaching, research, and the practice of management, marketing and the other functional areas of business will be advanced.

The main focus is on unifying and extending knowledge in these areas to ultimately create integrating theory that spans cultural boundaries. Membership in the IABD is open to scholars, practitioners, public policy makers, and concerned citizens who are interested in advancing knowledge in the various business disciplines and related fields. The IABD has evolved into a strong global organization since its establishment, due to immense support provided by many dedicated individuals and institutions. The objectives and far-reaching visions of the IABD have created interest and excitement among people from all over the world.

The Academy is indebted to all those responsible for this year’s Conference, particularly, Paul Fadil, University of North Florida, who served as Program Chair, and to those who served as active track chairs. Those individuals did an excellent job of coordinating the review process and organizing the sessions. A special thanks also goes to the IABD officers and Board of Directors for their continuing dedication to this conference. Our appreciation also extends to the authors of papers presented in the conference.

The high quality of papers submitted for presentation attests to the Academy’s growing reputation, and provides the means for publishing this current volume. The editors would like to extend their personal thanks to Dr. William Rohlf, Interim Director of the Breech School of Business, Drury University, Dr. Daniel J. Gelo, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, The University of Texas at San Antonio, and Dr. Otis A. Thomas, Dean of the School of Business and Management, Morgan State University for their support. Rodney A. Oglesby H. Paul LeBlanc III Marjorie G. Adams TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 17: INSTRUCTIONAL& PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES …………………………… 409 The Global MBA: Strategic Options for Going International Robert A. Page, Southern Connecticut State University Henry Hein, Southern Connecticut State University Jacob Atland, Southern Connecticut State University…………………………………………. 410 End User Engagement In An Analysis and Design Course Douglas E. Turner, University of West Georgia Robert G. Gehling, Auburn University at Montgomery ………………………………………. 18 A Voice of One’s Own: Writing as a Business Education Power Tool Henry Hein, Southern Connecticut State University Sarah E. Page, Southern Connecticut State University………………………………………… 423 Creating A First Hybrid Course: The Experiences of Two Instructors and Their Advice To Colleagues Craig L. Reeder, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Angela J. Murphy, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University …………………….. 429 Immigrant And Native Born Entrepreneur Technology Component Attitudes And Behaviors: Implications For Training

Kellye L. Jones, Clark Atlanta University ………………………………………………………… 437 CHAPTER 18: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND MARKETING……………………… 444 Additive and Subtractive Differentiation Strategy: A Global Strategy Based on Marketing Theory Mohammed Shaki, Alliant International University Ralf Wilhelms, Lake Superior State University …………………………………………………. 445 An Analysis of the Impacts of Exporting and Importing on Two Dimensions of Development in Africa Philemon Oyewole, Howard University

Ephraim Okoro, Howard University…………………………………………………………………. 449 China’s Trade with Sub-Saharan Africa and Market Entry Modes: A Cost Benefit Analysis Ephraim Okoro, Howard University Philemon Oyewole, Howard University ……………………………………………………………. 454 iii CHAPTER 19: LEADERSHIP……………………………………………………………………………….. 462 Corporate Women Leadership in India: Issues & Challenges RajeshwariNarendran, MohanlalSukhadia University

V Narendran, Academy of Learning Excellence Research & Training, India PujaMathur, MohanlalSukhadia University……………………………………………………….. 463 The Relationship Between Leadership Style and Employee Stress Debra Lopez, Our Lady of the Lake University Mark T. Green, Our Lady of the Lake University Diana Garza-Ortiz, Our Lady of the Lake University …………………………………………. 469 Leadership Style Differences Between Men and Women: A Review of the Scholarly Literature Esther Chavez, Our Lady of the Lake University

Mark T. Green, Our Lady of the Lake University Diana Garza-Ortiz, Our Lady of the Lake University …………………………………………. 474 Leadership Transformation: Re-tooling Strategies for IT Leadership RanjithNayar, Helsinki School of Economics RajeshwariNarendran,MohanlalSukhadia University………………………………………….. 480 CHAPTER 20: MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING……………………………………………………. 485 The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction: Balanced Scorecard and Resource-Based Theory

Yi-Feng Yang, Shu-Te University Majidul Islam, Concordia University ……………………………………………………………….. 486 Marketing Mix, Service Quality and Customer Loyalty: Customer Satisfaction Analysis of the Balanced Scorecard Perspective Yu-JiaHu, Fortune Institute of Technology Yi-Feng Yang, Shu-Te University Majidul Islam, Concordia University ……………………………………………………………….. 493 CHAPTER 21: MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE…………………………………………….. 99 Managing The Negative Effects of Customer Waiting on Service Evaluations: Review of Research and Practice Tracey E. Garza, Sam Houston State University Irfan Ahmad, Sam Houston State University …………………………………………………….. 500 We Need to Learn From Japanese Society: “Productivity and Growth” Reza Teherani-Fadaei, National University Mohammad Z. Bsat, National University ………………………………………………………….. 506 iv A Statistical Analysis of Organizational Effectiveness Mohammad Z.

You read "Business Research Yearbook Global Business Perspectives" in category "Business"
Bsat, National University

Astrid M. Beckers, Cultures Etc. ……………………………………………………………………… 509 CHAPTER 22: MARKETING RESEARCH…………………………………………………………… 514 Neural Network Based Model for Measuring the Effects of Marketing Research on Marketing Performance SelimZaim, Fatih University TalhaHarcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver MahmutPaksoy, Kultur University …………………………………………………………………… 515 Marketing Strategy for the Do-It-Yourself Consumer

Dwane Hal Dean, Frostburg State University…………………………………………………….. 522 Use of Qualitative Forecasting Technique for The Measurement of Country Tourism Market Potential ErdenerKaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg Jose I. Rojas-Mendez, Carleton University ……………………………………………………….. 528 Exploring Consumer Motivations for Re-Watching Movies Dwane Hal Dean, Frostburg State University…………………………………………………….. 535 Brand Personality: A Study of Turkish Mobile Phone Market

AhmetSekerkaya, Istanbul University TalhaHarcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver ……………………………………….. 541 CHAPTER 23: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 548 Job Affirmation: “My Job Made Me the Person I Am Today! ” Michael K. Coolsen, Shippensburg University Vicki Fairbanks Taylor, Shippensburg University David Reese, Shippensburg University …………………………………………………………….. 49 Diversity and Religion in the Workplace C. W. Von Bergen, Southeastern Oklahoma State University Diane Bandow, Troy University ………………………………………………………………….. ….. 557 Darwin’s Deadly Legacy? Why Evolution Matters For Management Studies Chulguen Yang, Southern Connecticut State University Stephen M. Colarelli, Central Michigan University Kayong Holston, Ottawa University…………………………………………………………………. 564 v CHAPTER 24: POLITICAL COMMUNICATION/PUBLIC AFFAIRS………………….. 569 Face-ism in the 2008 U.

S. Presidential General Election: Photo Coverage of Candidates in News & Business Magazines Kelly Price, East Tennessee State University John Mark King, East Tennessee State University……………………………………………… 570 From Visitors to Cultural Ambassadors: Public Diplomacy and Scholar Exchange Programs H. EfeSevin, Emerson College ………………………………………………………………………… 578 CHAPTER 25: PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS ……………………………………………………………………. 86 Women Leaders in Business: Their Motivations and Challenges Emma Daugherty-Phillingane, California State University, Long Beach ………………. 587 Major Approaches for the Corporate Social Responsibility Communication: An Observation for Turkish Corporate Websites IdilKarademirlidag SUHER, Bahcesehir University …………………………………………… 595 The Death of Second Life: A Case Study of a (Old) “New Technology” Michael L. Kent, University of Oklahoma Maureen Taylor, University of Oklahoma…………………………………………………………. 03 Redressing Assumptions of Image and Examining the Value of a Negative Celebrity Image Across International Boundaries Adam E. Horn, University of Missouri/University of Central Missouri Tricia L. Hansen-Horn, University of Central Missouri………………………………………. 611 A Communication Challenge: How to Effectively Communicate an Organizational Change (A Recycling Program)? Gideon Falk, Purdue University Calumet………………………………………………………….. 617 Public Relations Theory: Translating in a Global Environment Bonita Dostal Neff, Valparaiso University

Tricia L. Hansen-Horn, University of Central Missouri………………………………………. 621 CHAPTER 26: QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY ………………………………………………… 626 CMMI Misunderstood: Why Software Producing Companies Choose Six Sigma Versus CMMI Chris B. Simmons, University of Memphis Sajjan G. Shiva, University of Memphis …………………………………………………………… 627 vi Shipper Transportation Productivity Improvements on Electronic Logistics Marketplaces Rahul Kale, University of North Florida

Paul Fadil, University of North Florida …………………………………………………………….. 633 CHAPTER 27: QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT ………………………………………………. 639 Performance Measurement of Home Appliances Manufacturing Company by Leanness Concept and System Dynamics Approach Ahmad E. Taleghani, Iran University of Science and Technology S. M. Hosseini, Iran University of Science and Technology ArashBakhsha, Iran University of Science and Technology ………………………………… 640 Approaching Lean Strategy Map in Auto-Parts Industries

Ahmad E. Taleghani, Iran University of Science and Technology S. M. Hosseini, Iran University of Science and Technology ArashBakhsha, Iran University of Science and Technology ………………………………… 648 CHAPTER 28: SPIRITUALITY IN ORGANIZATIONS………………………………………… 655 Spirituality as an Ethical Action Model Robert Meyers, MicroSoft Corporation Robert A. Page, Jr. , Southern Connecticut State University ………………………………… 656 Team Effectiveness: The Turbulent Role of Environmental Turbulence Lawrence E. Zeff, University of Detroit Mercy

Mary A. Higby, University of Detroit Mercy …………………………………………………….. 663 CHAPTER 29: SPORTS MARKETING…………………………………………………………………. 671 Contentious Issues In Professional Boxing: Can The Sport Be Repositioned And Bring Credibility To It? Felix Abeson, Coppin State University …………………………………………………………….. 672 CHAPTER 30: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT……………………………………………………… 677 Capital for Farmland: The Next Wave of Outsourcing Margaret A.

Goralski, Southern Connecticut State University……………………………… 678 Development of Human And Social Capital Through Industry Peer Networks Kyle Luthans, University of Nebraska at Kearney Ada Leung, Pennsylvania State University at Berks …………………………………………… 685 Labeling Genetically Engineered Food: A Strategic Perspective OmidNodoushani, Southern Connecticut State University Patricia A. Nodoushani, University of Hartford …………………………………………………. 691 vii Managing for Change: Business and Academia – A Comparative Analysis Martin M.

Shapiro, Berkeley College……………………………………………………………….. 697 Polarity Management: Balancing the Stress and Tranquility Polarities During a Recession Denise Gates, TAMIU ……………………………………………………………………………………. 704 CHAPTER 31: STRATEGIC MARKETING………………………………………………………….. 711 Marketing Practices of the Manley Popcorn Company: A Company Ahead of its Time, or an Example of Timeless Marketing Edward Bond, Bradley University Ross L. Fink, Bradley University

Rajesh Iyer, Bradley University……………………………………………………………………….. 712 The Effects of Market Orientation on Commercial Bank Performance Paloma Bernal Turnes, Rey Juan Carlos University Irene Garrido Valenzuela, University of Vigo Carmelo Mercado Idoeta, Rey Juan Carlos University ……………………………………….. 720 CHAPTER 32: TOURISM, TRAVEL AND HOSPITALITY ………………………………….. 729 Does Racial Discrimination Influence Leisure Destination Choice? Nathan K. Austin, Morgan State University Michael Callow, Morgan State University

BintaAbubakar, Morgan State University………………………………………………………….. 730 The Effect of Discounting on Service Quality and Return Patronage in the Restaurant Industry Dean A. Koutroumanis, University of Tampa ……………………………………………………. 738 CHAPTER 33: STUDENT PAPERS TRACK…………………………………………………………. 746 Amegy Bank of Texas: A Public Relations Plan Dana Baker, The University of Texas at San Antonio Andrea Lopez, The University of Texas at San Antonio……………………………………… 47 Domino’s Pizza’s Response to Video Scandal: A Public Relations Case Study Giselle J. Guadron, The University of Texas at San Antonio……………………………….. 754 Shape up America! And Childhood Obesity: “Overcome Obesity to Maximize Your Life” Campaign Disney Hanka, The University of Texas at San Antonio Heather Harper, The University of Texas at San Antonio……………………………………. 759 Major Case Study: The Crisis at AIG Amina Lovell, The University of Texas at San Antonio ……………………………………… 765 viii Two of the Same?

Crisis Communication in AF447 and TK1951 H. Efe SEVIN, Emerson College……………………………………………………………………… 769 FEMA’s Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Public Relations Case Study Stephanie Shropshire, The University of Texas at San Antonio Sarah Phinney, The University of Texas at San Antonio …………………………………….. 778 ix CHAPTER 17 INSTRUCTIONAL & PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES 409 THE GLOBAL MBA: STRATEGIC OPTIONS FOR GOING INTERNATIONAL Robert A. Page, Southern Connecticut State University Henry Hein, Southern Connecticut State University

Jacob Atland, Southern Connecticut State University ABSTRACT Recent research suggests that Master of Business Administration [MBA] prestige is defined by the degree to which graduates master international business. This paper explores how 56 of the most popular MBA programs have adopted international management into their curricular offerings. Comparing global focus to tuition costs revealed four distinct types: elite, parochial, economic and progressive MBA programs. Implications will be discussed. INTRODUCTION Business education should prepare students with the skills necessary to succeed in the global market place.

As US corporations continue to expand globally, the demand for crossculturally competent job candidates grows. The US needs professionals who are trained in the languages and cultures of international trading partners. Developing an awareness of diverse management styles, ethical values, and communication styles in the context of complex international systems is necessary to succeed in cross-cultural ventures (Bisoux, 2005; Seybolt, 2004). Global awareness has emerged as one of the most attractive and marketable features of an MBA program.

In a survey of managers, “about half of the survey respondents said they are seeking MBA graduates with more global experience”(Alsop, 2007). METHODOLOGY Using a population of the most popular MBA programs, as defined by internet hits on FindMBA. com, a random sample of 25% (56 MBA programs) was selected, and explored to determine the extent they incorporated international business into their curricula. According to Pritzwalks (2007), there are 728 MBA programs in the US and 363 in Europe, and data was collected approximately 56 or 5% of the schools listed.

A larger sampling of the schools in both the US and Europe were originally selected however many of the schools either did not list sufficient website information or were not written in English. Data was collected on: • Yearly tuition costs • Program type (entire program/major/concentration) • Global or international business classes (frequency; offered versus required • Global/international emphasis in website public relations material A global focus score was computed for each institution. Point values were assigned accordingly: • Foreign language offerings (1 point) • Foreign language requirements (10 points) Study abroad opportunities (3 points) 410 • Study abroad requirements (10 points) • International internship opportunities (5 points) • International internship requirements (10 points) For a complete listing of the institutions analyzed, see Appendix 1. GLOBAL MBA STRATEGIC POSITIONING The level of commitment to preparing students to succeed in the global market varies greatly among MBA programs. Tuition costs at business schools also vary greatly, although high tuition costs do not necessarily indicate a greater global focus in curriculum and international study opportunities.

The MBA Global Strategies Model (GSM) identifies four global strategies: high cost/low global focus, high cost/high global focus, low cost/low global focus and low cost/high global focus. This following matrix reflects natural clusters of programs emerging from a scatter diagram was generated which shows tuition on the y axis and the global focus score (GFS) on the x axis. The scatter diagram revealed a concentration of data within a yearly tuition range up to approximately $50,000 and global focus score of 30. Figure I: Global Focus versus Cost

M BA Global Focus Model $80,000 $70,000 Yearly Tuition $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 HCLG HCHG LCLG LCHG $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Global Focus Score High Cost (HC) = $22,000+ Low Cost (LC) = up to $21,999 High Global (HG) = Global Focus Score of 17+ Low Global (LG) = Global Focus Score below 17 Number of Schools HCHG = 18 HCLG = 7 LCHG = 16 Based on these delineations, the following global focus was developed 411 FIGURE II: MBA Global Focus Model High Cost Parochial Elite Low Global Focus High Global Focus Economy Progressive Low Cost

Parochial: High Cost / Low Global Focus Parochial schools offer a limited global focus in their curriculum. They focus on local and regional business needs. Generally students who consider these schools are more willing to pay top dollar for an education from a well established school, but do not understand or value the need to develop a global mindset through their education. Seven or approximately 13% of the 56 business schools researched fall into this quadrant. Yearly tuition costs range from $22,000 and up and the global focus scores are less than 17.

Within this group are the more traditional and conventional MBA programs such as Boston College, Syracuse University and Vanderbilt University. The core competencies of these business schools reflect a history of tradition and excellence, are well recognized in their regions, and focus primarily on the US business structure. Like Boston College – Carroll School of Management, their distinguishing factors are “a rigorous, challenging curriculum and an extraordinary spirit of community reflected in a shared understanding of our core values. Their core values include promoting the highest standards of honesty and integrity to ensure that all members of the community recognize the benefits of living those ideals and to guarantee that academic performance is evaluated reliably and rewarded fairly. They strive to create an environment where students can pursue the highest level of academic performance and personal development for themselves and their community (Boston College webpage, 2009). In order for these schools to remain competitive in the MBA market, they will need to eventually update their programs to include a more global perspective.

This is particularly true if they expect to keep charging high prices for their programs. Elite: High Cost / High Global Focus The schools in this quadrant offer a variety of courses with a global perspective, study abroad opportunities, foreign languages and international internships (see Appendix A). The MBA programs are focused on providing a world class education so that, upon graduating, the student will be better prepared for the global market. Students will have a greater understanding of international business and the skills needed to be successful when working with different cultures.

Eighteen or approximately 32% of the 56 business schools researched fall into the high cost/high global focus (HCHG) quadrant. Yearly tuition costs range from $22,000 and up and the global focus scores are greater than 16. Within this group are business schools like Yale, Dartmouth, and ESADE in Spain that have a high commitment to preparing students for global business. Like the Yale School of Management’s MBA mission to educate global leaders for business and society, they “provide a rigorous training in fundamental skills as a foundation to help students develop meaningful aspirations” and are “ infused with a restless ambition – a 12 willingness to think creatively and take risks in order to improve the world” (Yale School of Management webpage, 2009). The schools in this quadrant offer a variety of courses with a global perspective, study abroad opportunities, foreign languages and international internships. These MBA programs are focused on providing a world class education so that, upon graduating, the student will be better prepared for the global market.

Students will have a greater understanding of international business and the skills needed to be successful when working with different cultures Elite business schools maintain a very sustainable competitive advantage through rigorous curriculum with a global perspective. This not only allows them to charge high prices for their education, but also maintain their position in the market as an education leader. However, the high prices can be a downfall, eliminating the opportunity for many candidates, and making the repayment time not worth the education (see Appendix A).

Economy: Low Cost / Low Global Focus Economy providers build basic, affordably priced and convenient MBA programs for a culturally diverse student body. Often public institutions, their mission focuses on an accessible, affordable, quality education. A majority of their students are non-traditional: transfers, working, older, commuters. This type of program meets the needs and perceptions of the students and community while making it difficult for other educational institutions to deliver the same quality education at such an affordable price.

However, the income and lifestyle limitations of nontraditional students seriously constrain the feasibility of many international options, such as overseas internships. Fifteen (27%) of the 56 business schools fall into low cost/low global focus. Yearly tuition costs are below $22,000 and the global focus scores are less than 17. The MBA programs in this quadrant are economical and efficient. They tend to offer a consolidated, comprehensive, standardized general program whose goal is to provide each student with a relatively uniform educational experience involving a critical foundation of important skills and concepts.

Progressive: Low Cost / High Global Focus Schools in this quadrant provide affordable, low cost programs with a high global focus which gives them a sustainable competitive advantage over all other quadrants and SCSU. They offer a variety of globally focused courses, study abroad opportunities, international internships, and in some programs, an international concentration or an international MBA program. Sixteen (28%) of the 56 business schools fall into the low cost/high global focus. Yearly tuition costs are below $22,000 and their global focus scores are greater than 16.

For example, University of Texas at San Antonio (2007), a low cost, high global focus school (GFS=21), with an MBA tuition of $7,268, excels in its international and exchange programs. They are “dedicated to creating, applying and sharing knowledge that translates theory to practice; combines rigor with relevance; and provides innovative solutions to global business challenges”. IMPLICATIONS All too often, business education in the US tends to respond to the global environment with an ethnocentric perspective. Bikson and Law concluded that 413

According to both corporate and academic respondents, US colleges and universities are turning out job candidates with high levels of domain knowledge. But with respect to cross-cultural competence, job candidates are much less well prepared. They are unlikely to understand the international dimensions of their major academic field and many have not had exposure to other cultures and languages. Compared to international students, our respondents believed US students to be at serious competitive disadvantage in the global labor market. (1994: 65-66)

US business schools have gotten away with this because US companies have tended to adopt the attitude that international business is the same as intra-national business (Tung & Miller, 1990; Volkert, 2007). By defining US program offerings as best practices, both US universities and corporate recruiters expect mimetic isomorphism. This is epitomized by the fact that while corporate recruiters stress the importance of global awareness, they primarily recruit graduates from US schools with global training, not from comparable international schools (Alsop, 2007).

As international business becomes increasingly important, how long such preferences will persist becomes increasingly problematic. The ethnocentric attitudes of US businesses can threaten their ability to successfully compete in other countries. While some US business schools have been slow to “go global,” the same cannot be said of Europe. A more holistic approach embracing international diversity towards business education is already standard in Europe (Schorr, 2000).

In 2007, Antunes & Thomassummarized some of the distinct differences between European and US models of business education, concluding that although some elements of European business schools are borrowed from the homogeneous US-style model, European schools focus on reflective, integrative learning and offer a greater sensitivity to international relations. In part, European models have adapted to the institutional frameworks and the many different languages, cultures and regulations that exist across Europe due to accreditation standards with an explicit global focus.

The primary European accreditation agency, Equis, has a broad focus and clear examination of executive education and corporate linkages, with a formal requirement to explain international linkages. The American equivalent, AACSB, does not require any discussion of corporate or international linkages. AACSB simply accredits the institutions range of degree and educational programs, the faculty inputs and curriculum designs (Antunes & Thomas, 2007). In conclusion, as more and more businesses expand globally, and both business and educational institutions recognize the need to develop global strategies o manage the risk of falling behind. Parochial and economic focused MBA programs will need to emulate the strategies of the more globalized elite and progressive programs, or run the risk of obsolescence. Wolfgang Wagner concluded: Given the combination of diversity and economic vitality that characterizes the European market place, and the resulting depth of practical experience in operating across diverse cultures, European companies may be well placed to turn diversity into advantage on the world stage. Europeans are less prone to ride roughshod over local sensibilities and cultural values.

European businesses have a tradition of diversity in their inputs to decision making. Europe’s comparatively inclusive and consensual approach to management is in stark contrast to the 414 narrower ‘professional’ decision making that historically been employed in Anglo-American Businesses. The world is a diverse environment and so is Europe. The experience and ability to manage and exploit this diversity are increasingly critical capabilities. Across all industries and business model, this is an area where European corporations have a competitive edge (2004). REFERENCES Alsop, Ronald.

Sounding Off. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 09/28/2007 from http://online. wsj. com/article/SB118961228427325241. html, September 17 2007. Antunes, D. & Thomas, H. The Competitive (Dis) Advantages of European Business Schools. Long Range Planning. 40, 2007, 382-404. Bikson, T. K. & Law, S. A. Global Preparedness and Human Resources: Corporate and College Perspectives. Santa Monica: RAND, 1994. Bisoux, T. “The extreme MBA makeover. ” BizEd, 4(4), 2005, 27-33. Pritzwalks Ltd. FiINDMBA: MBA Programs Worldwide. Retrieved on October 11, 2007 from http://find-mba. com, 2007.

Schorr, J. L. A Generation of Business Foreign Languages. Retrieved on September 25, 2007, from http://www. mgmt. purdue. edu/centers/ciber/publications/gbl/GBL%20%202000/2b. %2 0Schorr. doc, 2000. Seybolt, J. “Managing in tumultuous times. ” BizEd, 3(3), 2004, 39-43. Tung, R. L. & Miller E. L. Managing in the twenty-first century. Management International Review, 30(1), 5-18. ABI/INFORM database, 1990. Volkert, L. Boise State Univ. ’s executive MBA students learn to do business across cultural divides. The Idaho Business Review, 1. ABI/INFORM database, April 16 2007.. Wagner, W.

A new perspective on Europe. European Business Forum. 17, 15. Retrieved on September 25, 2007 from ABI/INFORM database, 2004. 415 Appendix A MBA Research Data Results 416 Appendix A MBA Research Data Results Continued 417 END USER ENGAGEMENT IN AN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN COURSE Douglas E. Turner, University of West Georgia [email protected] edu Robert G. Gehling, Auburn University at Montgomery [email protected] aum. edu ABSTRACT The need of Management Information System (MIS) graduates to possess skills related to information technology for competitive advantage is ever increasing.

Students need to combine a multitude of MIS skills with a real and practical understanding of actual business processes. The lack of business experiences of traditional students substantiates the need for real project work. With the continued introduction of new Information System technologies and applications, MIS curriculums seem to have less flexibility to alter or modify courses to engage students in actual business environments. This paper explores the needs, merits, and application of engaging students in actual business environments within an Analysis & Design (A&D) course.

This course offers many students the only opportunity to interact with business professional while utilizing their MIS skills. As students develop and deliver a completed design project to actual business end users they gain a sense of actual organizational culture and expectations. INTRODUCTION Given the obvious restrictions of a traditional three-semester hour academic course, it is difficult to know when you are succeeding in delivering an A&D course in the proper environment. According to John W.

Satzinger (2002), if you assemble a group of 100 information systems a better idea of the potentials and the difficulties of teamwork in nonclassroom environments. Gibson, O’Reilly, and Hughes (2002) thought it essential that students acquire high-quality business related technology experiences before emerging into the real world of employment. But in contrast a survey of 647 A&D professors and instructors revealed that only 335 reported the use of real organizations for student A&D projects (McLeod, 1996).

This paper will review the merit of using real blood and tissue companies for student analysis, and discuss a workable methodology in defining the concepts of end user engagement and data collection/development. LITERATURE REVIEW Discovery with a traditional literature review yielded a variety of perspectives and information about what to include in the A&D course. Conversely, the literature review offered a minimal amount of volume of specifically how to apply business end users to the A&D course for students.

In 1999 Misic and Russo published a study in the attempt to identify the most significant and important of A&D components as viewed by educators and practitioners. It may be note worthy to mention that these data were presumably gathered in late1996 to early 1997, as revealed by the February 15, 1997, received date as shown on the publication. The results of 418 their study revealed that defining new systems requirements and defining scope and objectives of systems/projects, were both ranked first and second respectively by both educators and practitioners.

But the issue of preparing for and conducting interviews with users was ranked third by practitioners and was rated ninth out of ten measured tasks by educators. This result is disconcerting as it seems to indicate that educators (in 1997) placed a low priority on end user engagement and development activities. Misic and Russo (1999) noted that based on a previous study (Truath, Farwell, and Lee, 1993) universities were spending too much time on traditional and formal systems development and insufficient time on application, data, and business functions (1999).

Similarly, Tastle and Russell (2003) surveyed educators about their impressions of what an A&D course should contain. Their results suggest that approximately half of the respondents dedicate less than 20% of their time on the concept of structured analysis; 10% of the respondents dedicated up to 50% of their available time to systems analysis overview, and over 80% of the respondents devote 15% of their available time to the concepts of project management.

Tastle and Russell placed the concepts of Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs), Data modeling concepts, Entity Relationship Diagramming (ERDs), Balancing DFDs, data/process modeling skills, and a team based project as being definitely important to the educators surveyed (from a cumulative list of ten concepts. In 2002 Ehie focused on the need of MIS students to obtain skills related to information technology for competitive advantage, where students combined MIS skills with an understanding of business processes.

His position was that employers are looking for individuals with a strong systems orientation and a good understanding of an integrative business value-chain. Rajiv and Grupta (2002) performed an empirical study of the perceptions of students taking A&D classes at one school across course sections. They concluded that students were somewhat misinformed about the requirements and capabilities of the course. The Rajiv and Grupta study utilized a course that included group work on a real-life project that accounted for 35% of the students’ grade (2002). The students reported that at the beginning of the course they iewed A&D as an MIS topic, but when queried at the end of the term students deemed A&D relevant across diverse components of the business environment. Interest in the skill sets of an A&D analyst is still popular. As an example sample the University of California offers a certificate program in Computer Information Systems: Analysis, Design, and Management. The focal point with a program of this type seems to be the ability to extract and properly document the needs of an organization, with little attention paid to the case tool being utilized (Berkeley, 2003).

This particular program is completed in 30 student contact hours. The fact that this course is offered to non-traditional students seems to support the idea that these students may have previously established some degree of communication and data gathering skills with actual end users. Other for profit organizations (a mixture of the areas one and two from above) offer training in the areas of Object-Oriented A&D (OOAD) to teach the specific use of related technologies such as Unified Modeling Language (UML) (Objective Engineering, Inc. 2003 Tastle and Russell (2003) reported from their study of IS World members and Information Systems Education Conference past participants that no agreement could be reached with regard to the teaching of OO. IMPLEMENTING END USER ENGAGEMENT The objective of this course was to create a consultant/client environment, crossing that “bridge of reality” as discussed by Gagnon (1986). To utilize end user engagements in the course 419 a supportive syllabus was needed.

The syllabus designed explicitly states that from the outset that there are components of this course that are far less structured than what are normally presented in most courses, this is especially true in some areas relating to the project. The primary objectives of this syllabus were to establish a blueprint of data gathering and modeling for the students. Beyond the traditional information of about the course specific issues were included. These topics included group member selection and maintenance, management of project milestones, and project deliverables and presentation.

The issue of utilizing student work teams is that of group composition which has been discussed by many authors (Huxham and Land, 2000; Honey and Mumford, 1986; Standing, 1995). It seems that three distinct methods are available to assign students; self-selection, allocation by arbitrary sorting, or engineering by perceived skills. With the short amount of time available from first meeting the students to issuing task assignments I have utilized arbitrary sorting. A departure from this method to an engineered solution is made when it is apparent that some groups are in equably stronger skilled then the rest.

Chapman and Van Auken (2201) discussed the potential drawbacks of group work. For example the fear of individual student grade impact by the performance of others. To help address this concern peer evaluations are employed where an individual student final grade could be reduced as much as two letter grades. Students submit these evaluations discretely at the end of the term, and no other data pertaining to the evaluations are released to an individual student except for their individual numerical group project grade. The syllabus explicitly defines the formulas for determining the influence of peer evaluations.

As peer reviews are not available until after the completion of the course they give little control to the group during the project life cycle. To stimulate participation from the students and alleviate the problem of after the fact peer evaluations a student may be “released” from a group relatively early in the term. The syllabus states “as students will be working as a team, sometimes a student is perceived as not producing their fair share. The student discharge policy was allowed to be invoked on only one specific day early during the term.

On the release date any member can be collectively removed from the group by typing a formal statement of release. While it is emphasis that a mere difference in lifestyles and perceptions may cause group tension, students rarely utilized the discharge mechanism. There are three primary deliverables/components of the final project; an executive summary for presentation to the end user, a project CD containing the current and proposed DFD model for the Professor, and an end user presentation. In over 25% of the projects to date the presentations have take place at the end user location.

Student groups establish a short list of potential organizational candidates and determine a method for positive initial contact of the selected business. The basic script offered to students is as follows “We wish to use you business/organization to create a data flow model to complete our A&D course requirement. The process we will use is to follow the data flows through your organization. Even though we do not need any specific information about your customers, suppliers, or processes we can offer a non-disclosure agreement for you if you think it necessary.

We would like to quietly spend time with your department personnel and document the flow of data. We do this by following the forms and data screens you use”. Other student groups have completed analyses of similar sized organizations in about five visits. On each visit we will supply you with a short list of outstanding questions from our last visit and move down through your organization by levels. At the end of the project we will supply you with a CD documenting your processes, and a short presentation of technology solutions to problems and opportunities 420 we find.

If at all possible we would like to leave our Professor’s business card and have him call you at your convenience. We would certainly appreciate your participation. ” The Professor then completes a follow up call to the client to solidify the agreement and further establish a baseline of specific rules and expectations. The concept of non-intrusive interviewing, centers on the problem of students attempting to gather data relevant to populating data-stores and mass-data logs. Clients often exhibit a tendency to offer data from the perspective of who does what within the organization.

The students are advised to ask to watch the paper trail at a given function, and secure blank copies of the forms or documents used. Students are told to reassure the end-users that no propriety information about processes or end user clients is needed. We ask the end user to generate mock or highlighted fields to capture the required process model. CONCLUSION Technical skill building is very important to organizations. It would be difficult for MIS employees to work in one software environment when all of their experience and training resides in other surroundings.

In example, being only trained in PeopleSoft why attempting to beproficient in Oracle or SAP. But for our students who have no previous exposure to any business environments beyond that of basic labor, the issue of experiencing first hand the actual role of a Systems Analysis seems to be both challenging to the student and paramount to their future success. This paper is offered as a single perspective of our use of actual end users for an A&D course. Our objective is to offer the most realistic A&D course project possible.

This includes the student development of the client, the determination of data requirements, the non-intrusive collection of data, and the completion of a complete business model. Each semester course yields approximately four to six A&D project teams. The majority of the project contacts have been generated by the students themselves, but we have completed over a dozen A&D projects in support of specific needs of our regional small business development office in the past three years. There seems to be strong support from practitioners and many in academics for real life experiences for students.

In our curriculum we discovered that the A&D project class was the first true business experience our students engaged in. Even though a traditional lecture and test course may be less demanding on everyone concerned, it is doubtful that the experience could be as rich as actual business consulting. REFERENCES Berkeley. Systems Analysis: Analyst as Internal Consultant 2003 Computer Information Systems: Analysis, Design, and Management Course Catalog, University of California Berkeley, Extension Services, http://www. unex. berkeley. edu/cat/121194. html, 2003. Chapman, K. and Van Auken, S.

Creating Positive Group Project Experiences: An Examination of the Role of the Instructor on Students’ Perceptions of Group Projects. Journal of Marketing Education, (23)2, 2001, 117-127. Dunne, E. and Rawlins, M. Bridging the Gap Between Industry and Higher Education: Training Academics to Promote Student Teamwork. Innovations in Education & Training International, (37)4, 2000, 361-371. 421 Ehie, I. C. Developing a Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum: Perspectives From MIS Practitioners. Journal of Education for Business, (77)3, 2002, 151-158. Ellen, N. And West, J.

Classroom Management of Project Management: A Review of Approaches to Managing a Student’s Information System Project Development. Journal of American Academy of Business, (3)12, 2003, 93 -98. Gagnon, R. J. Instructing Operations Design: An Experimental Approach. Decision Sciences, (19)2, 1986, 453-471. Gibson, I. S. , O’Reilly, C. , and Hughes, M. S. Integration of ICT within a Project-based Learning Environment. European Journal of Engineering Education, (27)1, 2002, 21-30. Gill, G. T. , and Hu, Q. The Evolving Undergraduate Information Systems Education: A Survey of U. S. Institutions.

Journal of Education for Business, 74(5), 1999, 289-295. Honey, P. and Mumford, A. The Manual of Learning Styles. Revised (2nd ed), Mumford: Maidenhead, 1986. Huxham, M. and Land, R. Assigning Students in Group Work Projects. Can We Do Better than Random? Innovations in Education & Training International, (37)1, 2000, 17-22. Kirs, Peeter, J. A Role-playing to the Instruction of Information Systems Analysis and Design Courses. Journal of Education for Business, 69(6), 1994, 317-326. Laudon, K. C. , Laudon, J. P. Management Information Systems (5th ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998 .

Lee, D. M. , Truath, E. M. , & Farwell, D. Critical Skills and Knowledge Requirements of IS Professionals. MIS Quarterly, (19)3, 1995, 313-341. McLeod, R. , Jr. Comparing Undergraduate Courses in Systems Analysis and Design, Communications of the ACM, (39)5, 1996,113-121. Misic, M. M. , and Russo, N. L. An Assessment of Systems Analysis and Design Courses. The Journal of Systems and Software, 45(3), 197-202. Objective Engineering, Inc. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using the Unified Modeling Language. Analysis and Design Course Catalog, http://www. oeng. com/ood/oodcourses. tm, 2003. Rajiv, K. , and Grupta, J. N. D. Effectiveness of Systems Analysis and Design Education: an Exploratory Study. Journal of End User Computing, 14(3), 2002, 16-31. Reagan, E. And O’Conner, B. End-user Information Systems: Perspectives for Managers and Information Systems Professionals. New York: Prentice-Hall/MacMillan, 1994. Richter, C. Designing Flexible Object-Oriented Systems with UML. New York: Macmillan Technical Publishing, 1999. Satzinger, J. W. Moving the Analysis and Design Course into the Future. Tech Trends – Industry Articles, http://www. course. om/techtrends /systems_analysis_042000. cfm, 2002. Tastle, W. J. , and Russell, J. Analysis and design: Assessing Actual and Desired Course Content. Journal of Information Systems Education, (14)1, 2003, 77-98. Truath, E. , Farwell, D. , and Lee, D. M. The “IS” Expectation Gap: Industry Expectations versus Academic Preparations. MIS Quarterly, 17(3), 1993, 293-303. 422 A VOICE OF ONE’S OWN:WRITING AS A BUSINESS EDUCATION POWER TOOL Henry Hein, Southern Connecticut State University [email protected] edu Sarah E. Page, Southern Connecticut State University [email protected] edu ABSTRACT

As stakeholders clamor for more accountability in higher education, old passive learning teaching pedagogies are insufficient. Both in academia and in life, finding and expressing one’s authentic personal voice is not only linked with personal fulfillment and organizational eff3ectiveness, it also promotes the internalization and application of course content, integrative learning, retention and transfer. Ironically technologic media, traditionally devalued as cold and impersonal, are becoming the medium of choice for personal communication of authentic voice by the millennial generation.

Implications are discussed. THE MILLENNIAL CHALLENGE While universities claim to be dedicated to developing the mind, intellect and character of students, the public remains unconvinced. These assertions by institutions of higher education command more public suspicion than respect (Finkelstein, 2003; Reardon & Ramaley, 1997). Critics allege that the curriculum and classroom pedagogies found on the university scene serve faculty interests more than student learning agendas (Smith, 2004).

Due to inconsistency in learning outcomes, parents and students are rejecting the “learning for the sake of learning” mantra in favor of specific explanations on what kind of personal development and career enhancement will result from their investments in a college education (Ferren & Kinch, 2003, Moskal, Ellis & Keon. 2008). Given the costs involved, critics warn: In the first years of the new century, what many recall as the golden age of higher education has been tarnished by spiraling costs, declining standards, and an erosion of ethical values.

The academic system that served us so well for so long is growing outworn, outmoded, and for many students and their families, outlandishly expensive. Higher education itself has been placed on probation. (Elfin, 2003, p. 9) Communication – A Core Learning Outcome A Wall Street Journal poll of corporate recruiters (Safon, 2007), Navarro’s (2008) review of a decade of prescriptive literature on the ideal business curriculum and Moskal, Ellis & Keon’s (2008) all list communication skills as a top priority for a quality curriculum. Concise, clear and accurate writing is vital to the success of your career and to your company’s productivity . . . Good writing skills will sell you and your ideas” (Murdock, 2000:15). CEO John Miller notes, ‘Employees notice who can write and communicate well and will trust those who can with important jobs” (quoted in Murdock, 2000:15). Bosses hate to take valuable time to edit mistakes 423 in important documents subordinates prepare. Those with superior writing ability earn, on average, more than three times more income than those with poor writing skills (Fisher, 1998).

Experts agree that in business, one has less than a minute to prove their ideas are worth paying attention to whether they are written or verbal communication. This learning outcome, however, remains all too often unrealized. Recruiters consistently complain that only 25% of graduates from business schools write well (Page et. al. , 2008). Poor writing and speaking virtually guarantees that many potentially great ideas will be ignored, and undermines the ability of employees to effectively share their “voice. ” VOICE AS A MANAGEMENT KEY

The importance of “voice” in both teaching and organizational contexts has long been recognized. Its perceived importance is likely to continue to increase, given the press generated when Stephen R. Covey, author of the immensely popular “Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” (1989), focused the sequel “The 8th Habit,” on developing voice, and encouraging others to find their voice. He concluded that voice is not as much an 8th habit as a key dimension of all the other seven habits. Voice is particularly critical for organizational effectiveness because it is often discouraged, neglected or overlooked (Covey, 2004).

In professional contexts, expressing voice offers the organizations that encourage it important feedback and information which is often otherwise lost due to self-censorship or exit (Gorden, 1988; Krefting & Powers, 1998). In management literature, voice is broadly defined as any feedback of discretionary opinions or information by individuals. Voice includes all voluntary communications employees are not required to give as part of the standard operating routine of their jobs (Hirschman, 1970; Page et. al. , 2008). Subsequent researchers linked organizational effectiveness and efficiency with voice (Covey, 2004).

Voice is associated with a broad range of positive, functional, organizational consequences, including increased creativity, motivation, and self-actualization, particularly important in the rapidly evolving markets of the new millennium (Zhou & George, 2001). In the workplace, voice is linked with employee satisfaction, retention and commitment (Gorden, 1988; Tuten & Gray, 2002). Firms that effectively encourage voice enjoy improved critical feedback and quality control information, which drives continuous improvement efforts and organizational success (Covey, 2004; Graham & Keeley, 1992; Hirschman, 1970).

O’Neill and Lenn (1995: 32) conclude: “Voice, properly heard within the organization, is the behavioral choice that affords the organization the best chance for adaptation. ” Confronted with an internal or external mandate for change, employees are more likely to feel ownership, take initiative, and contribute discretionary effort to successfully adapt when (a) they give voice to authentic self-expression, (b) they share even when others may disagree with them, and (c) they are meaningfully involved in decision making processes which encourage open sharing of diverse feedback (Covey, 2004; Hirschman, 1970; Page et. l. , 2008, Zhou & George, 2001). Expressing voice can be regarded as a critical management skill, which should be incorporated as a goal of an undergraduate management curriculum. Beyond effectiveness, the opportunity to express voice has become defined as student right (National Council of Teachers of English, 1974). Further, some beneficial learning outcomes tend to be achieved only when voice is encouraged and expressed (Gorden, 1988). Expressing voice through writing helps students better understand themselves and retain what they have learned (Morrell, 2002).

The gold standard in higher education is the transfer of learning from college to life, and the transformation of the learner. Mezirow pioneered the concept of transformational learning, 424 arguing that while an individual’s “meaning schemes and perspectives” were passively developed in childhood, they evolve through adult experiences. Learning environments featuring rational discourse and critical reflection can act as catalysts for transformation (Mezirow, 1997).

The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association explain in a joint report: “In the transformative educational paradigm, the purpose of educational involvement is the evolution of multidimensional identity, including but not limited to cognitive, affective, behavioral, and spiritual development” (Keeling, 2004: 9). This requires that learners do more than just memorize the subjects, and forget them after the semester is over.

It means the topics must be relevant and applicable for the learner’s life, so they are internalized, applied and retained over time (AACU, 2002; Mezirow, 1991; Miller & Leskes, 2005). Authentic Voice Of particular importance is encouraging the expression of voice in a personal context, which is sometimes described as one’s “authentic” or “distinctive” voice (UMUC Writing Center, 2002). This definition is captured by Jessica Morrell (2002): Voice is the sound of ourselves on the page.

Arthur Plotnik says that our voice should be “in harmony with our roots. ” Voice is a reflection of how we see the world. Voice is a substantive presence; when you’re reading effective fiction, voice lingers and you’re left with the sense that you’ve met the writer behind the characters. Voice underlies the “wisdom skills” of professional self-reflection and emotional intelligence often idealized, but seldom achieved in college. The challenge faced by business educators today is how to teach their students to develop an authentic voice.

Teaching voice is essential for the much broader challenge of preparing students to become “intentional learners who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources, and continue learning throughout their lives” (AACU, 2002: xi). For this goal to be achieved, educators must first learn how to speak and write in the multimodal tongues of the modern world before they can effectively communicate the authenticity of voice to their students. Business schools need to develop a different way of shaping the world grounded in a different language and a new narrative . . ,” (Starkey and Tempest 2008: 576). Unfortunately, business schools are often interdisciplinary backwaters, where the trend towards the professionalization of faculty into discrete academic disciplines with narrow specializations has intensified (Reardon & Ramaley, 1997; Safon, 2007). In this sense, authentic voice requires an adequate vocabulary far beyond management science — the passion, values and principles more characteristic of the liberal arts.

The chief aim of this language would be to foster critical inquiry that is marked by creativity and innovation, not the “surface learning” characterized by the rote repetition of facts (Smith and Colby 2007: 206). Starkey and Tempest suggest that both empathy and imagination would have essential roles in this new narrative, stating, What we are suggesting is that we need to reflect upon our history and its design legacy and to consider a new design challenge—to reconfigure ourselves to become more socially engaged by deepening our engagement with the social sciences—with a stronger 25 emphasis on the social—particularly, with the arts and humanities to develop an image of management better fit for addressing the challenges of the modern world. (2008: 578). Techno-voice This authentic voice must be grounded in the communication media of choice of the millennial generation. As the evolution of technology accelerates, the “tools of literacy,” and the “nature of texts, of language, of literacy itself is undergoing crucial transformations” (Constanzo 1994: 11).

This new narrative language cannot be assumed to be a Luddite regression from the technical aspects of academia, as it has in the past. While previous generations may have regarded technologic communication media, such a

How to cite Business Research Yearbook Global Business Perspectives, Essays

Choose cite format:
Business Research Yearbook Global Business Perspectives. (2017, Feb 22). Retrieved May 26, 2020, from https://phdessay.com/business-research-yearbook-global-business-perspectives/.