Indian Environment and Forests Sector is facing major challenges in the fast changing global and Indian scenario. It requires no less a revolutionary approach than the ‘green’ or ‘white’ revolution. The key environmental challenges that the country faces relate to the nexus of environmental degradation with poverty in many dimensions, and economic growth. Further, The role of forests in poverty alleviation, providing goods and services to the society, ensuring environmental security of the country and promoting carbon sequestration has assumed much greater importance than ever before. There are a number of other important ecosystems lying outside the traditional boundaries of the forests which require direct or indirect interventions of foresters in association with other stakeholders.
The Research and Development (R&D) strategy has to take into account conservation and sustainable management of forests and forest production possibilities outside forests. We need a Common Research and Development Agenda. Also, the level of expectations from the forestry profession has gone up. The foresters, scientists, researchers and educationists are required to play multifarious roles to deal with a variety of externalities besides coping up with the traditional forestry and emerging sustainable forestry demands. These roles demand high degree of expertise and competence in various fields requiring up-gradation of technical skills and development of professional capabilities in dealing with social, environmental, economic and developmental issues. All stakeholders need to get involved.
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The State and Central Research Institutions and Agricultural Universities have to work hand in hand to achieve national goals. The Planning Commission (Environment and Forests Unit), vide its letter No. M-13033/1/2006-E&F dated 21 August 2006, constituted a Working Group on Research, Education, Training, Capacity Building and Information Management for the Environment and Forests Sector for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012), under the Chairmanship of the Secretary, MoEF. Keeping in view the enormity of the exercise and diversity of issues involved, four Sub Groups were created to deal with a specific themes. Sub Groups held meetings for deliberating upon the various issues pertaining to this topic.
In between and later informal discussions through email amongst the members of the sub groups were also held particularly for those members who could not attend all the meetings due to their preoccupations. The Chairman wishes to place on record his appreciation and thanks to all the members of the Working Groups and Sub Groups and for freely providing his time and actively participating in the deliberations. (Jagdish Kiswan) Director General, ICFRE & Member Secretary, Working Group SUMMARY The Planning Commission, Government of India resolved to set up a Working Group on Research , Education, Training & Capacity Building and Information Management for the Environment and Forests Sector for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007 - 2012) ,under the Chairmanship of the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests GOI.
The Terms of Reference (TOR) of the working groups ranged from making a critical review of achievements in the field of Environmental and Forestry related Research and Education during the X Five Year Plan to recommending strategy and approaches on research education, extension, training and capacity building and information management; critically examining the role of research institutes in the environment and forest sector and suggesting measures for effective coordination between the scientific ministries of the Govt. of India dealing with Environmental and Forestry related activities. The TOR further called for recommending on guiding principles for research priorities based on the global commitments or conservation and national needs and establishment of data and information base for understanding assessment planning and monitoring.
Considering the enormity of the task involved, four Sub Groups on (i) Environmental Research, Education and Extension; (ii) Forestry Research, Education and Extension; (iii) Training and Capacity Building; and (iv) Information Management were constituted by the chairman to deliberate on the issues and develop documents. The sub groups were to go into the ramification of the Terms of Reference. This document is the outcome of detailed discussions and the conclusions derived by these four sub groups. The document spreads over seven chapters. The state of Environment and Forests in India during the last five decades along with the global challenges being faced currently have been dealt in the Introduction. The vision, objectives mandate and activities of the major institutes under Govt. of India like, ICFRE, IGNFA, DFE ,FSI, IPIRTI and IIFM are dealt at length under chapter 2 .
Universities and other institutes have also been dealt in this chapter. Review of the salient achievements by various institutes and organizations during the X Five-Year Plan have been elaborated in the third chapter. Chapter four deals with the major challenges and vision for future. Broad areas of research forestry extension and environmental research and education have been discussed in detail in chapter five under strategies and approach. The major thrust areas like agroforestry, watershed management, forest, fire, biodiversity conservation impact of diseases, medicinal and NWFP, forest products and industries and technologies for transfer have been identified under chapter six.
Chapter seven contains recommendations and proposals of the Working Group with analytical justification of the same and highlighting the prioritized Action Plan for the XI Five Year Plan. Also major research programmes under which environment related research could be supported have been mentioned in this chapter. Lastly, to meet the targets, budgets for Environment and Forest Research, Education ,Extension, Training & Capacity Building and Information Management have been worked out and an abstract of the total outlay given. A total outlay of Rs. 70,319. 43 lakhs has been proposed for the XI Five Year Plan . Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION “A diverse developing society such as ours provides numerous challenges in the economic, social, political, cultural, and environmental arenas.
All of these coalesce in the dominant imperative of alleviation of mass poverty, reckoned in the multiple dimensions of livelihood security, health care, education, empowerment of the disadvantaged, and elimination of gender disparities. Across the political spectrum of the country there has been recognition of the vital role natural resources play in providing livelihoods, and securing life-support ecological services. Sustainable development concerns in the sense of enhancement of human well-being, broadly conceived, are a recurring theme in India's development philosophy. The present day consensus reflects three foundational aspirations. For this to occur there is a need for balance and harmony between economic, social and environmental needs of the country. India also plays an important role in several significant international initiatives concerned with the environment.
It is a party to the key multilateral agreements, and recognizes the interdependencies among, and trans-boundary character of, several environmental problems. ” – Excerpts for The National Environment Policy 2006 (NEP).
During the last five to six decades it has been increasingly observed that the life-supporting potentials of our planet Earth has been eroding rapidly and may ultimately threaten the very existence of Biosphere. The root cause for depleting life supporting potentials of the earth is the environmental degradation through anthropogenically-mediate activities. The ozone depletion, climate change, desertification, tropical deforestation, species extinction, and pollution of water, soil and air are some of the environmental issues of global concern.
The Tenth Plan had recognized that environmental sustainability “is not an option but an imperative”. Clean air, pure water, conservation of forests and wild life and generation of greenery are the essentials for a healthy environment. Prevention of degradation of land, controlling floods and droughts, preventing desertification, conservation of fragile eco-system, prevention of deforestation, conserving bio-diversity and mitigating water and air pollution all present challenges for planners and policy makers.
The concept of sustainable development has emerged as a prescription for human survival and at the same time ensures long-term maintenance of ecosystem health. One of the priority requirements for achieving sustainable development is to create sustainable human societies. Environmental education and research are critical not only for the establishment of sustainable human societies but also to develop technologies, skills and expertise, which translate into tailor-made solutions to environmental problems.
Sustainable management of forests means the management and use of forests and forest lands in a way that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions at local, national and global levels that does not cause damages to other ecosystems. A number of initiatives at the international level have been taken to determine criteria and indicators of sustainable management at regional, national and local levels. In India, too therefore, the tenth five-year plan must envisage funding research efforts in those areas, which are vitally linked with the well being and continued utility of the forests.
Education for a sustainable future should aim at: (i) conserving the earth’s vitality and diversity, (ii) minimizing the depletion of non-renewable resources, (iii) improving the quality of human life, (iv) respect and care for the community of living world, (v) changing personal attitudes and practices, and (vi) enabling communities to care for their own environments. Forest education and research are components of environmental education and research. The environmental sector with forestry as one of its sub-sectors has also linkages with the agriculture, fisheries and health sectors. Consequently, educational and research programmes particularly at higher level must integrate all these different sectors.
From being an exclusivist profession, primarily charged with forest management for timber production, forestry today has expanded to encompass a wide range of roles varying from traditional forest protection & production to comprehensive bio-diversity conservation and sustainable use to eco-tourism promotion and so forth. In these new or expanded roles stakeholder participation has to become the presiding leitmotif of sustainable forest management.
While societal expectations from the present day forester to fulfill these changing roles is increasing, more often than not the forest manager is left to his / her own devices to cope with the emerging challenges.
We are today living in the age of technology. The internet provides a global path way for information exchange, and literally any information is available at the click of a button. Yet, for many of us, the computer still remains more of a decoration piece and a status symbol. We have yet not made adequate and effective use of the entire capabilities of computers and have not totally capitalized on the IT revolution. It would not be wrong to state that forestry, for the most part, still relies upon age old dependence on manual procedures and the human resource available.
Forest inventory, growth and yield statistics, forest extent, species diversity and the like continue to be documented manually, as a result of which the activities are not just effort and time consuming but also subject to human error. Use of available and developing technology can help to a large extent in rapid assessment of forest resources as well as generating and updating the information and data that is the very basis for good planning. Geographic Information System (GIS) is an effective technology for storage, analysis and retrieval of spatial, temporal and tabular data for natural resources, yet a lot needs to be done by the State Forest Departments (SFD) in this area. 1. 8In the recent past environment and forestry research has been mainly focusing on the basic disciplines and these studies have led to the scientific advancement in the field. Though all these studies have immense relevance to the furthering the development of environment and forestry science in the country, however, in the changing scenario today the focus has to be shifted to research which could bring quick changes and improve the economy of the rural people leading to employment generation, poverty alleviation, etc.
The purpose of carrying out research today should be to generate benefit for the people by the application of new knowledge generated so far in the field of natural resource management. There is a need for user friendly and problem solving thrust in the field of research, education and extension.
Research should be given due recognition and suitably placed at higher priorities to meet the new challenges . Research also needs adequate funding and possibility should be explored to involve the corporate and industrial houses in financing the research projects. While formulating the research projects research objective should be linked with the priorities of the nation such as poverty reduction, conservation and sustainable development and use of bio-resources.
Keeping in view the paucity of personnel in environment and forestry research and increasing the responsibility for managing large number of user groups institutional capacity with respect to trained man-power needs to be provided to cater to the needs. More thoughts are be given to a number of issues particularly in strengthening the structure of the organization, induction of new skills through organizing training of the existing staff at recognized national and international laboratories. Organizing orientation programme for scientists through visit to various national and international institutes in their respective field either through exchange programme or through fellow-ship in order to facilitate exchange of ideas and keeping them abreast with latest scientific and technology developments.
Adequate attention to transfer the technology from laboratory to the field has not been made in the recent past. Research extension linkages in terms of sharing of information and technology transfer is very weak. Research results are not transferred to the gross root level. One of the root causes of such a situation could be that research in most of the research institutions are conducted in isolation and development partners/stake holders were neither consulted nor made mandatory for implementing new technologies.
Today, more than ever before there is a need for partnership between research and educational institution, market/business entrepreneurs, financing bodies and policy makers, etc. Developing industries – institutional partner, have been found an effective tool in almost all developed countries in achieving the objectives and success for industries.
Forest Conservation Programme cannot succeed without the willing support and cooperation of the people. It is essential, therefore, to inculcate in the people, a direct interest in forests, their development and conservation, and to make them conscious of the value of trees, wildlife and nature in general. This can be achieved through the involvement of educational institutions, right from the primary stage. Farmers and interested people should be provided opportunities through institutions like Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Trainers Training Centers to learn agri-silvicultural and silvicultural techniques to ensure optimum use of their land and water resources. Short term extension courses and lectures should be organized in order to educate farmers. For this purpose, it is essential that suitable programmes are propagated through mass media, audio-visual aids and extension machinery.
‘Habitat and Learning’ is the theme of a focus group set up as part of the National Curriculum Review process. Habitat is where any specie finds conditions that permit it to thrive. Learning is a vital faculty of all animal species. First and foremost, animals learn about the features of their own habitat, picking up clues as to where they may expect to find food, where they may expect to encounter enemies, and where they may expect to meet social companions. For our ancestors, knowledge thus began with the exploration of their habitat. In that sense, this focus group may be said to be at the centre stage of education, an enterprise dealing with knowledge.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests, is classified as a ‘Scientific Ministry’ under the Government of India. Since its inception in 1985, the Ministry has funded research by diverse research institutions in several disciplines concerned with environmental protection. Some indicative areas include: forest conservation, wildlife protection, biodiversity inventories, R in environmental management technologies, climate change, public health impacts of environmental degradation, etc.
The existing guidelines set forth the objectives of research support, the thrust areas for research support, procedures for inviting / receipt and processing proposals for funding support, norms for funding, conditions of support and dissemination or research findings.
National Level Forestry Institution
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The Council is apex body in the national forestry research system to develop holistic forestry research through planning, promoting, conducting and coordinating research, education and extension on all aspects of forestry.
ICFRE ensures scientific management of forests, tree improvement, forest productivity through scientific and biotechnological research, bioremediation of degraded land, efficient utilization of forest produce, value addition, conservation of biodiversity, effective agro forestry models for various agro ecological zones, policy research, environmental impact assessment and integrated pest and disease management. ICFRE mission is to carry out research of forests, forestry and forest products at national level, and disseminate the results of this research to all concerned parties, including State Forest Departments, forest based industries, traders, farmers, and other user groups.
ICFRE carries out research under various research programmes and eight-research institutes co-ordinate ICFRE in different parts of the country. ICFRE has eight Regional research institutes and three research centers in different bio-geographical regions of the country to cater to the forestry research needs of the nation.
- Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Haryana, Punjab, Chandigarh and Delhi)
- Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir)
- Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Maharashtra)
- Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore (Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Daman & Diu)
- Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands) (viArid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan, Gujarat & Dadra and Nagar Haveli)
- Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat (Caters to research needs of the North Eastern Region)
- Institute of Forest Productivity, Ranchi (West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Sikkim)
Advance research centers under the council are:
- Centre for Social Forestry and Eco-Rehabilitation (CSFER), Allahabad
- Centre for Forestry Research and Human Resource Development (CFRHRD), Chhindwara.
- Forest Research Centre (FRC), Hyderabad
- To undertake, aid, promote and co-ordinate forestry research, education and its application.
- To extend the research findings from lab to land.
- To develop and maintain a National Forest Library & Information Centre.
- To provide consultancy services in the field of forestry research, education and training, and in allied sciences.
“To generate, preserve, disseminate and advance knowledge, technologies and solutions for addressing the issues related to forests and promote linkages arising out of interactions between people, forests and environment on a sustained basis through research, education and extension”.
- Update, develop and provide knowledge, skill, technology and experiences to support development in forestry sector in accordance with priorities of National Forestry Research Plan (NFRP) and National Forest Policy for sustainable forest development.
- As model organization undertake, coordinate, promote and aid forestry research, extension and education.
- Develop packages of technology and practices according to the needs of different stakeholders so as to contribute towards sustainability and promote these technologies through aggressive marketing.
- Focus research efforts on priorities as identified in NFRP and attain global leadership in few emerging strategic areas.
- Optimize the use of research resources e. g. inancial, human and infrastructure through establishing and nurturing symbiotic networking, with ICFRE providing a core of such network at national and regional level.
Indian Institute of Forest Management , Bhopal (IIFM) The Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) is premier autonomous Institute under the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), Govt. of India. The Institute has four main activities, namely research, teaching, training and consulting in the forestry and allied sectors. It was established in 1982 in response to the growing need for application of business methods in the management of forest and natural resources to ensure efficiency in resource use and conservation.
The Institute has about 25 faculty members working in the multidisciplinary faculty areas such as applied Computer Technology and Quantitative Techniques Communication Methods, Eco-system Management and Technical Forestry Financial Management, Accounting and Control , Forest Resource Economics and Management, Marketing Management, Personnel Management and Organizational Behavior, Sociology and Social Anthropology
The Institute conducts the following major programmes:
- Two year post graduate programme in forestry management (PFM, Equivalent to MBA)
- One year post masters programme in Natural Resource Management (NRM, Equivalent to M. Phil. )
- Management Development Programmes for industry, development sector, government sector, non government sectors, covering forestry policy and institutional aspects, rural livelihoods, community participation, micro finance etc.
Research and Publications Activities Research and publications are among the key priority activities of the Institute.
As a result, the IIFM faculty members have been undertaking various types of research projects related to the forestry and allied sectors. As a sectoral management institute, its research activities are primarily applied in nature. Drawing on the strength of multi disciplinary faculty, the institute promotes research projects of interdisciplinary nature. The research projects generally emphasize upon sustainability of natural resources benefit flow to the disadvantaged communities dependent on the forestry resources. In addition to the internal research funding, the research projects receive funding support from a number of national and international organization.
Among the international funding agencies supporting research projects at IIFM include International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Yokohama, Japan; the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada; the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID); the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, CIFOR; the World Bank; the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN); the United State Forest Service (USFS) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Main Research areas
- Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Certification;
- Community Forestry including Joint Forest Management;
- Micro-Finance and Micro-Enterprise;
- Participatory Forest Resource Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation;
- Legal and Policy Analysis in Forestry;
- Forestry and Livelihood;
- Valuation of Forests and Natural Resource Accounting;
- Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Forestry;
- Gender in Forestry;
- Protected Area and Biodiversity Conservation;
- Management of Non-Wood Forest Products (NTFP) including Medicinal Plants and Wood fuel;
- Wetlands Management;
- Trees Outside Forest.
The Government of India has been supporting the IIFM research projects through funding form the Department of Science and Technology (DST), the National Afforestation and Eco-development Board (NAEB), the Ministry of Tribal Affaris, the Ministry of Textiles etc. The State Government Forest Departments also sponsor number of research studies of IIFM. The Institute has also undertaken some collaborative research projects with institutions such as the Cambridge University and the Kerala Forest Research Institute. Other organization like Sir Dorabji Tata Trust Mumbai have been providing support for research at IIFM.
Directorate of Forest Education (DFE)
The Directorate of Forest Education has been functioning directly under the Ministry since 1991 to cater to the training needs of the SFS officers nd Range Forest Officers of the states and union territories in the country. The forestry training institutes under the direct administrative control of the Directorate of Forest Education are
- State Forest Service College, Dehradun (Uttaranchal)
- State Forest Service College, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
- State Forest Service College, Burnihat (Assam Mehgalaya)
- Eastern Forest Rangers College, Kursenon (West Bengal)
The Directorate is responsible for conducting induction training for the direct recruits to the State Forest Service (SFS) and exercising technical control over the induction training for RFOs being organized by the colleges under the State Governments. Conducting in-service training for SFS officers and FROs, and organize courses for the frontline staff in the form of short term refresher and theme based courses.
Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA) was constituted in the year 1987 by renaming the erstwhile Indian Forest College, which was originally established in 1938 for training senior forest officers. IGNFA is currently functioning in Dehradun as a Staff College for the officers of the Indian Forest Service (IFS). The primary mandate of the Academy is to impart knowledge and skills to the professional foresters and help them to develop competence for managing the country’s forest and wildlife resources on a sustainable basis.
It also enables them to act as catalysts for environmental protection, economic development and social change. In the Academy training is provided at different levels of seniority in the IFS besides training the new entrants to the service. The Academy also imparts skill upgradation training to officers inducted into the IFS on promotion from the State Forest Service (SFS). The Academy also imparts Advanced Forest Management (AFM) training to contemporary batches of IFS officers belonging to three different senior levels, viz, executive, supervisory and policy development levels, and thematic training to IFS officers in a vertical integration format.
Direct recruitment to IFS is made through the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination. The successful candidates are appointed to the IFS on probation for a period of three years. This is the period during which IGNFA imparts professional training to the young entrants into the IFS. Foreign trainees are also imparted training. This includes Foundation Course at LBSNAA, Professional Phase Training at IGNFA and OJT in the Cadre States. The professional training of these IFS officers is imparted mainly by the in-house faculty members drawn on deputation basis from among the serving professionals working in various States and Union Territories.
Inputs from guest faculty are also drawn from eminent persons of repute from various institutes and organisations including non-governmental organizations on certain specialized aspects of forest service. Study tours to various parts of the country and specialized field exercises form an integral part of the training. IGNFA is placed directly under the administrative control of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF), Government of India (GOI). Accommodation for officers undergoing training at IGNFA comprises three hostels – the New Hostel, the Old Hostel and the Executive Hostel. These hostels are provided with mess and other facilities. There are billiards room, badminton court, table tennis hall and gymnasium in the Old Hostel complex.
The Academy has spacious play-grounds adjacent to the New Hostel complex, which are used for physical training and out-door games. The Executive Hostel provides 30 rooms residential facilities to the senior officers coming to the Academy for in-service courses. A state-of-the-art pavilion-cum-indoor sports complex overlooks the playing ground at New Hostel. The two storied impressive structure houses multi gymnasium hall, billiards and table tennis room besides providing seating for 200 people to enjoy outdoor games. Adjoining the New Hostel, a modern, spacious assembly hall with a seating capacity of 600 is provided for holding cultural, academic and social functions.
A residential complex for providing accommodation to the faculty and staff of IGNFA is situated on Chakrata Road, opposite the FRI campus. Medical facilities for both outdoor and indoor patients are available at the New Forest Hospital. The Academy has a Guest House having 22 sets of rooms The Guest House is mainly used for accommodating visiting faculty and middle and senior level in-service officers who come to the Academy time to time for attending in-service training courses, workshops, seminars, etc. The primary mandate of the Academy is to impart capacity building and professional level training to the IFS officers. 2. 5. Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute (IPIRTI)
The Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute (IPIRTI) was established in 1961-62 as a Central Research Laboratory of the Indian Plywood Manufacturers' Research Association under the Cooperative Research Scheme of the Government of India from out of the funds provided by CSIR and voluntary contribution from the Plywood Industries (in pursuance of Ministry of Commerce and Industries Resolution No. CI-9(5)/50 dated 22. 9. 1951). Consequent to the reorganization of the CSIR during 1977-78 (vide letter No. 5(15)/77-IED dt. 21. 3. 1978 of the Secretary, DST and Notification No. CD-261/78 dated 6-4-1978), IPIRTI was one of the several cooperative research laboratories, museums etc. that were transferred to various user Ministries.
With this transfer the erstwhile cooperative research laboratory of plywood industry got converted into an autonomous body of the Ministry of Industry. Subsequently, vide Government Order No. 2/1/88-CI of the Ministry of Industries, Department of Industrial Development dated 30-4-1990, the Institute was transferred to the administrative control of Ministry of Environment and Forests from 1. 5. 1990. This change was notified by the Government of India (GOI/Allocation of business rules 1959) amended vide Cabinet Secretary notification dated 15. 5. 1990 i. e. (GOI/Allocation of business 211 Amendment). The name of the Institute was changed to Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute (IPIRTI) in the year 1992. 2. 5. 1Mandate
Research on all aspects of production of sawn timber, manufacturing plywood and other allied engineered and reconstituted wood or lignocellulosic products, including improvement of materials, manufacturing processes, improvement of machines and appliances, conditions of work time and motion studies - standardization of methods of work conditioning of factories, Inspection, certification and marking of all forest products viz. plywood, wood, timber, hardboard, particleboard, chipboard, furniture, gluelams, compreg, doors, panel doors, blockboard, flush doors, veneered panels, energy consuming, non biodegradable and on the whole highly environment friendly. A two pronged approach is essential to bridge this gap. i. Rationalizing the utilization of available wood resources through appropriate technological intervention, and ii. Development of wood alternates from other natural/renewable fibers. At IPIRTI, R&D activities have already been reoriented to achieve these twin goals.
Consequently, two main areas of applied research are: development of efficient technologies for wood and wood based composites, and evolving technologies for manufacturing wood alternates from natural/renewable fiber. Guided by the fact that plantation grown wood will be the major source of industrial raw material for wood products, the main R&D activity of the Institute aims at efficient utilization of fast growing plantation timber species for production of sawn timber, plywood, and other wood composites. Wood produced in fast growing plantations has several characteristics compared to wood available from traditional forest grown tree species, viz. smaller diameters, lower dimensional stability and low natural durability, ecessitating technological intervention for their proper utilization in meeting the societal needs in respect of wood and wood products. Training in connection with forest product utilization for plywood industries and trade and for allied industries. Imparting technical education or/and training at undergraduate, post graduate and any other level of technology. 2. 6Forest Survey of India Forest Survey of India (FSI) was created with effect from June 1, 1981 as a successor to “Pre-investment Survey of Forest Resources” (PISFR), a project initiated in 1965 by Govt. of India and sponsored by FAO and UNDP. The main objective of PISFR was to ascertain the availability of raw material for establishment of wood based industries in the selected areas of the country.
Further the National Commission on Agriculture (NCA), in its report in 1976, recommended the creation of a National Forest Survey Organistaion for collection of data on scientific lines through country-wide comprehensive forest resources survey at regular intervals. Consequently, PISFR was reorganized into FSI. After a critical review of activities undertaken by FSI, Government of India, in 1986, redefined its mandate as follows in order to make it more purposeful and relevant to the needs of the country. To prepare a comprehensive State of Forest Report (SFR) including National Vegetation Map once every two years. It will also prepare thematic maps through use of remote sensing data with minimal essential ground truth verification (most ground –truth verification would be done by the respective state government) on a ten year cycle. To collect, store and retrieve necessary forestry and forestry related data for national and state level planning and to create a computer based National Basic Forestry Inventory System (NBFIS).
Wildlife Institute of India Wildlife Institute of India (WII) set up in 1982, has emerged as an eminent regional centre for training and research in the field of wildlife conservation in South Asia and South East Asia. It is an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The mission of the Institute is “To nurture the development of wildlife science and promote its application in conservation, in consonance with the cultural and socio-economic milieu”.
The mandate of the Institute is
- Build capacity, develop human resources in wildlife;
- Develop as a centre of excellence in wildlife science;
- Provide consultancy & advisory services to Central and State Governments in matters related to wildlife.
Since its inception, Institute has trained more than 900 field managers through its flagship programmes of 9-months Post-gradate Diploma Course in Wildlife Management and 3-months Certificate Course in Wildlife Management. This includes 113 foreign trainees belonging to 19 countries. About 200 wildlife professionals have been trained by Institute through its M. Sc. Wildlife Science and doctoral programmes. Institute has been actively engaged in undertaking research on different facets of wildlife science across the country and has generated scientific database in the form of research reports (about 115) and technical papers (about 600).
WII has also provided about 25 consultancy services to different states of India as well as to other neighbouring countries. Institute has also taken up additional responsibilities assigned by the MoEF for implementation of activities under National Wildlife Action Plan 2002 - 16. Currently, a country wide tiger and prey base estimation programme is underway in WII as per the requirement of Project Tiger Directorate. Increasing human induced changes are posing new threats to conservation of wilderness resources today. The forests harboring wild animals are deteriorating in terms of quality and quantity (fragmentation) thereby threatening survival of species particularly mega species like elephants, tigers, rhinos and other large bodied animals.
As habitats shrink and populations become increasingly isolated, factors like poaching, disease, population structure (sex-ratio) and stochastic events like droughts, fire and floods which once were part of natural processes causing manageable oscillations are now becoming limiting and critical factors. The situation is throwing enormous challenges to managers and policy makers alike. WII, with its sound foundation in wildlife sciences, needs to respond to these emerging challenges adequately by implementing innovative approaches to manage wildlife resources in the country. 2. 8Forestry Research Institutions under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) The forestry research is attempted in several institutes falling under crop science and natural resource management institutes of ICAR .
Besides the work done in the research institute, there is an All India Coordinated Research Project on Agroforestry involving about 30 centers, many of them located in State Agricultural Universities across the country. The activities in the major area of forestry research (including allied fields ) under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), including Indian Grassland & Fodder Research Institute ( IGFRI) may be broadly classified into three parts –
- Agroforestry Research ( targeting primarily farm lands);
- Silvipastoral Research (targeting degraded forests and other wastelands);
- Grassland Ecology and Management (targeting natural grasslands and community grazing lands).
List of major research institutions of ICAR imparting forestry research
- Indian Grassland & Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (IGFRI)
- National Research Center for Agroforestry, Jhansi (NRCAF)
- Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (CAZRI)
- Central Soil Salinty Research Institute, Karnal(CSSRI)
- Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Dehradun
- ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hills Region , Shillong (ICAR- RC- NEH)
- Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora (VPKAS)
- Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad (CRIDA)
- Central Agricultural Research Institute , Port Blair (CARI)
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE )
The Institute deals subjects of Ecology and Environment; Environmental Education; Pollution Monitoring/Control; Water Management; Health. Environmental activities include communication for awareness; rainwater harvesting; climate change; research and advocacy; education and training; documentation; CSE’s pollution monitoring laboratory is an independent analytical, research and development laboratory that monitor and document pesticide residues, conducts water quality analysis and monitors ambient air quality in cities and communities across India; lab services include analysis over a wide range of parameters for food, water, soil, air, and biological materials; including blood, tissue and other environmental analysis. Publications: State of India’s Environment – The Citizen’s Report, Down to Earth, Air Pollution Booklet etc. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Environmental activities include providing environment-friendly solution to rural energy problems to help in shaping the development of the Indian oil and gas sector; from tackling global climate change issues across many continents to enhancing forest conservation efforts among local communities; from advancing solutions to growing urban transport and air pollution problems to promoting energy efficiency in the Indian industry. All activities in TERI move from formulating local – and national – level strategies to suggesting global solutions to critical energy and environment related issues.
Centre for Environmental Education (CEE)
Environmental activities include Environmental education and training; conservation of biodiversity; eco-development; networking for environmental education; adapting to different geographic, culture, social and economic contexts built into the basic design of programmes and material; CEE in association with the Environmental Law Institue, Washington DC, has launched a project for capacity building of judiciary in Uttar Pradesh with funding from the Ford Foundation. The objective is to help the judiciary plan an informed and effective role in protecting the environment and upholding and strengthening environmental law in India.
Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development G. B.
Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development was established in August 1988, at Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, as an autonomous institute of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The Institute is identified as a focal agency, to advance scientific knowledge, to evolve integrated management strategies, demonstrate their efficacy for conservation of natural resources and to ensure environmentally sound development in the entire Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Apart from undertaking research and technology development and/or demonstration on its own, the Institute has established linkages with National and International Organizations committed to environment and development linked issues in the mountain regions.
The Institute has been recognized as a nodal agency for research and development programs in the Indian Himalaya by the Planning Commission, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, and many International organizations. All R&D activities of the Institute are essentially multi-disciplinary in nature, and based on a conscious effort to interlink natural and social sciences to promote sustainable development. The vision and area of operation of the institute are as follows: • To undertake in-depth research and development studies on environmental problems of the Indian Himalayan Region.
- To identify and strengthen the local knowledge of the environment and contribute towards strengthening researches of regional relevance in the scientific institutions, Universities/NGOs and Voluntary agencies working in the Himalayan region, through interactive networking.
- To evolve and demonstrate suitable technological packages and delivery systems for sustainable development of the region in harmony with local perceptions.
Chapter 3 THE SALIENT ACHIEVEMENTS OF X PLAN A. SALIENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE FORESTS SECTOR 3. 1Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) i. Enhancing Productivity of Forests • Developed cost-effective micro-propagation protocols for mass propagation of Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa arundinacea, B. arundinacea var. gigantean, D. membranaceous, B. nutans and Oxytenanthera stocksii. • Standardized in-vitro propagation methods for mature tissues of Azadirachta indica. • Rejuvenated difficult to root clones of E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis rejuvenated and 10% rooting achieved.
Methods developed for the micro-propagation of tropical hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla X E. grandis. • Maintained germplasm bank for 400 clones of Poplar (Populus deltoides) for tree improvement studies. • Identified twelve clones of Casuarina equisetifolia, as superior performers, selected for fingerprinting using RAPD and AFLP techniques. Developed DNA finger printing for molecular base characterization of germplasm of - Pine, Shisham and Eucalyptus. • Identified 1156 plus trees of neem in different agro-climatic zones of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Orissa. • Standardized the clonal propagation technology for mass multiplying the high yielding neem tree. Standardized a procedure for rapid multiplication of Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) through axillary bud proliferation and clonal propagation technology and micro-propagation package for teak has to produce high quality-planting stock. • Selected twenty outstanding clones each of Casuarina equisetifolia and C. junghuhniana sub-sp. timoresnsis and vegetatively propagated in a hybridization garden. • Developed molecular cataloguing of 36 plus trees of teak from 11 states of India and one allied species (Tectona hamiltoniana Wall) endemic to Myanmar using RAPD markers. • Developed in-vitro shoot proliferation mehods for large-scale multiplication of mature clumps of Bambusa nutans and Dendrocalamus giganteus.
Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources • Established 1300 ha. Seed Production Areas, 351 ha. Seed Seedling Orchard and 170 ha. Clonal Seed Orchard and Model Nurseries in different parts of the country for Quality planting Material (QPM). • Standardized seed testing procedures for more than 120 species. • Developed guidelines for certification of forestry seeds. Silviculture for Forest Management i. Initiated work on benchmarking biodiversity and preservation of gene pool of important species/forest types through preservation plots in. 15 States of the country. ii. Developed technology for artificial regeneration of Buchnania lanzon in U. P. iii.
Volume tables, site index equations and growth/yield functions for A. indica, E. camaldulensis and D. sissoo also developed. iv. Field trials laid with two forestry important species of Alnus nepalensis and Exbucklendia populenia for reclamation of highly eroded site at Cherrapunjee, Meghalaya. v. Growth of most common tree species planted in South-West Bengal viz. , Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus, Gmelina arborea, Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis from 132 plantation sites under alluvial, coastal and lateritic soils were compared for the soil vegetation interaction with special reference to nutrient cycling. vi.
Development of Agro-forestry Models • Developed p • ackage for “Economic Production of Casuarina equisetifolia in Agroforestry system”. • Developed and standardized management practices for most promising existing agroforestry systems in central Narmada valley and Satpura plateau agro-climatic regions of M. P. , arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, semi-arid tropics of Andhra Pradesh. • Developed agroforestry model consisting of tree species (Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea and Emblica officinalis) and crop species (soyabean and wheat). • Organized awareness campaigns for promotion of agroforestry amongst farmers. vii. Protection of Forests Developed insect database for 200 species for National Insect Reference with the collection preserved at FRI. • Studied Shisham Mortality - Temporal changes in the physical properties of soil and soil maturation, water stress, water logging, environmental stress and ecological succession are observed to the main causes for shisham mortality. • Studied management of Sal Heartwood borer in natural forests. • Tested promising plant derived chemicals against key pests against the major defoliators of forest tree species. • Multiplied 3,00,00000 wasps of Trichogramma rosi and introduced in 200 hectare teak plantations of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to minimise the out break of Teak defoliator and skeletonizer. Deodar mortality in around Shimla was studied and causative factors identified. • Identified natural enemies of Ectropis deodarae comprising of eleven parasitoids, eight predators and nine entomo-pathogens of Himalayan forest. • Two new species of the genus Angulitermes (A. bhagsunagensis sp. now) from Himachal Pradesh and Mecrotermes (M. vikaspurensis sp. now) from Uttaranchal have been identified. • Identified Phloeobius crassicollis (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) damaging green culm of Bamboosa bambos for the first time. • Identified causes of mortality of Prosopis cineraria trees and suggested remedial measures for protecting the infested trees. viii. Forest Products Electronic database of available Physical and Mechanical properties of timber species tested so far since 1911 belonging to 510 records prepared. Various calculations of suitability indices and safe working stresses of timber species completed and tested. • Standardized m • ethods for vegetable dyes from Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus, Eupatorium glandulosum and Azadirachta indica. • Obtained VAC-FRI technology for treatment of green bamboo. • Developed Plasticisation technique for palms and selected bamboo species. • Studied post harvest technologies on non-traditional, under-exploited locally available timber species for suitability to handicraft and other small scale Industries. Assessed wood quality of Simarouba glauca for its timber value. • Developed alternative preservatives of more economic value and schedules for their incorporation in wood. • Standardized seasoning and preservation technique for Rubber wood. • Reconstituted wood from lops & tops of Eucalyptus, Poplar, Lantana and Bamboo. • Furniture made from preservative treated (CCA and Chloropyriphos) under pressure treatment plant and seasoned wood of all the three plantation of lesser-known timber species viz. A. tortilis, P. juliflora and P. cineraria. ix. Non Wood Forest Produce • Launched a website on medicinal plants market trend http://marketinfoherbs. icfre. org by FRI. Initiated studies to propagate high altitude medicinal plants –Microstylis wallichii, Berginia ciliata, Valeriana jatamasi and Swertia chirayita by following non-destructive methods at lower elevation). • Isolated the parthenium lignocellulosic material and converted into fibres, which were analysed for physical properties for development of Medium Density Fibre Board. • Established agroforestry based medicinal plant cultivation research plots in Haryana and at Dehradun. The cost economics of cultivation of different medicinal plants under different agroforestry and horticultural species studied. • Studied lac cultivation on non-traditional host Flemingia spp. and its possibility in sustainable plantation forestry. • Studied economic evaluation of NTFPs in tribal belt of Madhya Pradesh nd standardized methodologies for extraction and value addition of NWFP providing sustenance to tribals. • Standardized Nursery Techniques for Mass Propagation of Selected Medicinal Plant Species. • Estimated heavy metals (lead and arsenic) in vegetable dye of Butea monospema and Woodfordia fruticosa. • Studied production of alpha cellulose from Lantana camara and its chemical modification for industrial applications. • Extraction and dyeing trials with dyes from Lantana leaves, Cassia tora seeds and Eucalyptus hybrid leaves using different mordant were carried out. • Methods standardized for production of alpha cellulose and its derivatives from Lantana camara for a variety of applications. Methods standardized for vegetable dyes from Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus, Eupatorium glandulosum and Azadirachta indica. • Methods standardized for compost making from Parthenium for effective utilization of weeds. x. Eco-restoration Studies • Reclaimed problem soils like quartz dumps, magnesite / lime stone mine spoils using suitable tree species and proper soil amendments. • Studied biological reclamation of fly ash dumps at Thermal power station area, Korba and Chachai. • Standardized afforestation technique for sodic soils and reclamation of wastelands- FRI. xi. Environmental Impact Assessment • Conducted comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment & Management Plan for Bodhghat Hydro Electric Project, CSEB, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Environmental Impact Assessment of Seismic Operations in Krishna Godavari Basin (KG-ON-1) for Reliance Industries Ltd. , Mumbai. • Prepared final mine closure plan for Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOL), Bangalore – This has been prepared first time in the Country, as per the directive of Honorable Supreme Court to KIOCL. • Ecological Assessment of forest areas falling Under Kol Dam Hydroelectric Project in Bilaspur District of H. P. xii. Biodiversity Conservation and Assessment • Ecological assessment of Dipterocarp forest with reference to distribution, abundance rarity and profile sketch of evergreen forest is carried out in Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. Spatial distribution mapping and population dynamics of 21 threatened medicinal plants carried out in Silent valley and kolli hills MPCAs of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. • Collected 640 plant species belonging to 90 different families from the cold desert areas. Three hundred forty five species have been identified as unique species. Twenty-seven species of medicinal importance declared as red listed medicinal plants. • Forest Invasive Species: (FIS) is a priority issue under the Convention on Biological Diversity, accordingly, based on information received from regional ICFRE Institutes, a brochure published on ‘Forest Invasive Species’ as per revised format for Asia Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN). xiii. Climate Change Given observer status of UNFCCC at COP 10 in 2004 in accordance with Article 7, Paragraph 6 of the Convention. • Studied Carbon mitigation potential of farmlands in Betalghat, Nainital, Uttaranchal. • Studied Carbon sequestration potential under farm forestry and community forest. • FORCLIMIT India (MoEF- USEPA Programme – Forests and Climate Change Mitigation Networks). First phase in Udhampur, Nainital, Uttaranchal for farm forestry and forestry was completed. Industrial Potential approach at Singareni coalfield is in progress. xiv. Research on Jatropha curcas • Isolated and estimated oils and anti-nutritional constituent, phytae in different provenances of Jatropha curcas.
Separated toxic fraction of jatropha oil and assessed for antifungal and antibacterial activities. • Identified provenance for high oil content for Jatropha from the clonal germplasm bank. • Established a trial of 32 provenances has been established. • Established germblasm bank of Jatropha in different institutes of ICFRE. xv. ICFRE and Forestry Extension • Conducted number of workshops/ seminars during the year 2002-2007 where researchers, foresters, NGOs, industrialists, Govt. officials, farmers and other entrepreneurs participated. • Developed agroforestry models for different agro climatic zones by ICFRE institutes, primarily for the economic gains of farmers were demonstrated with the help of workshops, seminars and trainings. Made available biological control measures of forestry pests and diseases to stakeholders through extension activities. • Envisaged application of biofertilizers to increase productivity of forestry crop through extension mechanisms like brochures, films shows. • Organized training-cum-demonstration on modern techniques of lac cultivation organised at Raipur (Chhattisgarh), Chandwa (Jharkhand), Katghora (Chhattisgarh) and Malichak (Jharkhand). • Developed VAM production facility at TRC, Gandhinagar, State Forest Department, and Gujarat. • Conducted training programme for bamboo artisans at Angamalli Cluster, Kerala. • Uploaded a • bout 3000 herbarium plant species into the ‘Image Analyzer’ programme and made available to the entire country through website. Developed and published training module for Committee Members and Forest Frontline Workers on Joint Forest Management (JFM), Forest Development Agency (FDA), Watershed, Micro Planning and Monitoring Issues as per the guidelines of the National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. xvi. Patents Registered • Micro-propagation of bamboos- patent No. 1137/ MUM/ 2000. • Technology VAC-FRI for Treatment of Green Bamboo- Patent No. 19. 14/03012/2003. • Lignin Copper Complex A and B - Patent No. 963/DEL/2004. • An Apparatus for Post Harvest Treatment and Preservation of Bamboo - Patent No. 425/KOL/2003 on the subject. 3. 1. 3ICFRE and Forestry Education ICFRE, Forest Research Institute (Deemed University) runs Masters and doctoral programmes in various disciplines of forestry at different institutes of ICFRE.
In addition, Post Graduate diploma courses on Plantation Technology, Pulp and Paper Technology and Bio-diversity Conservation were also imparted. Three M. Sc. Courses of 2 Years duration-Forestry (Economics & Management) (25 seats) ,Wood Science & Technology (25 seats) and Environment Management (25 seats), two P. G. D Courses of one year duration were run viz. Sixteen recognized research centers across the country were established for conducting the doctoral program. In the Research Degree Programme, 340 research scholars were registered for Ph. D. degree in different disciplines related to forestry and forest products. These included in-service scientists and forest officers as well were inferred on Ph. D. 3. 1. 4 Grant in Aid to Universities
The ICFRE has been providing Grant-in-Aid for developing technical capabilities and strengthening infrastructure in forestry faculty in the Universities imparting forestry education at graduation and post-graduation level. The component of Grant-in-Aid to these Universities from ICFRE was meager during IX Plan. However, in the X Plan a total outlay of Rs. 20. 35 crore has been provided. The ICFRE has set up guidelines and constituted committee to consider the proposals for Grant-in-Aid received from the Universities. A system of monitoring and evaluation for effective and meaningful utilization of Grant-in-Aid has also been put in place. However, since the quantum of Grant-in-Aid being limited share for each University works out to be less than Rs. One crore during plan period or on an average about Rs. 20 lakhs per annum.
The major part of Grant-in-Aid has been utilized for creation of infrastructure such as classroom facility, College labs, hostels, computer center etc. In addition, support is provided for strengthening of library facilities, equipments and conduct of educational study tours. There are, in all, 26 Universities to which Grant-in-Aid is provided. Forestry Education which was aimed at imparting knowledge on various aspects in for
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