Suicide has always been an objective of primary interest and main concern to people of different cultures and historical periods. Suicide as a phenomenon has been discussed and described In literature, philosophy, and sociology. There are various definitions of suicide that have been proposed by the writers and researchers, such as the Intentional act of killing oneself, the act of terminating life, and the act of deliberate self-destruction. Some difficulties arise when we try to explain seclude specifically because the nature of suicide is very complex, and it is hard to justify suicidal behavior or distinguish it from other behavior.
For example, a person, who knows that smoking leads to the serious health risks but deliberately engages in this activity and dies consequently, has not committed suicide. On the other hand, if a mentally ill individual arranges the circumstances for his or her deaths (by cutting veins, Jumping off buildings, etc. ), we can say that this person has committed suicide. In America, suicide rates are going up rapidly since 1999. But in our modern society, if a person commits suicide, it does not mean that that this person is bad and fragile. All of us experience problems during some periods of our lives.
But the mall point Is that some people know how to handle these problems and some of them are getting lost because they see no light In the end of the tunnel and eventually give up. Thus, people normally commit suicide to end up agonizing emotional pain. These people are unable to see other options of solving their problems: they feel very isolated and distressed. The factors that contribute to stress or trauma and cause suicide are: financial situation, working environment, school, death of a loved one, loss of Job, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, etc.
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Philosophical revelation about suicide sakes us back to the time of Socrates, including Plato and Aristotle. In his Laws, Plato declared that suicide is outrageous and people, who committed suicide, should be buried in unidentified graves. However, according to Plato, suicide under some circumstances can be excused: when person's mind Is morally degraded; when suicide Is done by Judicial order; when the self-killing results from shame of participating In disgustingly unfair procedures.
In contrast, the Stoics thought that suicide may be reasonable If the quality of life Is not available to an Individual and one's life is lacking the desired advantages. The philosopher Seneca claimed that an intelligent person "lives as long as he ought, not as long as he can. " (R. Frey, 1978) Suicide is forbidden by almost all religions and is viewed as a severe sin. Church has demanded that since suicide involves self-killing, then the person who destroys his or her life is sinning in the same way as if this person killed another individual.
Life is given by God and it is sacred, therefore, the Christians are against suicide and euthanasia. Suicide violates God's privilege in determining when people shall die. The nineteenth century carried new developments that have formed theoretical Hough about suicide topic. It was viewed as the predictable response of a suffering person who was Ignored by society. Also, It was the time of recognition of psychiatry as a telephone that could treat depression, hysteria and other disorders accountable for seclude.
And finally, In the work of sociologist Druthers, suicide was described as a social disease producing extensive isolation. The sociologists had explained suicide analysis various causes, such as climate, season, and religion. Thus, he concluded that suicide rate is greater in the warmer months in all countries. He also masticates that suicide is greater in Protestant countries compared to Catholic countries. In general, Druthers viewed suicide as a social fact and considered social reasons, such as lack of connections between people and less integration in family constitution.
Druthers developed the four classifications of suicide: * Egoistic suicide. The factors responsible for it are depression and disappointment. He concludes that the people who strongly attached to their families or some other type of groups are less likely to come across these issues. * Altruistic suicide occurs when attachment is too great and the person is forced to commit self- ailing. Druthers provides examples of old and ill people or women who want to die after the death of their loved ones. Anomic suicide results from breakdown of standards and values, when a degree of regulation is too low. This can happen either during economic depression or quick economic expansion. * Fatalistic suicide occurs when regulation is too strong. The people are blocked by harsh discipline and they see no possible ways to improve their lives. Many of the modern sociological theories have been originated based on a Druthers idea of social integration. However, some of them have created new approaches in the study of suicide.
Thus Breed (1963) interviewed the families of people who committed suicide and introduced into sociology a research method, which provided sociologists with true situations of suicide. Are there any rational circumstances under which suicide can be morally Justified? The moral position on this question holds that it is wrong because people life is sacred. Although this theory is related to the religious version, it is also can be found in the work of Ronald Drink (R. Drink, 1993). Based on this view, individual life is valuable; and suicide violets our obligation to honor our lives.
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