Research Paper on Human Behavior Organization
[pic] Organizational Behavior against Perception In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the Subject HBO101 Submitted to: Ms.Pichay Submitted by: Leader: Marino, Lizaso Member: Lindero, Maricar Lustina, Irene Macaraeg, Maan Macarambon, Putri Johanna HBO101-1T ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are heartily thankful to our dearest professor, Mrs.Pichay whose encouragement, support and guidance until the wavering moments of the semester helped us to see this term paper into completion.
We are also particularly grateful for the assistance given by the staff of UE Library specifically the Circulation Library and Graduate School Library for letting us borrow books and theses.
We would like to offer our special thanks to the National Library for providing us the resources needed for this study. We would also like to thank our respective families and friends for their understanding and for allowing us to spend most of our precious time working with our research paper. Above all, we glorify and thank Almighty God/ Allah, who have given us the power to believe in ourselves and pursue our dreams.
We could never have done this without the faith we have in him. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title Pagei Acknowledgementii Table of Contentsiii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. History and Background B. Significance of the Study C. Objectives of the Study D. Scope and Delimitations E. Definition of Terms 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 3SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFLECTION PAPER Chapter I Introduction A. History and Background Although human relationships have existed since the beginning of time, the art and science of trying to deal with them in complex organizations is relatively new.
In the early days people work along or in such small groups that their work relationships were easily handled. It has been popular to assume that under this conditions people worked in a Utopia of happiness and fulfillment, but this assumption is largely a nostalgic reinterpretation of history actual conditions were brutal and backbreaking. People worked from dawn until dust under intolerable conditions of disease, filth, danger, and scarcity of resources. They had to work this way to survive, and very little effort was devoted to their job satisfaction.
Then came the industrial revolution in the beginning the condition of the people did improve, but at least the seed was planted for potential improvement industry expanded the supply of goods and knowledge that eventually gave workers increased wages, shorter hours, and more satisfaction in this new industrial improvement Robert Owen, a young Welsh factory owner about the year 1800, was one of the first to emphasize the human needs of employees. He refused to employ young children. He taught his workers cleanliness and temperance improved their working conditions.
This could hardly be called a modern organizational behavior, but it was a beginning. He was called “the real father” of personnel administration by an early writer. Andrew Ure incorporated human factors into his work The Philosophy of Manufactures, published in 1835. He recognized the mechanical and commercial parts of manufacturing, but he also added a third factor, which was the human factor. He provided workers with hot tea, medical treatment, “a fan apparatus” for ventilation, and sickness payments.
The ideas of Owen and Ure were accepted slowly or not at all, and they often deteriorated into a paternalistic, do-good approach rather than a genuine recognition of the importance of people at work. Interest in people at work was awakened by Frederick W. Taylor in the United States in the early 1900s. He is often called “the father of scientific management,” and the changes he brought to management paved the way for later development of organizational behavior. His work eventually led to improved recognition and productivity for industrial workers.
He pointed out that just as there was a best machine for a job, so were there best ways for people to do their jobs. To be sure, the goal was still technical efficiency, but at least management was awakened to the importance of one of its neglected resources. Taylor’s major work was published in 1911. it was followed in 1914 by Lillian Gilbreth’s The Psychology of Management, which primarily emphasized the human side of work. Shortly thereafter the National Personnel Association was formed, and later.
In 1923, it became the American Management Association, carrying the subtitle “Devoted Exclusively to the Consideration of the Human Factor in Commerce and Industry. ” During this period Whiting Williams was studying workers while working with them, and in 1920 he published a significant interpretation of his experiences, What’s on the Worker’s Mind. Organizations permeate all levels of our lives. We come into contact with many of them daily. In fact, most of us probably spend most of our lives in—or are affected by—organizations.
We expend sizable amounts of our time as members of work, school, social, civic, and church organizations. Or we are involved as employees, students, clients, patients, and citizens of organizations. Organizations are characterized by their goal-directed behavior, and they pursue goals and objectives that can be achieved more efficiently and effectively by the concerted action of individuals and groups. Organizations are, however, much more than means for providing goods and services. They create the settings in which most of us spend our lives.
In this respect, they have profound influence on our behavior. However, because large-scale organizations have developed only in recent times, we are just now beginning to recognize the necessity for studying them. Organizations have always been regarded as integral to the social world. They have become pervasive and as social units they impinge upon the behavior of their members and the members of society. They are significant since they allow individual members to achieve their personal goals and to channel their energies for the welfare of society.
The modern study of what people do within organizations was developed in the mid to late 1940s. the behavioral sciences—psychology, sociology, and cultural anthropology—have provided the principles, scientific rigor, and models for what we refer to today as organizational behavior. Modern society depends on organizations for its survival. Organizations exist through components technology and people. Society must understand organizations and use them to achieve the goals of its human components—the people. Each organization can work effectively with people if the management considers them in human terms.
The organizational behavior of the manager affects the people, the structure, the technology, and the environment in which the organization operates. People are the chief components of an organization. They make up the internal social system of the organization. They are living, thinking, feeling beings of the organization. Organizations exist to serve people and society as a whole. Organizations operate in an external environment. Individual organizations such as schools and agencies are influenced by the external environment.
The environment influences the attitudes, behavior and performance of the people, their working conditions and life styles. According to Davis (1993), the climate of each organization is achieved through an organizational system. In a working social system, people bring together both individual and group ways when they enter an organization. They bring their philosophy and goals, their psychological, social and economic wants which they express in their behavior. For Osborn (1991), he expressed that managers are the hearts of organizations.
Organizational behavior is a knowledge base that enables managers to help their organizations perform better. Organizations relay on both human and physical resources for their continued functioning. To combine successfully the two types of resource inputs into product or service outputs, managers must understand organization as work settings. Osborn also stated that the manager heads a work unit which links subordinates with the total organization through means and chains. The manager is also responsible in making the work unit functions as an organization in and of itself. The esults sought by the managers are task performance and human resource maintain at the individual, group, and organizational levels. He stressed further that manager share a common challenge. On the one hand, they are held accountable by superiors for work until performance. On the other hand, they are largely dependent upon their subordinates to do the required work. Organizational behavior Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people—as individuals and groups—act within organizations. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.
Organizational behavior (O. B) is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. It is also an applied science, in that information about effective practices in one organization are being extended to many others. Organizational behavior provides a useful set of tools at many levels of analysis. For example, it helps managers look at the behavior of individuals within an organization. It also aids their understanding of the complexities involved in interpersonal relations, when two people interact.
At the next level, organizational behavior is valuable for examining the dynamics of relationships within small groups, both formal teams and informal groups. When two or more groups need to coordinate their efforts, such as engineering and sales, managers become interested in the inter-group relations that emerge. Finally, organizations can also be viewed, and managed, as whole systems that behave inter-organizational relationships. There are four primary goals in organizational behavior. The first is to describe, systematically, how people behave under a variety of conditions.
Achieving this goal allows managers to communicate about human behavior at work using a common language. A second goal is to understand why people behave as they do. Managers would be highly frustrated if they could only talk about behaviors of their employees, but not understand the reasons behind those actions. Predicting future employee behavior is another goal of organizational behavior. Ideally, managers would have the capacity to predict which employees might be dedicated and productive or which might be absent, tardy, or disruptive on a certain day.
This would allow them to take preventive actions. The final goal of organizational behavior is to control and develop some human activity at work. Since managers are held responsible for the performance outcomes, they are vitally interested in being able to make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort, and productivity. Managers need to remember that organizational behavior is a human tool for human benefit. The key elements in organizational behavior are people, structure, technology and the environment in which the organization operates.
When people join together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some king of structure is required. People also use technology to help to get the job done, so there is an interaction of people, structure, and technology PEOPLEPeople make up the internal social system of the organization. They consist of individuals and groups, and large groups as well as small ones. There are unofficial, informal groups and more official, formal ones. Groups are dynamic. They form, change, and disband. The human organization today is not the same as it was yesterday, or the day before.
People are the living, thinking, feeling beings who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. STRUCTUREStructure defines the formal relationship of people in organizations. Different jobs are required to accomplish all of an organization’s activities. There are managers and employees, accountants and assemblers. These people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively coordinated. These relationships create complex problems of cooperation, negotiation, and decision making. TECHNOLOGYTechnology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform.
They cannot accomplish much with their bare hands, so they build buildings, design machines, create work processes, and assemble resources. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. An assembly line is not the same as a research laboratory, and a steel mill does not have the same working conditions as a hospital. The great benefit of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work, but it also restricts people in various ways. ENVIRONMENTAll organizations operate within an internal and an external environment.
A single organization does not exist alone. It is part of a larger system that contains many other elements, such as government, the family, and other organizations. All of this mutually influenced one another in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people. Individual organizations, such as factory or a school, cannot escape being influenced by this external environment. It influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions, and provides competition for resources and power. Organizational behavior follows principles of human behavior.
The effectiveness of any organization is influenced greatly by human behavior. People are a resource common to all organizations. There is no such thing as a peopleless organization. One important principle of psychology is that each person is different. Each person has unique perceptions, personalities, and life experiences; different capabilities for learning and stress; and different attitudes, beliefs, and aspiration levels. To be effective, managers of organizations must view each employee or member as a unique embodiment of all these behavioral factors.
Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people—as individuals and groups—act in organizations. Its goals are to make managers more effective at describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling human behavior. Key elements to consider are people, structure, technology and the external environment. Previously known as human relations, organizational behavior has emerged as interdisciplinary field of value to managers. It builds on an increasingly solid research foundation that was begun in the 1920s, and it draws upon useful ideas and conceptual models from many of the behavioral science.
Organization needs a well-managed structural mechanism in assessing work force performance in correlation to work performance and productivity of workers. Performance appraisal is a measurement conducted on workers to evaluate how they achieve work targets and productivity (Najib, 2007). Various factors can be regarded in applying performance appraisal. Some researchers state that performance appraisal can be viewed from various aspects relating to the aims of research or what is going to be analyzed. Some evaluate working activity aspect, while others evaluate behaviour or personality aspect.
Work performance, according to D. Grote (2002), V. M. Rivai and A. F. Basri (2005), and L. M. Robert and H. J. John (2006), is stated as behavior and work result that should be made as priority. They believe that behavior aspect is input or how individual conduct his/her duties which can be measured by knowledge, skill, attitude, and habit variables. Work result aspect, on the other hand, is output or what is going to achieve from a job which can be measured by quantity, quality, and timeliness variables. The approach of both appraisal aspects is used in this research i. . (1) behavior aspect and work result aspect, and (2) their contribution to performance. B. Significance of the Study Having become one of the most prevalent debates in recent years, organizational related studies have became a major topic of study nowadays. Organizations as defined as ” a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. ” So we can see that individuals, walking under the flag of organization are valuable resources to the firm.
It is totally impossible to find an organization without any manpower. So, as long as organizations are consisted of individuals, it is very important to know and learn about these fundamental elements of the firms. And that is the reason the concept of organizational behavior is a major field of study these days. Organizational behavior is defined as ” a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Or in other words, it is “the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. ” And because the nature of human being is a sophisticated, multidimensional phenomenon, wide ranges of disciplines are required. Psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, economics and industrial engineering are the traditional disciplines and communications, information system, marketing and women’s studies are the emerging disciplines toward studying organizational behavior. The purpose of the study is to draw optimum performance from all the employees.
In today’s world, the environment of business is changing constantly. As a result, the manager has to play increasingly important role. With recent increase in workload, responsibilities and diversities, the importance of managers in a working environment has also increased. In order to help managers and supervisors learn more about the complexity of the new workforce many different studies have been developed. One area of study that has increased in importance over the years is the study of Organizational Behavior.
This paper first defines exactly what organizational behavior is and discusses its importance. C. Objectives of the Study This research is to analyze the influence of work behaviour towards work performance. Variables for behaviour are knowledge, skill, attitude, and habits. Situational assessments of work performance can be used repeatedly to measure progress in work rehabilitation and used for feedback and goal setting. The organizations in which people work have an effect on their thoughts, feelings and actions.
These thoughts, feelings and actions in turn affect the organization itself. By this research, can also understand the workers or employees behave the way they do and also thereby predict how they are going to behave in the future. Performance objectives also play a major role in defining the results expected through your staff’s hard work and dedication. It’s necessity in setting clear goals for employees. They also challenge staff members to achieve maximum results to promote business growth and make continuous improvements to meet the challenges and changing demands of the marketplace.
It must be clear and guide action. D. Scope and Delimitation This research covers about work performance and behaviour of an employee. The limitations of this research are to those people who are currently working. Only workers can participate in this research. E. Definition of Terms The following terms used in this study are defined operationally. Organizational behaviour – is the application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations, in order to achieve the highest performance and dominant results.
Attitude – the degree to which the person has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour in question. Knowledge- remembering of previously learned material; recall (facts or whole theories); bringing to mind. Analysis- breaking down into parts; understanding organization, clarifying, concluding Work behaviour -is the behaviour one uses in employment and is normally more formal than other types of human behaviour. Job performance – is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, it most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well.
Performance- the act of performing; the carrying into execution or action; execution; achievement; accomplishment; representation by action; as, the performance of an undertaking of a duty. Behaviour- can be regarded as any action of an organism that changes its relationship to its environment. Behaviour provides outputs from the organism to the environment. Chapter II Related Literatures In the 1920s and 1930s Elton Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger at Harvard University gave academic stature to the study of human behavior at work.
They applied keen insight, straight thinking, and sociological backgrounds to industrial experiments at the Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Plant. They concluded that an organization is a social system and the worker is indeed the most important element in it. Their experiments showed that the worker is not a simple tool but a complex personality interacting in a group situation that often is difficult to understand. To Taylor and his contemporaries, human problems stood in the way of production and so should be minimized. To Mayo, human problems became a broad new field of study and an opportunity for progress.
He is recognized as the father of what was then called human relations and later became known as organizational behavior. Taylor increased production by rationalizing it. Mayo and his followers sought to increase production by humanizing it. The Mayo-Roethlisberger research has been strongly criticized as being inadequately controlled and interpreted, but its basic ideas, such as social system within the work environment, have stood the test of time, the important point is that it was substantial research about human behavior at work, and its influence was widespread and enduring.
According to George and Jones (1996), organizational behavior provides guidelines that both manager and workers can use to understand and appreciate many forces that affect behavior in organizations and make correct decisions on how to motivate people and mobilize other resources to achieve organizational goals. Knowledge on organizational behavior derived from scholarly studies replaces intuition and gut feeling with a well-researched body of theories and systematic guidelines for managing behavior in organization.
Mangkunegara (2000) defines performance as work result qualitatively and quantitatively that can be achieved in conducting a job as demanded by responsibility. While H. J. Bernardin and J. C. A. Russel (1993) state that performance is an income produced by a worker during his/her service time. V. M. Rivai and A. F. Basri (2005) conclude the definition of performance as a function of motivation and capability. To finalize a demanded job or duty, someone should have a certain motivation and capability.
Capability of a worker is not worth if he/she does not know what should be done and how to do it. Target achieving is one of measurements in performance appraisal. There are three criteria in assessing performance, i. e. (1) individual duty, (2) individual behavior, and (3) individual characteristics. From the above description, it can be inferred that performance can be categorized as work result achieved by a worker in a certain time in an organization based on power, responsibility, and duties.
During his/her service time, performance of an individual can be observed (Rivai & Basri, 2005). Meaning that performance appraisal should always relate to task finalization. Whenever performance appraisal does not relate to job finalization, then such appraisal will result in a misjudgment and a mistake. Bibliography Luthans, Fred. (2011). Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York Nelson, Debra L. Quick, James C. Organizational Behavior Foundation, Realities and Challenges. (1997). West Publishing Company, St. Paul MN. http://www. ehow. com/info_8156482_objectives-organizational-behavior. html#ixzz27xcgisTS http://www. brainyquote. com/words/be/behavior135737. html#IIMeu7jGSj4UxvQL. 99 http://mansci. journal. informs. org/content/28/2/138. short http://www. livestrong. com/article/178352-how-behavior-modification-operates-to-motivate-people/