Are a Result of the collection and analysis of data from a variety of sources such as: Interviews Observations Surveys They are models that allow us to generalize and make predictions Students Need To Be Objective When Studying Sociology Do not be subjective We all have a belief system that can be a problem when studying sociology Remove the "I" Social Control = the social mechanisms that regulate people's actions - Studied through 3 paradigms: Functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactions A paradigm is a theoretical framework through which scientists study the world.
Founders of the Discipline of Sociology Functionalists: Augusta Comet (1798-1859) - Wanted to build better societies Recognized 2 equal yet opposing forces in society: Social Static (Tries to keep things the same) & Social Dynamics (force for change & conflict) Founders Continued:- Herbert Spencer-social Darwinism Emilee Druthers (1858-1917) First social researcher to carry out an Investigation using a large scale collection of data & wanted sociology to be more scientific Ideas and values are the driving force structure could influence human behavior Social Solidarity = The bonds that unite society - Shared beliefs These are important for society to operate harmoniously Collective Conscience = A group's common values, goals, outlook, interpretation of events & identical ways of thinking in smaller societies Solidarity = how connected people feel to others in the environment Mechanical Solidarity = Pre-longitudinal Organic Solidarity = Social ties based upon a functional interdependence of the members of society (we are all dependent upon other, people we do not even know, for our everyday necessities) This is less personal than with mechanical solidarity hen everyone knew each other, what to do, how to behave, and their place in the scheme of things. A lack of solidarity can lead to Egoistic Suicide -few social connections and isolation Alarmists Suicide - Exceptionally high level of solidarity places the soup's interests as superior to the individual's. Fatalistic = Too much social control and Anomic = rapid change, usually economic. Division of Labor = A unifying force Tailcoat Parsons - One of the most influential Functionalists Robert Morton - - Manifest Consequences = the intended consequences of an action, Latent
Consequence = unintended consequence of an action, & Dysfunctional Consequence = when an action weakens social bonds (a negative societal effect) Conflict Theorists: Karl Marx (1818-1883) - Extreme influence on world politics Focused upon discord and exploitation in society Social change, social institutions and social values are dictated by economic forces Bourgeoisie- Owners of the means of production Proletariat - Sold their labor Capitalism- Bourgeoisie seek to maximize profits & exploit workers Alienation - Workers removed from creativity and achievement, leads to despair False Consciousness Historical Materialism Harriet Martinets (1802-1876) - Little recognized - Focused upon Industrialization & Capitalism, class, race & gender inequalities W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1063) - First African American to receive Ph. D. From Harvard. Studied dual heritage & advocated the eradication of prejudice and discrimination Jane Adams (1860-1935) - Hull House - Poverty results from ignorance and structural barriers, not from failings in the morality of a person. John Bellary Foster - The negative effects of capitalism on society and the planet as a whole. C.
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Wright Mills - Social Conflict (Marxist) Sociological Imagination" = A way of thinking that gives you an understanding of the societal forces that shape your life- how society influences the outcome George Herbert Mead (186-1931)- Founder of Symbolic Internationalism, interested in colonization George Simmer (1858-1918) Interaction amongst people is influenced by size of group Herbert Blamer - Human beings behave toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things - Contagion = a rapid, irrational mode in which people don't think rationally or clearly = in a group setting. People 'lose their heads' and react eke acting Howard Becker - Labeling Theory - Human action is related to the labels attached to it. A label is attached to a certain behavior when a group with powerful social status labels it deviant. Deviance is rooted in the reactions and responses of others to an individual's acts. Max Weber (1864-1920) Began as Karl Marx, social class influences our outcomes, but thought that Mar's two class system was too simple. Wealth is important, but so are political power and social status.
Discussed the emerging Bureaucracies and Rationality . The Protestant Ethic led to or influenced the rise in Capitalism. The accumulation of wealth is a sign of God's favor. Stressed that the study of sociology should be value free with no personal bias Emerging Paradigms Feminist Theory Gendered and interdisciplinary Exchange Theory Our social experiences consist of a series of rewards and costs. People want to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs which leads to their choice of social action Environmental Theory How do societies adjust to ecological changes (Beasts of The Southern Wild movie). Humans are Just one type of organism sharing the ecological space with animals.
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