This posture Is commonly observed when sitting inside the sidecar of the tricycle especially when it is full. The passenger is placed in an awkward position, like the shoulder is pressed with another passenger's shoulder. The knees also are placed In an awkward position which can influence the degree of Joint and tissue stress. Also, if the passenger is kept in that awkward sitting position for a long time, it can cause tissue fatigue and micro-trauma due to the continual muscle fling and strain on the tendons and ligaments (http://acquirement. Articulately. Com/ergonomic-risk-factor-protecting- the-lower-back-1039221 . HTML). Different aspects in the proper seating dimension of the tricycles sidecar should be considered, which this study alms to focus on. This duty is aimed at specifically comparing measurements of sidecars of tricycles in Herman Cortes, Mandate City, with the anthropometric data taken from the male and female Filipinos of Metro Zebu. Literature Review There has always been a close relationship between measurement and the human body.
Even today, linear distances are measured in feet and horses are measured in hands. Engineering anthropometry is defined as the application of scientific physical measurement methods to the human body In order to optimize the interface between humans and machines and other manufactured products. Such odd measurements assure that manufactured goods will be suitable for intended user populations (Roebuck, Groomer, ; Thomson, 1975). They have clearly understood the value and significance of the payback and broad function of anthropometry.
With current studies being made in the Philippines, there is still a need to enhance more about anthropometry. Marquee and Garcia(2002) stated that it is possible to carry a great number of it is necessary to limit the number of passengers in such way that provide the minimum comfort that the users deserve. Aside from varying ergonomic factors like vibration and temperature, comfort of the passenger should also be considered like the way the passenger is seated while the tricycle is moving.
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In the Philippines, a specific region has its own type of tricycle like in region 8. On Panky Island there are two types of tricycles: the Oakland type and the Lillo type tricycle. The Oakland type has two facing benches in the rear and one facing bench in front. The Lillo type has two benches back to back and a small seat in front. The tricycles in Mindanao are called "Motorola". The sidecar is built around the motorcycle and has two facing benches ND a seat on each side of the driver. (http://www. Silent-gardens. Com/trig. HP) The tricycles in Mandate City are somewhat similar to the Oakland type with 1 facing bench in the rear and 2 small benches in the front. L. Anthropometric Studies in Other Countries The comfort, physical health, well-being, and performance of people can be increased by designing equipment, goods, furniture, and other devices according to the needs of the human body. One of the conditions to support productivity is to ensure that the work spaces and equipment that people use conform to the anthropometric and biomedical characteristics of the users.
Anthropometric data are used in ergonomics to specify the physical dimensions of work spaces, equipment, furniture, and clothing (Bridge, 1995; Kayos and Zoo, 1991 ; Gone and Park, 1990). Appropriate use of anthropometry in design may improve the well-being, health, comfort, and safety of a product's users (Pheasant, 1998; Barrows et al. , 2005) . The use of poorly designed furniture, especially school desks and tables, that fails to account for the anthropometric characteristics of its users has a negative influence n human health.
A surprising number of grade school children and adolescents are reported to have regular bouts of back, neck, and headache pain (Salesmen, 1984; Parcels et al. , 1999). Paulsen and Hansen (1994) stated that students use school furniture extensively during the most important period of their physical development. Backaches were also commonly suffered by middle-aged people in developed countries when they are in their twenties, the time when most of them are attending colleges and universities as stated by Watson et al (2002).
Anthropometric measurements of the hillier, measurements and design features of the school furniture can also influence the sitting posture of the students and not only influenced by activities being performed in the classroom as stated by Yeats (1997) and Punctiliously et AK (2004). Knight and Noses (1999), Parcels et al (1999), and Punctiliously et al (2004) measurements such as polite height, knee height, buttock-polite length and elbow height of the students must be taken in order to determine the correct dimensions of school furniture.
Anthropometric data from the said users have been seed to manufacture the correct design of schools desks and tables in most modern developed countries as stated by Parcels et al (1999). As the researchers noted earlier, furniture potentially have a significant effect on human health. Thus, it is essential to use anthropometric data to guide the design of school desks and chairs like in Turkey. Anthropometric measurements vary among nations and ethnic groups and change over time as populations and their environmental conditions change.
As a result, the anthropometric data used in the design of the equipment used in Turkish higher education are based on anthropometric data from other countries and thus do not represent the average body measurements of the Turkish people (Kayos, 1988; Truth et al. , 2004). It was also stated that anthropometric measurements are used in the design of school chairs and desks used in higher education for the Turkish people. Improper sitting posture causes backaches and other discomforts. This is also applicable to improper riding posture of the motorcycle rider.
Effective motorcycle and personal protective equipment design depends heavily upon understanding the geometric relationship between the motorcycle and the motorcycle rider. Basic human factors issues such as forward vision, riding comfort, control location and operation all require knowledge of riding posture while operating a motorcycle. A study on a Three Dimensional Analysis of Riding Posture of Three Different Styles Of Motorcycles reports on the results of a study to determine the three dimensional location and orientation of body segments for nine motorcycle riders while sitting on one of three different motorcycles.
The Motorcycle Anthropometric Test Dummy (MATT) has been developed specifically for motorcycle crash testing in accordance with the ISO 13232 standard. The original MATT design was based largely upon the existing Hybrid Ill Anthropometric Test Dummy design; therefore, it was assumed that the anthropometric characteristics of the MATT resembled a 50th percentile motorcycle rider. In the study each subject was asked to assume a most comfortable riding position followed by a maximum forward and maximum rearward riding position on a conventional, sport and cruiser motorcycle.
The subject's body was used and were installed with twenty-eight reflective markers that were placed on anatomical landmarks and five calibrated camera photometry's system was used o locate these markers in a three dimensional space. The study was composed of one hundred seventy trials and the results were compared to a series of tests collected on the same motorcycles with the MATT dummy used for ISO 13232 testing. The data obtained from the study provided unique three dimensional anthropometric data that could be used for future human factors motorcycle research.
There are only few existing data that are published regarding motorcycle rider the only motorcycle specific anthropometric study (other than the study described above) that was published. In the United Kingdom a survey was conducted about 140 tricycles, and six body dimensions were collected; the researchers of this study believed that is relevant to the future motorcycle design. These dimensions (e. G. Accordion to grip length, knee height above the ground, buttock to knee length) were related to operation of the controls of the motorcycle and any measurements that are related to the neck(e. . Seated head height) were not included. II. Anthropometric Studies in the Philippines Limited studies about Anthropometry have been conducted here in the Philippines. Unfortunately, it needs to be enhanced more since there were only little population being focused. It would be helpful if an anthropometrics study for Filipinos was conducted that composed average group of Philippine residents. Thirty one different kinds of manufacturing industries were randomly selected from the export zones and were provided a sampling plan by them.
The export zones are special economic and social districts that host multinational companies that hire Filipino workers at lower wages and better investment opportunities and trading benefits compared to other countries like the United States and Europe. Some of the benefits given to the multinational corporations in export zones in the country include 100% ownership of the company, no taxes and also license fees to the zone, the privilege to borrow from Philippine banks, no taxes on exports, no minimum investment requirement, and unrestricted repatriation of capital and profits as stated by Rowboat and Emitter (1994). Ill.
Other Anthropometric Studies Sanitation and Corking (1985) stated that the human person spends a great deal of time sitting down, either working in an office, studying in a library, riding in a specific mode of transportation, or eating inside a restaurant. There are seats that are more comfortable than other seats. They also stated that the seats itself, and the support provided by it are crucial when being occupied for several hours whether in a classroom or in an office. Anthropometric data can be determined side-by-side seat spacing, that is, how many seats will fit in each row. The crucial dimension is called shoulder breadth.
If the shoulders will fit, so will the hips. However, an analysis based on shoulder breadth does not guarantee that it will have much room to move your elbows. The bench criterion assumes that a distribution of three shoulder breadths is all that is needed. Since this is a statistical average, it implies that people with broad shoulders will be sitting next to people with narrow shoulders and the three passengers sitting abreast can lean or wiggle around to optimize the available space. The seat criterion is more generous and is based on probabilities of overlapping shoulders when passengers sit in the middle of each seat.
There is little to be gained by having seats more than 19 inches wide. Following are tips to be able to design a proper seat: 1 . The main weight of the body should be carried by the bony protuberances of the buttocks, more technically known as the cholinesterase. . The thighs should exert as little pressure as possible on the seat or on the front edge of the seat. 3. The lumbar (lower) portion of the back must be supported 4. The feet must be able to be placed firmly on the floor or, if this is not possible, on a footrest 5. The seated person should be able to change posture (without getting up) (http:// Amelia. Logs. Com/2011 /05/anthropometry-in-design. HTML) CHAPTER 2 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Statement of the Problem It was the purpose of the study to assess the current seat dimensions of the sidecar of tricycles based on the measurements taken from the anthropometric seat emissions of the sidecar of tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City against the anthropometric data taken from the passengers. The data taken would be used to come up with an analysis of the seat dimensions of the sidecar of tricycles. This study seeks to answer the following questions: 1 .
What are the anthropometric measurements of potential male and female passengers with regards to: a. Polite Height b. Sitting Height c. Buttock-polite Height d. Shoulder Breadth e. Hip Breadth 2. What is the current seat dimension of the sidecars of tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City in terms of a. Seat Depth b. Seat Height c. Height of backrest of the seats d. Height from the rooftop the floor of the sidecar e. Seat Width 3. What is the suitable sidecar seat dimension of tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City in terms of: a.
Seat Depth against Buttock- polite length b. Seat Height against Polite Height c. Height from the rooftop the floor of the sidecar against the Sitting Height of The study was conducted with the following assumptions: 1 . More or less the design of the sidecar of the tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City is the same. This is based on the assumption that the tricycles are assembled from a common manufacturer or blueprint. 2. The maximum number of passengers that can ride in the sidecar is four. This is based on the existing design of the sidecar and mostly all of them have the same said design.
Scope and Limitations of the Study The study will focus on assessing and taking measurements on the passenger seats of tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City. Assembly and modifications of the passenger seat and of the sidecar, including the yep and kind of material to be used, is not part of this study. The process of riding and getting out of the passengers from the tricycle is not part of the study. The study is only limited on the sidecar of the tricycle. 2. 1 Age of potential passengers The study is also limited on taking the measurements of adult passengers, ranging from ages 21-40.
This was done with the thought that age range selected is the common ages that ride tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City and there will be minimum to no changes in the skeletal structure at this age range. 2. 2 Span of study The study was conducted in a p of one school year prior to fulfillment of the requirement of the degree. 2. 3 The Tricycles Other types of tricycles like in Taboo, Danna and in other places are not part of this study. The study only focuses on the tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City.
Moreover, the seat of the driver is not included in this study. Significance of the Study This study will provide significant information to people about the importance of seat dimensions in our lives. 4. 1 Utility Vehicle Manufacturers The result of the study can be used by the manufacturers of tricycles, Jeepers, ultimate, buses, and pedicels, they can use the result as a basis in improving the current seat dimensions for the passenger(s). 4. 2 Manufacturing Firms The result can help the manufacturers especially the furniture industries in the design of their seats, specifically in their dimensions.
This study can also help other manufacturing firms with regards to their workplace. The study can help them in their assessment of their current workplace and also develop a better workplace. 4. 3 Future Researchers The study can be used as a reference for future researchers especially with regards related topic. Operational Definition of Terms 5th Percentile's to or greater than 95% of test subjects (for the top 5th percentile) or equal to or less than 95% of test subjects (for the lower 5th percentile). 10th Percentile is otherwise known as the median or average. The point at which half the values are less and half the values are more. 95th Percentile is the value that 95 percent of the sample lies below. Anthropometry is a device designed for measuring the dimensions of the human body. Anthropometric Data is information resulting from scientific study of measurements of the human body. Buttock-polite Length The polite is the point at the back of the leg where the knee bends. Buttock-to- polite is the dimensions that defines the seat pan depth of chairs.
Foot Length the distance between two parallel lines that are perpendicular to the foot and in contact with the most prominent toe and the most prominent part of the heel. Hip Breadth maximum horizontal distance across the hips in the sitting position. Inter-seat distance the horizontal distance between the edges of parallel seats. Jeepers (PUC or Public Utility Jeepers) are the most common form of public transport throughout the many islands of the Philippines. The internal structure (passenger seats) are parallel and facing each other. Can accommodate 16-20 passengers at a time, excluding the front seat passengers.
Knee height (sitting) along with hip breadth and buttock-to- knee length, knee height allows specification of knee clearance Mini-buses is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi- purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 8 and 30 seats. Same internal structure with a bus with all seats facing the driver. Multicast are normally not active on long distances. For local transportation and especially for transportation between villages or between villages and regional towns, they offer their services Just as the tricycles do.
Can accommodate 12-14 passengers, excluding the front seat passengers. Same function and internal structure as a Jeep since its seats are parallel and facing each other. Polite Height (sitting) this is the height of the back of the knee above the floor. Population the total number of inhabitants constituting a particular race, class, or group in a specified area. Seat Depth the horizontal distance from the backrest up to he edge of the seat pan parallel to it. Seat Height the vertical distance from the edge of the seat pan to the floor.
Sitting Height the horizontal distance from the sitting surface to the top of the head. Shoulder breadth side-by-side seating space and lateral clearance in passageways, that for some operational reason cannot be built to the more spacious and comfortable widths Tricycle is the Philippine rickshaw. A motorbike or sometimes a bicycle with an attached sidecar. It can accommodate 5 - 6 passengers in one time. Trinidad the manpower tricycle, a bike with an attached discarded. This used to be the most common public transportation means in villages and small towns in rural Philippines.
It can accommodate 3 passengers in one time. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study will take place in Mandate City where there are many tricycles in different parts of the city. The researchers specifically chose Herman Cortes Street for the ease of finding tricycles and passengers. II. Research Subject There are two research subjects in the study, which are the sidecar of the tricycles and the potential passengers. The number of sidecars to be measured in Herman Cortes Street, Mandate City is based on the notion that in order for the data distribution to be normally distributed, at least 30 samples should be taken.
The researchers randomly chose and measured 40 tricycles. The researchers also randomly chose and measured 40 passengers. Ill. Research Instrument Two kinds of instruments will be used in this study because the researchers will be measuring the sidecar of the tricycles and the passengers who will be riding it. In measuring the sidecar of the tricycles, a steel tape would be used in getting the sitting height, seat depth, seat height, inter-seat distance, height of backrest of the eats, inclination of the backrest, and tightest from the rooftop the floor of the sidecar. Fig. 3. 1 illustrates an example oaf steel tape Fig 3. : A steel -rape In measuring the passengers, an improvised chair will be used that would measure and obtain the buttock-polite length of the passenger. Fig 3. 2: An Improvised Chair In obtaining the polite height, a flat ruler or a T-square will be used to measure the polite height of the passenger. Fig 3. 3: A Flat ruler or T-square An improvised stand with a tape as shown on the next page measure will be used to measure the sitting height of the passenger. Fig 3. 4: An improvised stand with a tape measure An anthropometry will be used to measure the passengers' shoulder breadth and hip breadth.
Fig 3. 5: Anthropometry IV. Research Procedure The proponents will measure 60 subjects-30 male and 30 female with its selected body parts, all of which would be in Metro Zebu at the time of data gathering. The said data will be used to verify with the existing data gathered by the study of Arabia Et. AY. Is whether outdated or has no significant difference with the data gathered by basing their study on the data that they have gathered. If there is no significant preference then the proponents would be basing their study on the existing data gathered by the study of Arabia Et. AY.
To verify the data gathered by the proponents a hypothesis testing was conducted using the Z- test and T- test with the Mean and Standard Deviation of the existing study against the Mean and Standard Deviation of the data gathered by the proponents. The results that will be obtained would determine if there is any significant difference between the said data. The proponents will also get measurements of the sidecar seat dimension in terms of seat height, seat depth, height of backrest of the seats, Height from the rooftop the lour of the sidecar and Seat Width from 39 tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City.
After all the data were obtained the proponents will now analyze minored to assess the anthropometric measurements of selected body parts of male and female obtain from the study of Arabia Et. AY. Against the passenger seat dimension of the sidecar of tricycles bound for Herman Cortes Street to Substandard, Mandate City. To assess, the proponents categorized the anthropometric measurements of selected body parts of male and female obtain from the study of Arabia Et.
AY against the dimensions of the passenger seat of the sidecar of transmogrification to 5th,50th and 95th percentile. The proponents will now determine the number of data points of the anthropometric measurements of selected body parts of male and female that will fell to the categorized percentile of the passenger seat dimension of the sidecar of tricycles which will be the basis of how fit is the user population anthropometric measurement to a passenger seat dimension of the sidecar of a tricycle. 5. Sidecar of the tricycles The researchers must first ask permission from the driver of the tricycle. Once the driver approves, the process of measuring the passenger seats and the sidecar takes place. 5. 2 The Potential Passengers The researchers must first ask permission from the potential passengers for them to start measuring. Once the passengers approve, the researchers will measure the polite height, sitting height, buttock-polite height, shoulder breadth, and the hip breadth of the passengers.
The subject sits erect on a hard surface with the thighs full supported and are parallel. The shoulders are relaxed. The respondent was asked to take off their shoes to avoid inaccuracies of the data. They were asked to be seated properly on the chair with their backs on the metal stand. After making sure that the respondent is exhibiting the proper posture, the proponents then proceeded with the measurement proper. Five measurements were taken from the different respondents. See Appendix C and D for the measurements of male and female) V. Data Gathering The different data gathered are classified below and each have their respective one place and wait for potential passengers. The tricycles are idle at this time because the drivers will be waiting for the passengers to come. This would be the reflect opportunity for the researchers to get measurements from the sidecar and the passenger seats without disturbing the drivers' business. 6. 4 Potential Passengers.
The chosen respondents were given the questionnaire before the measurement proper took place (See Appendix F). The questionnaire were given to the respondents because the proponents believe that the chosen respondents are the most qualified for the study, and that they have the right information that the proponents are seeking; they have the experience as well as a passenger of a tricycle which the study is looking for. After determining that the respondents fell within the scope of the group's study, they were then deemed as official respondents to the research.
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