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The Municipal Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay

1.0 Introduction

Chapter one provides an overview of the whole survey. It begins with the background to the survey.

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It besides inside informations the intent of the survey, the job statement, the research inquiries and the aims. The research hypothesis, the significance of the survey and the restrictions to the survey are besides included in this chapter.

1.1 Background to the Study

More than half of the universe ‘s population live in countries that are classified as urban ( Brook and Davila, 2001 ) . Taking Africa as an illustration, its population will about treble by 2050 and this will be chiefly in the urban and peri-urban countries ( UN-Habitat 2001 ) .

Rapid urbanization, which is chiefly driven by the inflow of migrators from rural countries in hunt of better supports, has its attendant effects. Increasing waste coevals rates due population growing, altering life styles of people, development and ingestion of merchandises with stuffs that are less biodegradable have led to the diverse challenges for Municipal Solid Waste Management ( MSWM ) in assorted metropoliss of the universe ( Asase et al 2009 )

Nemerow et Al ( 2009 ) define solid waste as any assortment of solid stuffs every bit good as some liquids in containers, which are discarded or rejected as being spent, useless, worthless or in extra. It must be noted that although waste might non hold any user value to the proprietor it still holds some value, peculiarly plastic and metallic waste still keep some value when discarded. This is apparent in the recycling of fictile waste and the aggregation of metallic waste by scavengers for recycling.

Harmonizing to UNEP ( 2005 ) , waste coevals rates of a state normally goes up straight relative to technological promotion in development, and the inability to set in topographic point a waste direction system. Consequently, there could be enhanced urban population hazard, as a consequence of pronounced environmental crud.

A important proportion of urban waste in Ghana is deposited either on the roads, waysides, unapproved shit sites, in waterways, drainage system, or in unfastened topographic points. In fact, solid waste poses assorted menaces to public wellness, and adversely affects vegetations and zoologies every bit good as the environment ; particularly when it is non suitably collected and disposed ( Geraldu, 1995 ) .

Sanitation and good hygiene are cardinal to wellness, endurance, growing and development. The Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) have set us on a common class to force back poorness, inequality, hungriness and unwellness. Having a healthy urban environment sets a metropolis on path for development. The effects of solid waste direction is a large cost to the state in footings of wellness because when refuse ends up in the incorrect topographic point, it pollutes H2O, air and the dirt, making negative wellness impacts, and offers bacteriums and pests a friendly environment in which to multiply.

Ghana, with a population of 23 million generates about 4.5 million metric dozenss of solid waste a twelvemonth ( Agyepong, 2011 ) .

With an estimated population of about 2 million people, the Kumasi Metropolis generates an norm of 1,500 metric tons of solid waste daily. Out of this sum the KMA is merely able to roll up about 1,300 metric tons go forthing the staying 200 metric tons uncollected due to inadequate waste aggregation logistics ( KMA, 2010 ) . No purpose about effectivity in disposal and recycling or reuse.

In recent times, a popular waste direction option that has caught the attending of the Metropolitan Authorities in the urban Centres is the use of private waste direction companies. Though the usage of private waste direction companies in covering with the challenge of effectual direction of urban waste is yet gaining popularity among developing states in sub-Saharan Africa, it provides a formidable agencies of procuring a feasible waste direction option for urban governments and carry throughing the dreams of accomplishing environmentally clean vicinities for urban inhabitants. Prominent among the private waste direction companies contracted by the Waste Management Department of the KMA to assist carry through its authorization of turn toing solid waste direction issues in the city is the Zoomlion Ghana Limited, which seems to be executing its undertaking creditably in the face of dashing challenges associated with urban solid waste direction in Ghana. From literature and experts in the field of waste direction field, a set of public presentation indexs like the waste direction activities they render ( ie street sweeping, drain cleansing, waste aggregation and disposal ) , operational capacity in footings of staffing, machinery and equipments, the fiscal viability of their activities etc. are needed to measure operations of waste direction in the Metropolis efficaciously.

1.2 Problem Statement

Kumasi is referred to as Garden City of West Africa. The latter is an award earned from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on a Royal visit to Ghana in 1957, chiefly due to its vegetations and beauty. Kumasi is fast losing its glorification chiefly due to rapid urbanisation and its attender job of comparatively immense waste coevals and hapless direction of the waste. It is now rather common to see tonss of waste dotted all over the cities, Normally the ground given by the general populace for these ugly sights is that metropolis governments fail to either provide or oversee the proviso of waste containers at vantage points. The City Authorities are further accused of neglecting to guarantee that regular and/or frequent voidance of the waste containers are done, even where these are provided. Individual end-users of the services of private waste direction companies frequently complain about undependable service bringing by these waste direction houses. On the other manus, these private waste direction houses argue that metropolis governments hamper their pursuit for quality service bringing through bureaucratism, with respects to honoring contractual understandings with the City Authorities. All this leads to ineffective waste direction.

It is by and large believed that uneffective waste direction can do taint of surface H2O, groundwater, dirt, and air, which bring more jobs to worlds, other species, and ecosystems. Additionally, there is attractive force of insects and gnawers, which provides a oasis for xanthous febrility, the pestilence, GI parasites, worms, and assorted inauspicious human conditions. Several diseases, every bit good as malignant neoplastic diseases are caused by exposing worlds to wastes ensuing from the burnt gnawers and insects.

Waste intervention and disposal produce important nursery gas ( GHG ) emanations, notably methane, and contributes significantly to planetary clime alteration ( International Waste Activities, 2003 ) .

Besides, the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly ( KMA ) incurs a monthly outgo of GHA?585,000.00 on the direction of solid waste in the Metropolis ( KMA, 2011 ) . Intelligibly, the significant cost involved in solid waste direction within the Metropolis arouses stakeholder involvement in cognizing the quality of service being rendered by contracted waste direction houses.

This survey seeks to look into the public presentation of urban solid waste direction in the Kumasi Metropolis, find how effectively Zoomlion, a contracted private waste direction company performs its operations

1.3 Aims of the Study

To measure the public presentation of private sector engagement via Zoomlion a privately-owned waste direction company, with respect to urban solid waste direction in the Kumasi Metropolis.

Specific Aims of the survey are:

To measure the operational capacity of Zoomlion in footings of staffing and equipment for effectual operations.

To gauge the measure of waste handled per period and its associated cost.

To gauge the gross generated and the fiscal viability of Municipal solid waste direction operations of Zoomlion.

To measure solid waste recycling activity in Kumasi Metropolis.

To find the challenges of waste direction and perceptual experience of end-users on quality of waste direction in Kumasi.

1.4 Research Questions

The inquiries this survey seeks to turn to are:

What is the operational capacity of Zoomlion in footings of staffing and equipment for effectual operation?

What are the measure of waste handled per period and its associated cost?

What are the gross generated and the fiscal viability of the municipal solid direction operations of Zoomlion?

What solid waste recycling activities are in the Metropolis?

What are the challenges of waste direction and perceptual experience of end-users on quality of waste direction in Kumasi?

1.5 Justification of the survey

Efficient urban waste direction is important in the attainment and nutriment of the position of millenary metropolis by Kumasi. Indeed, sanitation signifiers one of the major focal points of the Millennium Cities Initiatives ‘ societal sector and investment-related research in Kumasi. Knowledge of the grade of efficiency of waste direction by the Zoom king of beasts in the Kumasi Metropolis and the challenges faced in the bringing of this service would guarantee better grasp of the kineticss of urban waste direction by all stakeholders including policy shapers. It would besides supply critical information to prospective investors in the urban waste direction venture. Assorted surveies have been conducted sing urban waste direction in the Kumasi Metropolis but small or nil seems to hold been done in the country of measuring the public presentation of private urban waste direction houses, and consequences from this survey will make full the cognition spread.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The survey would be carried out within the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The survey seeks to reexamine the waste direction policy of KMA waste section and the operations of its associated contracted private waste companies in the Kumasi Metropolis. Zoomlion Ghana Limited would be used as a instance survey for the whole undertaking. The mark for the survey includes staff members of the KMA waste section, Zoomlion Ghana Limited every bit good as that of little recycling concern ( scavengers ) . The participants for the survey would be selected utilizing simple random trying whereby each participant would hold an equal opportunity of being involved in the survey. The usage of simple random sampling is to enable the research worker avoid any signifier of biaseness in the choice procedure. Interviews, questionnaires and observation would be used to arouse the needed information from the mark group. Performance Indexs are: frequent dislocation of vehicles and equipments, payment of service fees, logistical restraints, monitoring/ supervising by KMA, abregation/revision of contractual understanding, and consciousness of sanitation pass Torahs.

1.7 Restriction of the Study

Acquisition of information on cost of operations and gross generated by Zoomlion Gh Ltd is anticipated to be hard because of the high confidentiality that persons and concerns attach to such information. Most functionaries will non voluntarily grant interviews until they have sought permission from higher authorization.

1.8 Structure of the Study

The survey is structured into five chapters. Chapter one will present the survey including the background, the job statement, aims and the undertaking range. Chapter two will supply information refering to reexamine of literature relevant to the survey subject. In this chapter, the bing organic structure of cognition would be reviewed to decently set up the theoretical foundation for the thesis. Chapter three will capture the research methodological analysis, detailing the research instruments and techniques that would be employed by the research worker in roll uping informations, analyzing the information and construing the consequences. Chapter four will give an overview of the consequences of informations collected in chapter three, together with analysis and treatment with regard to findings of other similar surveies. Chapter five will wrap up the whole survey by supplying information refering to the sum-up, the decision and recommendation of the survey.

Chapter TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Definition of Waste

Materials that are non needfully classified as premier merchandises are regarded as waste. By and large, these stuffs are those that the generator intends to dispose of. Further, these stuffs do non happen extra use with regard to alter, ingestion, or production by the generator of the waste. The coevals of wastes may ensue from natural stuffs extraction, natural stuffs treating into in-process and concluding merchandises, the use of finished merchandises and diverse human actions. The recycling of remainders or unmoved reuse are non included ( GST, 2002 ) .

The returning of substances to the environment is a end point of the happening of a natural portion of the recycle. The wastes recycled by populating beings are excreted by in-take of natural stuffs by populating beings. However, a farther flow of the residue of stuffs that would make an overload of the capacity of procedure involved in natural recycling is produced by people. Therefore, to cut down their impact on the wellness, aesthetics and the environment, there should be proper direction of the wastes ( Environmental Literacy Council, 2002 ) .

Man-made systems which emphasize the economic value of stuffs and energy, and where production and ingestion are the dominant economic activities. Such systems tend to be extremely destructive of the environment as they require monolithic ingestion of natural capital and energy, return the terminal merchandise ( waste ) to the environment in a signifier that amendss the environment and necessitate more natural capital be consumed in order to feed the system. Where resources and infinite are finite ( the Earth is non acquiring any bigger ) this is finally non sustainable. The presence of waste is an indicant of overconsumption and that stuffs are non being used expeditiously ( Fullcycle, 2009 ) .

2.2 Types of Waste

2.2.1 Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW )

The nomenclature – municipal solid waste ( MSW ) – is used for the wastes that are collected from commercial edifices, families, light industrial procedures and establishments like schools and infirmaries. The chief constituents of MSW are yard fixingss, containers and packing stuffs, wastes from nutrients, paper and containers. In add-on, the followers may besides be contained in MSW ; industrial sludge, which may be either non-hazardous or risky from n, building, excavation, and processes involved in fabrication. There is no immediate menace to the wellness of homo or the natural environment, if MSW is managed decently.

In Ghana solid waste refers chiefly to:

Domestic waste ( waste from nutrient readying, brushing, discarded family points ) ,

Municipal waste ( waste generated in commercial Centres ) ,

Industrial waste ( e.g. wood waste, waste from butcheries and nutrient processing industries, metal garbages from garages ) ( Poku, 2009 ) .

2.2.2 Waste

Existing in a solid, liquid or gaseous signifier, a waste stuff may be flammable, reactive, caustic or toxic. Despite the fact that the term “ waste ” is associated with risky stuffs, the former includes merchandises used on a day-to-day footing. Waste stuffs include shoe Polish, detergents, batteries, used oil from motorised conveyance, and pigment. Additionally, the production processes of several times that we use day-to-day generate risky wastes. Legislations have been put in topographic point to enjoin commercial and industrial concerns to pull off their wastes from the point of coevals till the clip of disposal. In order to understate the risky nature of wastes, the latter is frequently made to undergo intervention with a position to modifying their biological, chemical and physical features. In modern-day times, many industrial concerns change their production processes or replace harmful stuffs with less insecure 1s in the value concatenation, so as to understate the coevals of risky wastes.

2.2.3 E-Waste

In modern times, there is a new waste watercourse, which is competently termed ‘e-waste ‘ . The term e-waste is applied to electronic equipment and appliances that are utilised by industries and end-users, which have virtually come to the terminal of their utile life. The equipment and appliances in inquiry include facsimile machines, duplicators and telecasting screens. Classical illustrations of e-waste are the cathode beam tubings in telecastings and computing machine proctors, which are virtually exhausted. The fact that these equipment and appliances contain risky stuffs airss challenges during their disposal. On history of the famine of proper processs to pull off them, most of the e-waste sits lazily, alternatively of being recycled or being reused. Reselling and contribution to charities by their proprietor are some of the ways by which some of these equipment and appliances could be put to good usage.

2.3 Composition of Solid Waste

Information on the composing of solid waste is of import in measuring alternate equipment demands, systems, and direction programme and programs for solid waste aggregation ( Tchobanoglous et al. , 1993 ) . For case, if wastes are generated from a commercial installation that consists of merely paper merchandises, the usage of particular treating equipment such as shredders and balers may be appropriate. Separate aggregation may besides be considered if different metropolis aggregation bureaus are involved. Harmonizing to ( Asase et al. , 2009 ) the composing of solid waste in the Kumasi metropolis is preponderantly made of biodegradable stuffs and high per centum of inert stuffs which include wood ash, sand and wood coal. Table 2.1 shows the solid waste composing in the Kumasi country.

Table 2.1: Composition of Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) for Kumasi in 2011

Waste constituent

Percentage of Municipal Solid Waste constituent

Organic Material

40.19

Plastics

19.86

Glass/ bottles

1.20

Paper and composition board

7.04

Metallic elements

2.23

Fabrics

6.94

Inert ( Sand, ash, all right organics, destruction waste ) Material

20.84

Wood

1.71

Entire

100.00

Beginning: KMA WMD ( 2012 )

2.4 Waste Management Hierarchy

The waste direction hierarchy can be traced back to the seventiess, when the environment motion started to review the pattern of disposal-based waste direction. Rather than sing ‘rubbish ‘ as a homogeneous mass that should be buried, they argued that it was made up of different stuffs that should be treated otherwise – some should n’t be produced, some should be reused, some recycled or composted, some should be burnt and others buried ( Schall 1992 ) .

The waste hierarchy refers to the practical ways of pull offing waste with the chief purpose of pull outing maximal benefits from merchandises and bring forth minimal sum of waste, the ways are listed in order of importance. They are beginning decrease and reuse, recycle and composting, energy recovery and in conclusion, intervention and disposal. ( US EPA, 2012 ) Below is graphical representation of the waste direction Hierarchy, with the least preferable option, disposal marked at the underside of the trigon, and at the top is the most preferable option, that is beginning decrease and reuse. Unfortunately WMD of KMA pattern the least preferable option, which is the the disposal at the landfill site, that means our direction system in the city is non the best and it looks non sustainable excessively without the other intercessions shown on the diagram.

Degree centigrades: UsersuserDesktopwaste_hierarchy_green_400pxw.png

Figure 2.1: Waste Management Hierarchy

Beginning: . ( US EPA, 2012 )

2.4.1 Source Reduction and Reuse

This intercession or scheme agencies cut downing waste at beginning, cut downing the sum of waste you produce really prevents it from stacking up. To travel by this scheme, avoid unneeded packaging, and points designed to be used merely one time. Example, a lasting re-useable bags should be used for shopping alternatively of roll uping a batch of polyethene bags.

Recycling points saves a batch of energy, natural resources, saves money for consumers and concerns. For illustration functional containers, vesture, furniture etc can be donated to charity alternatively of dumping them at the garbage dump to increase waste coevals. ( US EPA, 2012 ) .

2.4.2 Recycling and Composting

Recycling

The assemblage of used points and discarded stuffs and treating them into new merchandises is referred to as recycling. In recycling, there is minimization of the quantum that is otherwise discarded into the rubbish bins of communities. This consequences in comparatively clean environment, while bettering the quality of the ambient air ( Lave et al.,1999 ) . Some of the benefits of recycling waste are resource efficiency, extenuation in the impact on the environment from waste intervention and the disposal thereof. In consequence, this leads to a cleansing agent and a healthier environment. Extra benefits include a lessening in infinite for landfill sites, thereby, salvaging money and clip. There is besides a net economy in the quantum of resources required for bring forthing of new and advanced merchandises ( Tchobanoglous et al. , 2003 ) .

During composting, which is a biological procedure, bacteriums and fungi – micro-organisms – help the transition of biodegradable substances into other stuffs which look like humus. This procedure leads to a substance with the features of a dirt, which is rich in C and N and provides a medium for seting harvests and trees. The composting procedure allows waste in kitchens to be put to good usage as foods through recycling some utile substances in waste nutrient and other stuffs. Composting combines the advantages of cleanliness, safety, bargain rate, while markedly understating the quantum of refuse intended for the rubbish bins. Compost stuff, which is an organic type of a fertiliser, may be used alternatively of chemical fertilisers chiefly for the growth of veggies. Another advantage of compost is its leaning to retain H2O, while doing the dirt comparatively easy to cultivate. More significantly, the ability of the works to retain foods is aided by compost ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005 ) . In general, the ambient conditions in Ghana are really suited for composting.

2.4.3 Energy Recovery

This intercession is retrieving functional energy such as heat, electricity, or fuel from waste stuffs that are to recycle and recycle, peculiarly plastics, through assortment procedures including burning, gasification, anaerobiotic digestion, landfill gas recovery and pyrolization. Example solid waste can be combusted at really high temperatures which produces heat, that heat is used to change over H2O in to steam. That steam can be used to turn turbines to bring forth electricity ( US EPA, 2012 ) .

2.4.4 Treatment and Disposal

This intercession is the last of the assorted solid waste direction options mentioned above.There are many different methods of disposing of solid waste in the universe but the most common methods used in Ghana and other parts of Africa are landfill, unfastened dumping and incineration. Landfill is the most common and likely histories for more than 90 per centum of the state ‘s municipal garbage even though landfills have been proven contaminates of imbibing H2O in certain countries. Landfills are constructed and operated to strict environmental criterions, illustration the line drives are designed in a manner to protect the land H2O.

2.5 Waste Management Indexs

Waste Management Indicators are variables that influence the public presentation of waste direction operations. These indexs are largely derived from literature and experts in the field of waste. From the contractual understandings ( signed between the WMD of KMA and the private waste direction ‘s companies in the Kumasi Metropolis, public presentation indexs like the waste direction activities and how they are suppose to put to death it ( ie. waste aggregation from house and communal garbage dump and disposal ) , operational capacity in footings of staffing, machinery and equipments are listed in it. Garcia-Sanchez ( 2007 ) besides used street cleansing, waste aggregation and the intervention of solid waste as indexs on the public presentation of Spanish solid waste aggregation.

2.6 Theory of Waste Management

In industrialized states the waste direction patterns evolved with the 1970 ‘s concentrating on cut downing environmental impacts ( Tanskanen, 2000 ) . This was done by making controlled landfill sites ( Read, 2003 ) , set uping waste transportation Stationss or airting waste aggregation vehicle paths ( Truitt et al. 1969 ) . The 1980 ‘s and early 1990 ‘s focused on new technological solutions for waste direction while the mid 1990 ‘s until today, the focal point is on resource recovery ( Read, 2003 ) . In this respect recycling, incineration, composting and bioreactor intervention for energy and alimentary recovery methods are included in MSWM systems ( Chang and Wei, 1999 ; MacDonald, 1996a ) .

Changes in waste direction policies in recent times have shifted waste direction planning from trust on landfill towards Integrated Solid Waste Management ( ISWM ) attacks ( Read, 2003 ) . New directives/legislations are being promulgated in the EU and the US on waste disposal in the involvement of the environment. Examples among them are ; the January 1st 2003 addition in revenue enhancement to 370 Swedish Kronor per ton of landfilled waste in Sweden ( RVF, 2003 ) ; and the 1993 United States ‘ Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ( RCRA ) Subtitle D which requires landfills to be impermeably lined and equipped with leachate and gas aggregation equipment ( Pacey, 1999 ) . These policies and their enforcement have helped the developed states in implementing the waste hierarchy ; bar, stuffs recovery, incineration and landfill. For case the 1993 Government Action Plan on Waste and Recycling in Denmark set out to accomplish marks of 54 % recycling, 25 % incineration and 21 % landfill by the twelvemonth 2000 ( Sakai et al. , 1996 ) . In the development universe nevertheless, hapless enforcement or non-existence of waste direction policies have resulted in the dependance on unfastened dumping. Improvements in the country of building healthful landfills in these parts have most frequently been supported by the World Bank and other bilateral giver bureaus ( Johannessen and Boyer, 1999 ) .

2.6.1 Waste Collection

The term waste aggregation includes non merely the aggregation of solid waste from assorted beginnings but besides the trucking of these wastes to the location where the contents of the aggregation vehicles are emptied ( Tchobanoglous et al. , 1993 ) . Waste aggregation is besides described as a constituent of waste direction which consequences in the transition of waste stuffs from the beginning of production to either the point of intervention or concluding disposal site ( Sampson, 2003 ) .

The manner and mode in which waste is collected in footings of vehicle types, capacities, staffing degrees and unit of ammunition constellation depends on the nature of the aggregation. For illustration family / commercial, and the contractual agreements put in topographic point ( working hours, disposal points, stuffs collected and receptacles used, e.g. black bag, wheelie-bin, orangish poke ) .

Harmonizing to Tchobanoglous et Al. ( 1993 ) , waste aggregation starts with the containers keeping stuffs that a generator has designated as no longer utile and ends with the transit of the solid waste to a location for processing or disposal. In high income countries, the private waste aggregation companies collect the waste straight from families with compactor trucks for dumping pieces in low and in-between income countries, occupants carry their waste to public waste containers provided by the Waste Management Department at communal aggregation points ( Boadi and Kuitunen, 2003 ) .

2.6.2 Waste Collection Service/Methods

Solid waste aggregation systems and methods in Kumasi are unequal to cover a big portion of the metropolis, peculiarly, in hapless homesteader colonies, and unaccessible vicinity to roll up all the expected waste to be generated in the metropoliss ( Boadi and Kuitunen, 2003 ) . The chief types of waste aggregation methods are roll uping co-mingle or non-separated waste at beginning and waste at beginning separated. Waste aggregation methods vary widely between different states and parts. Domestic waste aggregation services are frequently provided by local authorities governments, or by private industry. Developing states do non hold a formal waste-collection system even though these states are now following some of the popular waste aggregation systems around the universe. For case in Australia, the curbside aggregation is the method of disposal of waste where every urban domestic family is provided with three bins: one for recyclables, another for general waste and another for garden stuffs. These bins are provided by the municipality if requested. In Ghana the Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies are responsible for the aggregation and concluding disposal of solid waste through their Waste Management Departments ( WMDs ) and their Environmental Health and Sanitation Departments ( www.ghanadistrics.com, 2009 ) .

There are two chief types of waste aggregation services that are delivered by the private operators in the Kumasi Metropolis. These are house-to-house and communal aggregation services. Peter et al. , ( 2009 ) asserted that the backing of the house-to-house aggregation services in the Kumasi Metropolis increased from 2.1 per cent of the population in 1999 to 20.8 per cent in 2005. It was besides observed that occupants of the metropolis are willing to sponsor the service if satisfactory degrees of service could be guaranteed.

2.6.3 Household and Commercial Waste Collection

Family wastes are by and large generated from places. They are gathered in waste bins, plastic or metal containers, plastic bags for aggregation by waste aggregator utilizing a waste aggregation vehicle. The waste generated from families are carried to cardinal waste aggregation point ( reassign Stationss ) where they would be loaded into a vehicle and either sent to a landfill site or to an alternate waste intervention installation. The sum of waste generated from families and commercial topographic points far exceeds the volume collected. Harmonizing to Boadi and Kuitunen ( 2003 ) , 60 % of the entire waste generated in Accra is collected yearly go forthing the 40 % ungathered. Harmonizing to the Kumasi Waste Management Department ( 2009 ) , and the private waste direction companies in Kumasi, their inability to roll up all the waste generated from the families and the commercial countries are as a consequence of hapless route web within the metropolis, unequal waste aggregation containers and the frequent interruption down of bulldozers and compactors at the landfill site. Harmonizing to Boadi and Kuitunen, ( 2003 ) , households resort to alternate ways of disposing their waste. For case in high income countries waste bins are non emptied in clip coercing abode to engage persons to dispose of the waste at the cardinal aggregation points. In low income countries, the containers are non removed in clip and this causes people to dump waste in unauthorised mopess such as canals, H2O organic structures, and surface drains.

2.6.4 Logisticss of Solid Waste Collection

Past methods of planning for and runing waste aggregation systems are under force per unit area, ensuing from the demand to better the aggregation systems to protect the environment and public safety. Sampson ( 2003 ) stated in his study that waste aggregation and conveyance has important environmental, wellness and safety deductions every bit good as the economic cost due to the types of logistics that are used to roll up and transport the waste. The entire measure of waste coevals keeps increasing coupled with the nature and type of waste produced in our technological society gives the complexness of the type of logistics requires for the aggregation of waste. There are a figure of barriers that limit attempts to better the efficiency of waste aggregation logistics ( Sampson, 2003 ) . These are:

The inconsistent nature of waste production, with fluctuations happening on a hebdomadal and seasonal footing and from street-to-street and region-to-region,

Access limitations, intending that non all belongingss can be serviced by the same vehicles,

Ineffective matching of vehicles to unit of ammunitions, and

Variations in stuff bringing points over clip, a state of affairs that will originate more often as stuff reprocessing and bringing to new markets increases.

To better the efficiency of waste aggregation logistics the followers may be considered:

Raising the issue of logistics earlier in the planning stages of incorporate waste direction systems,

Phased debut of new aggregation strategies such that conveyance jobs can be addressed and costs more to the full understood prior to full strategy acceptance,

Partnership working, e.g. through shared terminals,

Improved apprehension of the capablenesss of the asset-base,

Collection and usage of operational public presentation informations to inform future planning,

Effective periodic work programming and routing, and

Eventuality planning, e.g. for unplanned closing of waste disposal installations.

2.6.5 Methods of Waste Disposal

There are many different methods of disposing of solid waste in the universe but the most common methods used in Ghana and other parts of Africa are landfill, unfastened dumping and incineration. Landfill is the most common and likely histories for more than 90 per centum of the state ‘s municipal garbage even though landfills have been proven contaminates of imbibing H2O in certain countries. The most common methods of disposing solid waste are described below:

Landfill

Disposing of waste in landfill involves burying the waste in cavities and this is the most common pattern in most states. It is the most cost effectual method of disposal, with aggregation and transit accounting for 75 per centum of the entire cost ( Bassis, 2009 ) . In a modern landfill, garbage is dispersed thin, compacted in beds and covered by a bed of clean Earth. Pollution of surface H2O and groundwater is minimised by run alonging and contouring the fill, packing and seting the topmost screen bed, deviating drainage, and choosing proper sites non capable to deluging or high groundwater degrees. The best dirt for a landfill is clay because clay is less permeable than other types of dirt ( Mensa and Larbi, 2005 ) . Materials disposed off in a landfill can be farther secured from escapes by solidifying them in stuffs such as cement, fly ash from power workss, asphalt, or organic polymers.

A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and comparatively cheap method of disposing of waste stuffs. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can make a figure of inauspicious environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter and coevals of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas ( largely composed of methane and C dioxide ) , which is produced as a consequence of anaerobiotic break down of organic waste. This gas can make odour jobs, kill surface flora, and is a nursery gas

Open dumping

Open mopess was a popular method of waste disposal in the early parts of the twentieth century. This involved disposing the waste in unfastened mopess without any screen or protection. Dumpss were normally located in countries where there was land in copiousness. A common site for unfastened mopess is abandoned mines, preies, swamps and hillsides. The waste is normally piled up every bit long as the equipments being used can pull off to travel in and out of the garbage dump. Open mopess are popular in developing states as a agency of waste disposal ( Tchobanoglous et al. , 1993 ) . It is practised in the families on a smaller graduated table and sporadically burned to cut down the volume of waste and in some cases it is levelled and compacted. This is a common pattern in Ghana.

Incineration

Incineration is another method of solid waste disposal. Incineration is a method of firing waste that is combustible at high temperatures in the scope of 1000 grades Celsius in other to cut down the waste to ashes. Incineration is more expensive but a safer method of disposal than landfills ( Bassis, 2009 ) . Modern incinerators are designed to destruct at least 99.9 % of the organic waste stuff they handle. Garbage burned in incinerators can poison air, dirt, and H2O. Incineration converts waste stuffs in to heat, gas, steam and ash. Communities near incinerators have objected to them because of frights about possible emanations of gaseous pollutants ( Bach et al. , 2009 ) .

The national policy in Ghana endorses the seting in topographic point of miniaturized workss for incinerating risky and wellness attention wastes. Relatively little incinerating workss have been built as portion of the wellness proviso substructure in most of the towns holding wellness installations in the state. The incinerators, which are really simplistic in building, are made up of cement, clay bricks and metal. These incinerators are normally fired by woodfuel and are easy operated and maintained by the wellness staff of the District Assemblies. It worthy of note these local incinerators do non hold the needed environmental controls ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005 ) .

Recycling methods

Recycling is change overing used and cast-off stuffs into new merchandises. This is a signifier O f decrease of waste disposed, ensuing in cleansing agent environment and besides giving in fresher air to take a breath ( Lave et al. , 1999 ) . Waste recycling has some important advantages such as minimum usage of natural stuffs, cut downing imparts on environment, originating from waste intervention and disposal and makes the milieus cleansing agent and healthier. Additionally saves on landfill infinite, money, and cut downing the measure of energy needed to fabricate new merchandises ( Tchobanoglous et al.. , 1993 ) .

A big figure of the waste generated in our houses can be recycled and reused. Organic kitchen waste such as remnant grocery, vegetable Peels, and spoilt or dried fruits and veggies can be recycled by seting them in the compost cavities that have been dug in the garden. Old newspapers, magazines and bottles can be sold to the adult male who buys these points from places ( United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007 ) .

Composting

Composting is a biological procedure in which micro-organisms, chiefly fungi and bacteriums, convert degradable organic waste into humus-like substance. This finished merchandise, which looks like dirt, is high in C and N and is an first-class medium for turning workss. The procedure of composting ensures that the waste produced in the kitchens is non heedlessly thrown and left to decompose. It recycles the foods and returns them to the dirt as foods. Apart from being clean, inexpensive, and safe, composting can significantly cut down the sum of disposable refuse. The organic fertiliser can be used alternatively of chemical fertilisers and is better when used for veggies. It increases the dirt ‘s ability to keep H2O and makes the dirt easier to cultivate. It helps the dirt to retain more of the works foods ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005 ) . Generally, conditions in Ghana are really contributing for composting in footings of the waste composing and conditions conditions. However, composting has ne’er flourished as an option for garbage intervention and disposal. Most local governments feel, based on local experience, that the running costs of composting workss are inordinate and indefensible ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005 ) . The lone known big composting works in Ghana was built with external giver support and commissioned in the early 1980s. During its early old ages of operation the works was utile in assisting cut down the volume of waste. However, high care costs adversely affected its sustainability. In the last few old ages most of the mechanical constituents have been decommissioned and the works presently operates merely for presentation intents.

2.7 Waste Costing

2.7.1 Environmental Costss

Additionally, there is attractive force of insects and gnawers, which provides a oasis for xanthous febrility, the pestilence, GI parasites, worms, and assorted inauspicious human conditions. Several diseases, every bit good as malignant neoplastic diseases are caused by exposing worlds to wastes ensuing from the burnt gnawers and insects.

Waste can pollute surface H2O, groundwater, dirt, and air, which causes more jobs for worlds, other species, and ecosystems. ( Diaz et al. , 2006 ) Waste intervention and disposal produces important green house gas ( GHG ) emanations, notably methane, and contributes significantly to planetary clime alteration ( International Waste Activities, 2003 ) .

2.7.2 Social Costss

Waste direction is a important environmental justness issue. Many of the environmental loads cited above are more frequently borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities, adult females, and occupants of developing states. NIMBY ( not-in-my-back-yard ) is a popular term used to depict the resistance of occupants to a proposal for a new development near to them ( Wolsink, 1994 ) . However, the demand for enlargement and siting of waste intervention and disposal installations is increasing worldwide. There is now a turning market in the transboundary motion of waste, and although most waste that flows between states goes between developed states, a important sum of waste is moved from developed to developing states ( Ray, 2008 ) .

2.7.3 Economic Costss

The costs of pull offing waste are comparatively high, and the cost is frequently beared by authoritiess ( Muck and Brass, 2009 ) . Cost of operation can be reduced by expeditiously designed aggregation paths, modifying vehicles, and with public instruction. Environmental policies such as wage as you dump can cut down the cost of direction and cut down waste measures. Waste recovery ( that is, recycling, reuse ) can be cut down economic costs because it avoids pull outing natural stuffs and frequently cuts transit costs ( Carlsson Reich, 2005 ) . The location of waste intervention and disposal installations frequently has an impact on belongings values due to dust, noise, pollution, unsightliness, and negative stigma. The unrecognized sector consists usually the choosers of waste who scavenge for plastics, glass, metals, fabrics etc for sale. These scavengers can significantly alter or cut down waste collected, but there are alot of challenges that comes into drama, illustration maltreatment of workers and development, poorness, disease, ( Wilson et al. , 2006 ) .

2.8 Overview of Solid Waste Management in Ghana

The 2000 Housing and Population Census reports that on the national degree, 4.8 % of families have their solid waste collected straight from their home, 7.9 % burn their family garbage, 57.6 % usage assorted family receptacles for storage and direct it to designated public mopess including communal-container Stationss or healthful sites. It is reported that 25.9 % of families dump their garbage at unspecified locations including vacant tonss, drains, embankment of H2O classs, rivers, lakes and wetlands.

Chiefly, there are two solid waste aggregation systems in Ghana – door to door aggregation system which takes topographic point in the low denseness countries of the urban Centres, and communal aggregation system in the high denseness countries. There is some sum of pre-collection in countries of hapless handiness based on the usage of Manual and Motorized Tricycles introduced by Zoomlion. Waste disposal in Ghana is chiefly by landfilling and presently the state can tout of merely two Sanitary Landfill installations located in Kumasi and Tamale. Two others are under building in Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema. The other metropoliss and towns depend on garbage dumps for their waste disposal. Other systems such as incineration, waste to energy, anaerobiotic digestion, etc have so far remained at explorative phases, with the exclusion of composting which is at the execution phase at Zoomlion ( Agyepong, 2011 ) . Engineered landfills are constructed to run into specific environmental criterions including low permeableness clay line drive and natural flow ( gravitation based ) leachate direction ( Boyer and Johannessen, 2010 ) .

The first Waste Management Department ( WMD ) , Accra Metropolitan Authority ‘s – Weapon of mass destruction, was inaugurated in 1985 with the transition of the so Mechanical Engineers Department which was entirely responsible for pull offing the workshop for vehicle/equipment fix and care to include solid waste aggregation and disposal services. The Kumasi Metropolitan Authority ‘s Waste Management Department ( KMA-WMD ) followed in 1992 with the aid of the UNDP-Kumasi Sanitation Project. The Overseas Development Association, ODA ( now DFID ) of the UK besides provided vehicles, machinery and equipment under the Kumasi Solid Waste Disposal undertaking ( 1992 – 1995 ) ( Salifu, 2011 ) .

2.9.1 National Environmental Sanitation Policy

The Environmental Sanitation Policy is aimed at developing and keeping a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment in all human colonies, to advance the societal, economic and physical wellbeing of all subdivisions of the population. It comprises a figure of complementary activities, including the building and care of healthful substructure, the proviso of services, public instruction, community and single action, ordinance and statute law ( MLGRD, 1999 ) .

The Policy besides outlines the functions and duties of the Community and Individuals. Guaranting good environmental sanitation is the duty of all citizens, communities, private sector, endeavors, NGOs and authorities establishments. All these histrions have an indispensable portion to play in keeping a high criterion of environmental sanitation. The policy indicates that, every person, constitution or establishment shall be responsible for:

Cleansing within and in the immediate environments of the belongings they occupy, including entree ways and the drains and roads bordering the belongings ;

Impermanent storage of wastes within the belongings and disposal thereof outside the belongings, as may be directed by the competent authorization ;

Taking steps to forestall the genteelness of disease vectors within and in the immediate environments of the belongings they occupy ;

Guaranting that the wider environment is non polluted or otherwise adversely affected by their activities ;

Hygienically disposing of all wastes they generate in public countries by usage of an authorized public lavatory or solid waste container as appropriate ;

Participating in all communal environmental sanitation exercisings organised by the community or its representatives ( MLGRD, 1999 ) .

The policy besides entrusts in the Assemblies the power to proclaim bye-laws and ordinances to assist in their environmental sanitation direction procedure. To complement these attempts, the Judiciary is expected to set up and authorise Community Tribunals to prosecute wrongdoers against environmental sanitation bye-laws and ordinances ( MLGRD, 1999 ) . This is a clear chance for KMA to ordain rigorous environmental sanitation bye-laws to do the metropolis dwellers responsible for environmental sanitation in Kumasi to guarantee good environmental sanitation patterns.

2.8.2 Environmental Sanitation Bye-Laws in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area

Sound environmental jurisprudence and administration are indispensable for protecting the natural environment and the life and supports that depend on it. Governance here refers to the Assembly ‘s usage of a scope of legal tools to necessitate or advance coveted behavior. These tools could be traditional ordinances, environmental appraisals, information revelation demands, market mechanisms, economic inducements, or public policies to advance voluntary action on a graduated table that will heighten urban environmental sanitation and environmental protection. The sum-up of the Bye-laws includes the followers:

Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly ( House Owners and Occupier ) Bye-Laws, 1995. – This bye-law defines the duties of house proprietors, belongings proprietors, renters or other residents in maintaining their immediate environment clean. It besides prescribes the penalty that should be meted out with wrongdoers of the bye-laws.

Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly ( Sanitation ) Bye-Laws, 1995. – This bye-law besides covers general sanitation or hygiene. It describes what constitutes a sanitation offense and what should non be done by both belongings proprietors and walkers to do pollution in the metropolis.

Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly ( Cleansing ) Bye-Laws, 1995 – The cleansing bye-law regulates activities that promote ocular pollution and nuisances and prescribes punishments for such offenses.

2.9 Challenges of Waste Management – Private-Sector Engagement as Redress

Before 1995 solid waste direction in Ghana was run strictly as a authorities monopoly ( Post et al. , 2003 ) . However the authorities was neglecting to adequately turn to the healthful demands of its citizens and failures in public service opened the sphere to assorted manners of public-private cooperation ( Thompson, 2010 ) .

The formal battle of private sector in everyday services, commenced earnestly with the denationalization of cesspool emptying services in Kumasi. It was a logical next-step to formalise private-sector engagement in solid waste direction every bit good. And so in transporting out the Urban Environment Review, in 1994, with support from the World Bank, the issue of turn toing institutional functions was given much importance. The urban reappraisal which led to the readying of the first-phase of the Urban Environmental Sanitation Project ( UESPI ) which is in its 2nd stage ( UESPII ) influenced the navigation of franchise zones for solid waste services in Accra, Sekondi-Takoradi, Kumasi and Tamale. The purpose was for an incremental enlargement of zones to finally cover the whole of each metropolis – which is mostly the agreement we see today ( Salifu, 2011 ) .

In a presentation made at a UN conference on edifice partnerships for traveling towards zero waste, Agyepong ( 2011 ) outlined some issues identified by private operator ( s ) as barriers to private-sector-participation or public-private-partnerships which included ; proliferation of statute law that entrenches public-monopoly of bringing of services, incorrect attitudes of the general populace to solid waste disposal, sustainable funding, hapless planning and rapid urbanisation, weak human resource capacity and research support base, and political relations.

Harmonizing to Salifu ( 2011 ) as portion of the solid waste direction betterment services of the five largest metropoliss in Ghana UESP1 implemented an luxuriant strategy for private sector engagement. Subsequent acceptance of franchise direction for the aggregation of solid waste meant to get down on pilot footing was replaced with the debut of the City and Country Waste Limited city-wide catching enterprise in Accra by AMA. The constrictions of the both the franchise system and contract manner of service bringing has included:

The Torahs declaring such franchise or contract zones were simply announced without the corresponding gazeted bye-laws backup these declarations ;

The capacity of private operators to roll up the fees ( under franchise ) ;

Where pockets of communal-storage containers at public topographic points like markets and lorry Parkss are within the franchise zones, costs of these were still to be borne by MMDAs through their IGFs, with high default rates of payment of contractors – in some cases up to 6 months ;

Poor aggregation modus operandis by private operators that eroded assurance of occupants ;

Start-up pilot zones gave the feeling of an experiment, peculiarly when aggregation by the metropolis ‘s ain side-loading truck ( in the instance of Kumasi ) was still traveling on in countries where fee-collection was left to drivers and secret agents ;

Other establishments like the Army, Prisons, Police, Civil Aviation and others operated parallel aggregation strategies for their barracks and from cottages of senior forces.

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