Last Updated 21 Aug 2016

The Philippine E-Grand Prix Complex

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Abstract

The research and development of electric and alternatively driven cars are the next step in evolution of the automobiles; since the primary source of fuel for today’s cars are fossil fuels which is rapidly depleting and also damaging to the environment. In order to take the next step in the car’s evolution a research and development complex and test/racing track would be created to tackle the challenge of producing technology needed in order to make electric cars viable.

Creating a racing/test track and development complex in the heart of the city at the SM Central Business Park in Pasay that only caters to electric and alternative fuelled or driven cars and would become the testing grounds and home for car manufacturers, local universities or engineering/technology firms and enthusiasts professional and amateur creating and developing electric and alternatively driven vehicles, also becoming the venue for alternatively driven vehicle racing events in the future exposing the public to the technology. In conclusion creating the development complex for electric and alternatively driven vehicles would develop and research to make alternative and electric driven vehicles and alternative and eventual replacement of fossil fuel vehicles.

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Chapter 1

Introduction:

In today’s world the main form of transportation of getting from one place to another are cars or automobiles be it in the form of busses, cars, trucks or etc. they have become a necessary part of the world cars deliver our food and products, gets people to their work and where they need to be, enabled communities to grow in size and enabled people to live farther and travel longer distances. The invention of the automobile enabled communities to live farther away from where they work, to produce food and products away from the cities and be distributed to different places and enabled the majority of the population to travel long distances in relative safety.

The first appearances of the automobile began in 1976 with the creation of steam engine automobiles that were capable transporting people, in 1807 the first cars were equipped with internal combustion engines that run on fuel gas which became the model used to drive modern automobiles, simultaneously electric automobiles were also being developed and became moderately popular, but with problems and lack of development of battery technology at the time; which were small and very limited range, weight of the batteries and the problem of charging.

With the internal combustion engine not having any of these problems since it run on fuel gas which: was easy to transport and distribute, made refueling relatively easy and had great range, the internal combustion engine automobile became the standard type of vehicle and eventually led to the disappearance of electric vehicles until recently. (Curtis Darrel Anderson, Judy Anderson, 2010) The birth of the first true “modern automobile” appeared in the year 1886 with the Benz-Patent-Motorwagen created by German inventor Karl Benz which used a gasoline powered engine and was able to travel long distances that showed the viability of cars.

With the invention of the first modern automobile it proved that horseless carriages or automobiles were suitable and replacement of horses as the main form of transportation (citation), as technology improved so did automobiles leading to efficient, powerful, versatile, safe and fast cars of today but the same basic concept of the first modern automobiles are still used in today’s cars; with the use of an internal combustion engine fuelled by gasoline to power the vehicle. (Steven Parissien, 2013)

At the beginning of the 21st Century, interest in electrical and other alternative fuel vehicles has increased due to growing concern over the problems associated with hydrocarbon fueled vehicles, including damage to the environment caused by their emissions, and the sustainability of the current fossil fuel transportation infrastructure.

With the renewed interest in electric and other alternative fuel vehicles in the 1990s some companies began manufacturing and selling electric cars in the early 90s although there were only few models and production limited it sparked the revival of the electric vehicle (EV) and with the continued advancement of technology, electric cars are becoming more widespread and viable today 2010s with companies like Tesla exclusively selling electric cars and mainstream manufacturers Toyota, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Honda, Chevrolet, Citroen and Nissan fully electric production cars. (Gijs Mom, 2013)

As automobiles became more successful and widespread it quickly became a part of modern life, with pioneers organizing automobile races during the late 1800s and early 1900s to advertise and showcase the capabilities of automobiles and were publicity stunts that showcased that cars were safe, easy and convenient in comparison to horses and reliable. Most of the races at the time were mostly shows, although some were actual races held between drivers and their cars.

The races were held over long distances and lasted hours and some that took days to complete with distances of over 1000 kilometers with races starting from one city ending in another. In the 1930s to 1950s as cars became more popular and widespread with many companies starting to manufacture them, cars then started to become faster and faster with the high-end and expensive cars being turned into purpose built cars for speed and racing which then became the first race cars which competed in races, grand prixs, rallies and other forms of racing.( David Hassan,2013) After the Second World War with many empty and unused airfields and empty fields in Europe, enthusiasts and drivers started adapting and using them as race tracks which became the basis of modern motor racing and gave it an audience with the public.

Auto racing then evolved and branched into different kinds of racing which spawn different types of race cars and with motor racing starting to appear in different countries all over the world with the establishment of different racing series, championships and federations, with different levels of motorsport ranging from amateur to professional, and became established as modern day motor racing. (Rémi Paolozzi, 2003) Today major motorsport events are handled and governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) also known as the International Automobile Federation, they represent the interest of motoring organizations and motor car users around the world.

They handle auto racing events and classes, (e.g. Formula 1 and World Rally Championship) they create the rules and regulations for different classes of auto racing throughout the world and acts as its governing body through the local motoring associations and organizations of the country. (Barbara Bogusz, Adam Jan Cygan, Erika M. Szyszczak, 2007) Formula-E or officially FIA Formula E Championship is a class of auto racing, sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all participants' cars must comply. Formula E is intended to be the highest class of competition for one-make, single-seat, electrically-powered racing cars. The series was conceived in 2012, with the inaugural championship to be held from September 2014 – June 15 across 10 cities (Beijing, Putrajaya, Rio de Janeiro, Punta Del Este, Buenos Aires, Los Angeles, Miami, Monte Carlo, Berlin and London) around the world.

Background and Nature
Background:

Motor racing in the Philippines first started during the 1960s with racing events like the Manila Grand Prix; Philippines Grand Prix a street circuit located around Greenhills during 1973-1976 and the Great Gedol Grand Philippine Rally using cars that started out as production cars and were heavily modified into race cars and lasted through the 1970s during the time of the Marcos Regime these were considered the Golden Age of Philippines Motorsports where Philippine racing drivers and teams competed locally and internationally some becoming champions. Philippine motors racing today is still active with many regular events, racing series and championships from karting to touring cars from amateur to professional levels, accompanied by an active car and motoring culture. Motorsport tracks in the Philippines:

Batangas Racing Circuit – road racing circuit, holds international events Subic International Raceway – road racing circuit
Carmona Racing Circuit – karting circuit, motorbike circuit Clark International Speedway – road racing circuit
Nature:

Electric and Alternative Drive Racing – motorsport for race cars, production cars, prototypes, spec and formula cars that are alternatively powered vehicles, cars that don’t use the standard and conventional internal combustion engine and fossil fuel. Alternative drive vehicles: hybrid, electric, alternative fuel and fuel cell drive race cars and prototypes separated into different classes and spec, series and formula. A high tech motorsport featuring current and next generation automotive technology and used as a competitive testing ground to showcase, develop and pioneer
alternative and future automotive technologies.

Statement of the Problem

As the deterioration of the environment due to greenhouse gasses worsens, can man made greenhouses gasses be reduced or slowed down by using alternatively driven vehicles? By developing and using alternatively driven vehicles how significant would it be at lowering man made greenhouse gasses in comparison with the traditional internal combustion engines. In order to develop these kinds of technologies in automobiles, auto racing has been an essential competitive proving and testing ground for pioneering, introducing and developing automotive technologies.

Which leads to; would alternatively drive vehicles be a viable replacement or alternative for conventional motorsport? Can alternative drive vehicles be as exciting, authentic and high-tech as conventional motor racing and would technologies developed and used in these races and race cars be transferrable or relevant to the next generation or type of production cars.

Project Objectives

1. To study conventional and alternative drive motor racing and race cars. To distinguish and list the differences between conventional and alternative drive motor racing and race cars and to be used as a base to compare its respective strengths and weaknesses. 2. To study the different types of motorsport around the world which use electric or alternative drive race cars. To create a basis of information and data in order to create an electric or alternative drive motorsport that can be adapted and used in the Philippine setting. 3. To study the viability and feasibility of electric and alternative drive motorsport in the Philippines.

To see if an electric and alternative drive racing series and track would be a viable motorsport in the Philippines. To study what it would take to create a successful electric and alternative drive racing series. 4. To locate an area in the Philippines that would be suitable and accessible for a racing and development track for alternatively driven vehicles. To locate an area in the Philippines that would be suitable for motorsport that would be accessible to international and local competitors and developers and be accessible to the local motorsport culture and the general public.

Keywords

1. Electric Vehicle – electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Three main types of electric vehicles exist, those that are directly powered from an external power station, those that are powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source, and those that are powered by an on-board electrical generator (hybrid electric vehicles), such as an internal combustion engine or a hydrogen fuel cell EV.

2. Alternative Drive Vehicle - a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than conventional fossil fuel (gasoline or diesel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicle, solar powered).

3. Motorsports - group of competitive sports which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

4. Auto racing/ Motor racing – group of competitive sports involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

5. Race Track - a facility for racing of vehicles, which include spectator facilities such as grandstands, hospitality, facilities for competitors, such as pit lanes and garages.

6. Automotive Technology - technologies found and used and developed in automobiles. Many of these technologies also have other applications. Significance of the Problem

To see if there would be interest in electric and alternatively driven vehicles from enthusiasts and the general public. To see the economic difference of alternatively driven race cars from standard race cars based on fuel, parts, maintenance and running cost. To see if electric and alternatively driven vehicles would be a legitimate motorsport.

Project Scope and Limitations

Scope:
Racing Track/Circuit Complex
Development and Testing Facilities
Limitations:
Pioneering research in the Philippines.
Few resources and Local Case Studies.
Local Tracks are far and few.
Few electric cars in the Philippines.
Electric cars are not popular and in widespread use locally.

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
1. Fifty Cars that Changed the World
Conran Octupus: London 2009
ISBN 9781840915365
pg. 100

The book showcases the 50 most influential cars of the automotive industry to date. The Toyota Prius was released in 1997 which showed the commitment of a major manufacturer in alternative fuel technology. The Toyota Prius is a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) a car that has a normal internal combustion (IC) engine which is partnered with an electric motor and batteries which power the car the at low speeds and at higher speeds using the IC engine which charges the battery of the electric motor producing high fuel and power efficiency which saves fuel. The Toyota Prius paved the way for the popularity and resurgence of electric and hybrid cars in popular culture today.

2. Modern Car Technology
Jeff Daniels
Haynes Publishing: CA 2001
ISBN 9781859608111
Chapter 8, pg. 82-89

Chapter 8 discusses the workings and mechanics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell Vehicles and also other green alternatives such as Bio-Diesel, Ethanol and LPG.

3. Hybrid, Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles
Jack Erjavec, Jeff Arias
Delmar Publishers Inc.: NY
ISBN 9781401881055

Hybrid, Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles - explains the basic and mechanical principles of the Hybrid (HEV), Battery Electric (BEV) and Fuel Cell (FCV) vehicles. It shows the basics of each type of vehicle their mechanics and technologies and goes into more advanced and complex mechanics, principles and technologies of each type of alternative vehicle. It also distinguishes each type of vehicles advantages and disadvantages and differences over the traditional ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles and other alternative vehicles.

4. Bio Ethanol: Production, Benefits and Economics
Jason B. Earbum
Nova Science Publishers Inc.: NY 2009
ISBN 9781607406975
Chapter 9 pg.151-152, Chapter 10 pg.165-167, Chapter 11 pg.173-178

Chapter 9 shows the widespread and worldwide use of Ethanol (E10) in normal vehicles which is 80% unleaded fuel mixed with Ethanol. In Chapter 10 discusses Bio-Diesel which is used as a diesel additive or be used as a complete replacement for diesel in diesel powered vehicles and Ethanol as an additive or as fuel on flexible fuel vehicles and its history. In Chapter 11 it discusses Fuel consumption of normal fuel and bio fuels worldwide, the cost and benefits of biofuels, how bio fuels affect air Quality and climate change.

5. Fuel Cell Engines
Matthew M. Mench
John Wiley & Sons Inc.: NJ 2008
ISBN 978047168958
Chapter 1 pg.1-24

Chapter 1 discusses the uses of fuel cell technology (a device that creates electricity through chemical reactions with a fuel), the classes of fuel cells, potential uses from portable devices, stationary devices or power plants and in transportation as fuel cell vehicles and lastly the history of fuel cell development.

6. Biofuels for Transport: Global potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy and Agriculture World Watch Institute
Earthscan: London 207
Chapter 1 pg. 3-9, Chapter 15 pg.250-262, Part 8 pg.329-344

Chapter 1 discusses the current status of biofuels and its industry and gives an overview of what biofuel is (Bio Diesel, Ethanol). Chapter 15 shows the different types biofuel vehicles; Bio-diesel which can be used in normal diesel vehicles or as an additive and ethanol which is added in E10 fuels used normal cars and fully ethanol driven cars. Part 8 shows country studies of bio fuels from China, India, Tanzania, Brazil and Germany.

7. Fossil Fuels and Pollution: The Future of Air Quality
Jackie Kerr Casper, Ph.D.
Facts on File Inc.: NY 2010
ISBN 978081672651
Chapter 1 pg. 1-25, Chapter 2 pg. 26-62, Chapter 5 pg. 111-114, Chapter 9 pg. 197-209

Chapter 1 gives an overview of fossil fuel and its history, Chapter 2 discusses the effects of fossil fuels its potentials and how it can affect the health of people. Chapter 5 discusses fuel economy and the rate of global use of fossil fuels. Chapter 9 shows alternative vehicles to ICE vehicles: Hybrid, Electric, Flexible Fuel, Plug-in, Air Powered and Fuel Cell vehicles and future developments and technologies of vehicles.

8. Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen
Second Edition
Michael Frank Hordeski
The Fairmont Press Inc. / Taylor & Francis Ltd.: GA 2008
ISBN 9781420080162
Chapter 3 pg. 67-100, Chapter 4 pg. 101-124

Chapter 3 gives the history of cars from its inception and the accompanying history of fuels used by cars. Chapter 4 takes a more in-depth look at the fuel development of vehicles up to the present and also the alternative fuels and technologies and how hydrogen used in fuel cells can power and be used in vehicles of the future.

9. Vehicle Powertrain Systems
Behrooz Mashadi, David Crolla
John Wiley & Sons: West Sussex, UK 2012
ISBN 9780470666029
Chapter 7 pg. 425-474

Gives an in-depth look at vehicle powertrain systems (the system that make the car move) gives an introduction to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) its parts: internal combustion engine, electric motor and batteries and the different types of HEVs: Series and Parallel.

10. Fundamentals of Automotive Technology
Kirk T. Van Gelder
Jones & Barett Learning: MA 2014
ISBN 9781449624118

A manual and in-depth guide automotive technology and systems, and an in-depth guide to alternative fuels and drive systems used in today’s cars: Biofuel vehicles and the different types Ethanol, Bio Diesel, Methanol, Bio Bubetanol, Fuel Cell vehicles with only hydrogen fuel cells being viable and used, Battery Electric Vehicles that only use electricity and need to be
charged and Hybrid Drives which use an ICE and an Electric motor and batteries and different types: Series, Parallel and Series-Parallel.

11. Electric Vehicles: Technology, Policy and Commercial Development Serra, Jao Vitor Fernandes
Earthscan: London 2011
ISBN 9781849714150

The book gives a brief history as to why the internal combustion engines are used in vehicles. How electric vehicles work and the technologies, principle and mechanics used and a history of electric vehicle development. The cost effectiveness of electric vehicles versus traditional internal combustion engines and the alternative vehicles. And lastly discusses the policies for electric vehicles in order to push them to be used.

12. Hybrid & Alternative Fuel Vehicles
James D. Halderman, Tony Martin
Pearson: NJ 2011
ISBN 9780135103845

An in-depth manual and expert guide for current Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicles in which the book shows the concepts and mechanics of different types of vehicles and shows different examples actual and current hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles and an in-depth and expert look at their systems and technologies.

13. Automotive Engineering: Powertrain, Chassis System and Vehicle Body 1st Edition
David A. Crolla
Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, UK 2009
ISBN 9781856175777
Chapter 6 pg. 141-172 Chapter 7 pg. 175-202

Chapter 6 discusses the mechanics and principles of electric vehicles on how they work and the technologies used for them to work. Chapter 7 shows the concept and principles in order for Fuel cell vehicles to work, the technologies and mechanics in the workings of these type of vehicles and explains the technology behind it.

14. The Electric Vehicle: Technology and Expectations in the Automobile Age Gijs Mom
JHU Press: 2013
ISBN: 9781421412689

The book provides a complete and detailed history of the electric car from the replacement of horses and rise of the automobile. The book in detail discusses the progress of the automobile from the horseless carriage to present day, but focuses on the electric cars, which were actually used before internal combustion engines on cars.

It discusses the early shortcomings of the electric car from the short battery life and range which made the ICE vehicle the preferred choice early in the cars development, to misconceptions about electric cars that led it to be forgotten in automotive technology until recently when it has been rediscovered as an alternative to fossil fueled vehicles due to depleting fuel resources and environmental issues.

15. Electric and Hybrid Cars: A History
Curtis Darrel Anderson, Judy Anderson
McFarland, 2010
ISBN: 9780786457427

The book discusses Electric and Hybrid Cars from a brief introduction of the birth of the automobile industry and the evolution of the electric car from its earliest iterations to it resurgence today. It also discusses the politics that happened in the history of the electric car because it was a competitor to gas powered cars and answered why the electric car suddenly disappeared. It also discusses the technological advancements that made the electric car possible and the marketing of these types of cars today. 16. The History of Motor Sport: A Case Study Analysis (Sport in the Global Society - Historical perspectives) David Hassan

Routledge, 2013
ISBN: 9780415851213
Chapter 2

Gives the history of the beginnings of motor racing that started in France and the pioneers in Belgium, it also tells on how automobile racing expanded throughout Europe.

17. The Regulation of Sport in the European Union
Barbara Bogusz, Adam Jan Cygan, Erika M. Szyszczak
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007
ISBN: 9781847208569
pgs. 74-96

Explains what the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) is and its power as the governing body of all forms of motorsports using four or more wheels. It focused on its regulation on Formula 1 auto racing and the extent of power and abuses the FIA had on the auto racing being able to force out competing other motorsports not sanctioned by the FIA.

18. McKinsey Quarterly, February 2011
The fast lane to the adoption of electric cars
Russell Hensley, Strefan M. Knupfer and Axel Krieger

The article is about electric cars and its adoption in large metropolitan cities; Shanghai, Paris and New York in these study. In the article it states that to the buyers and users of electric cars in metropolitan cities the things that are important are the cars being a status symbol especially in Shanghai and New York, the benefits to the environment and the savings from using electricity.

Another point of the article was the preferences of electric vehicles of the three cities in where in Shanghai they preferred PHEVs in which were able to use a normal engine after running out of gas, BEVs in New York and Paris which were pure Electric vehicles which relied on batteries and charging. Lastly the article studied that incentives that attracted buyers were not monetary but low cost incentives what they were attracted to, and that the future of mass producing EVs relied on fixed routes delivery vehicles in metropolitan cities making the switch EVs.

19. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Volume 3 Towards All-Electric FSAE Race Cars
S. Watkins, G. Pearson, M. King
ISBN 9789881925152; ISSN: 20780966(Online)

FSAE is a global student based competition with over 200 universities involved, it is a competition where student-teams create a small scale racing car following a strict set of rules limiting the students and make them more reliant on their ingenuity and creativity in order to get more performance from their vehicles. With the changing automotive market with new and technologies especially electric and alternative fuel vehicles creating a sub-racing series that would create all-electric FSAE cars would help students and engineers.

20. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010
DOI: 10.1021/es100520c
Environmental Implication of Electric Vehicles in China
Hong Huo, Qiang Zhang, Michael Q. Wang, David G. Streets and Kebin He

The article is about the study of the environmental implication of electric vehicles as a replacement for the traditional internal combustion engine vehicle. The study compared the CO2 level of traditional ICE vehicles and the CO2 levels from the additional CO2 production of power plants which use coal for the charging of electric vehicles (which in theses study replaced ICE vehicles) and found electric vehicles did not give much benefit in reducing CO2 production. In conclusion to their study they found that electric vehicles were a great solution to oil shortage but failed to address the environmental issue.

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