Referencing and Paraphrasing
Preparation for mandatory test: Introducing Referencing Referencing is the key means by which you can avoid plagiarism and is central to the practice of academic honesty. The basic idea is that any time you use information, ideas or words from another source you need to use referencing to acknowledge the original author. Using someone else’s ideas without clearly identifying that this is what you have done is an obvious breach of the principles of trust and fairness which support academic endeavour.
It can sometimes be difficult to know what you are required to reference, and many students mistakenly believe that it is only academic publications which need referencing. In fact any time you use someone else’s ideas or information you need to reference: if you do not, you are plagiarising. The following lists help you understand when referencing is necessary and when it is not. When completing an assignment, the following sources must be referenced: * books and textbooks journal articles * newspapers and magazines * pamphlets and brochures * films, documentaries, TV programs and advertisements * web pages and all computer-based resources including blogs and blog posts, podcasts and vodcasts * letters and emails * personal interviews * lecture and tutorial notes * communications with lecturers, tutors and other professionals (emails and conversations) * reproduced * tables * charts * graphs * formulae * diagrams * illustrations * images * photographs
When completing an assignment there is no need to reference: * your own observations – for example, in the experiment results section of a report * your own writing about your own experiences – for example, in a reflective journal * your own thoughts, comments or conclusions * your own analysis or evaluation – for example, in the opportunities and risks and recommendations sections of a report * your own interpretations of the significance of data or facts * your relation of data or facts to the argument of a report or essay – for example, in the recommendations section of a report * common knowledge
Common knowledge There are some kinds of information that do not need to be referenced. Common knowledge – that is, knowledge held in common in the public domain – does not need to be referenced. For example, it is common knowledge that Australia is a democracy, and therefore a statement to this effect in an assignment does not need to be referenced. However, if you are discussing nuances of opinion from various Australian political parties on a topical issue, these views need to be referenced because they represent specialised knowledge.
If in doubt about what can be assumed as common knowledge, consult your unit of study coordinator or tutor. The validity of information As a general rule, only credible sources should be used in university assignments. Information and ideas from websites, general members of the public and other students is not necessarily credible. Credibility stems from a quality assurance process. For example, articles in academic journals are usually peer reviewed, and have therefore been through such a process. University lecturers and tutors have been through an equivalent process.
The internet does not have a standard quality assurance process. Information is frequently published with no checks for accuracy or substantiation. For these reasons you need to make sure that you assess the validity of information sourced from the web. Why should I reference? Beyond issues of academic honesty there are other good reasons to reference. As well as helping you to work in an honest manner, by making clear what is the work of others, referencing ensures that your marker knows what is your own work and that your assessments are marked fairly.
Three good reasons to reference * Referencing is central to the development of your own knowledge and ideas * Many students feel confused about what is expected in terms of their use of sources and the presentation of their own ideas. While you are expected to present your own ideas in an assignment, a personal response to the assignment question is not adequate. Your marker looks for evidence that you have developed your ideas after close consideration of existing academic knowledge and ideas.
In order to demonstrate that your ideas are based on thorough research, you need to refer to all relevant sources and present them in such a manner that you document their influence. * Referencing allows the marker to clearly identify your own ‘ voice’ * An important function of referencing is that it makes clear where a particular fact or idea has come from. Since your assignment will include a mix of your own ideas and ideas and information from other sources, it is crucial that your marker can easily identify the difference.
If you do not include references, or do not adequately and accurately reference, you will be implying that ideas and information are your own when they are not. This is plagiarism. * References are an important signpost for your marker In an assignment, your marker is looking for evidence that: * you have understood and assimilated ideas and information from your sources * you are able to analyse the significance of the ideas and nformation from your sources in the context of your assignment – for example, in the opportunities and risks section of a report * you are able to evaluate the relative relevance of the ideas and information from your sources in the context of your assignment – for example, in the recommendations section of a report * you are able to develop an argument based on the ideas and information from your sources – for example, in an essay. Good referencing helps your marker to clearly identify these qualities in your work. When should I reference? Knowing when you need to reference is only the first step in avoiding plagiarism.
The second step involves learning how to integrate the information and ideas of others into your own work. Whenever you incorporate source material into your assignment you have a choice: to use the same exact words as the original, or to use your own words to express the idea or information. Summarising and paraphrasing offer alternatives to using direct quotations and ensure that you are able to develop your own voice and make clear your own contribution. Direct quotation A direct quotation is a word-for-word reproduction of someone else’s words, either written or spoken
When you choose to use a direct quotation in your assignment, you need to: * Enclose the direct quotation in single quotation marks ‘…. ’, ensuring that all the words you have reproduced are included * Double-check your quotation to ensure that it is a word-for-word replication of the original and that the punctuation is also the same * Include the author’s family name (or source name), publication date and page number, immediately after the quotation (or within the sentence where you use the quotation) * Ensure that the referencing details are accurate: your reader needs to be able to locate the original using this information.
Quoted special words or phrases also need to be enclosed in quotation marks, even though they may not express an entire idea or sentence. A word of warning… You should not rely too heavily on direct quotations in your assignments. While direct quotations can be useful in ensuring that you accurately transcribe a complex idea, if you use too many direct quotations in your writing you are letting your sources speak instead of establishing your own voice. This makes it difficult for your reader to ascertain what you have understood and what contribution you are making.
When using sources it is important to ensure that you frequently re-express ideas in your own words and phrasing. Using your own words Paraphrasing and summarising are alternatives to using direct quotations, and allow you to express your source’s information and ideas in your own words. Paraphrasing A paraphrase is a short section of text that retains the source’s original meaning but expresses it in different words. In order to paraphrase you need to do more than simply change one or two words.
To paraphrase legitimately, you need to first understand the original meaning, and then express this meaning in your own words, phrasing and sentences. Here is an example of how to paraphrase. The following passage is taken from page 180 of Schminke, M. , Arnaud, A. and Kuenzi, M. 2007, ‘The power of ethical work climates’ ? , Organizational Dynamics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 171-186. Moral sensitivity can be improved through training. To enhance moral awareness, organizations first need to explain clearly what constitutes unethical and illegal behaviour, and to clarify desired employee behaviours with respect to all organizational stakeholders.
This requires clearly communicating formal, comprehensive ethics policies and procedures (e. g. , ethics codes) to employees at all levels, including managers, so as to provide formal boundaries for decisions, activities, and behaviours in the organization. However, awareness training should also probe the informal gray areas of comprehensive ethics policies. It may do so through the use of scenario studies, games, and interactive videos, which include ethical dilemmas that employees may face in their workplace.
Such training opportunities allow individuals sufficient exposure to the practice of identifying ethical issues in realistic settings. Acceptable paraphrase Below is a legitimate rephrasing of the original text: Organizations can take steps to improve the ethical sensitivity of their employees by providing clear guidance on what is appropriate ethical behaviour and where the grey informal difficulties may lie through variety of methods including dilemmas, games and scenarios (Schminke, Arnaud and Kuenzi 2007). Unacceptable paraphrase Below is an unacceptable paraphrase.
Rather than a legitimate rephrasing, this is a collection of direct quotes from the original, which have just been organised in a different order: Moral sensitivity can be improved through training, which can be delivered through the use of scenario studies, games, and interactive videos, which include ethical dilemmas that employees may face in their workplace (Schminke, Arnaud and Kuenzi 2007). Unacceptable paraphrase Below is another unacceptable paraphrase. In this case, it is unacceptable because it merely involves the alteration of a few words in the original:
In enhancing moral awareness, organizations should explain clearly what constitutes unethical and illegal behaviour, and specify desired employee behaviours for all stakeholders in the organisation (Schminke, Arnaud and Kuenzi 2007). Hint: As well as highlighting your understanding, paraphrasing information and ideas allows you to integrate them more easily into your own writing. Summarising A summary is an outline of the main or most relevant ideas presented in a source. When summarising, be absolutely sure to use your own words, phrasing and sentence structures!
Hint: Summarising can be useful when you want to focus on particular ideas or particular information in a source. When paraphrasing and summarising, you need to: * Ensure that the words, phrasing and sentence structure are your own. If you paraphrase or summarise and your words are too similar to the source’s, this is plagiarism. * Include the author’s family name (or source name) and publication date immediately after the paraphrase or summary (or within the sentence). * Ensure that the referencing details are accurate: your reader needs to be able to locate the original source using this information.
Remember, your own contribution includes your ability to clearly express someone else’s ideas or information in your own words and demonstrate understanding of the relevance of this information in the context of your assignment. How do I reference? There are a variety of different referencing systems used to acknowledge sources in academic texts. Often, within a given unit of study, one particular system will be favoured so it is important that you check with your unit of study coordinator. It is imperative that you choose a single recognised system and use it consistently and accurately throughout your assignment.
This includes paying close attention to the presentation of referencing details, including the order of information, and the precise use of commas, full stops, italics and quotation marks. The Harvard referencing system as specified in The University of Sydney Business School Referencing Guide is used in The University of Sydney Business School. This section provides a number of examples of how to reference sources, both in-text (i. e. , in the body of your work) and in the accompanying reference list. Reference lists and bibliographies
A reference list only includes the sources directly referred to in the body of your work. A bibliography includes all works that have informed your work, both those directly referred to in the body of your work and those not. Note: Most assignments require a reference list only. If you are unsure whether or not a bibliography is also required, please check with your unit of study coordinator or your tutor. Direct quotation When a word-for-word quotation is integrated into the text of your essay, you must always provide referencing details in the sentence where the quotation is introduced.
In both the reference list and the bibliography you must also provide full details of the source quoted. To reference a short direct quotation of about 30 words or less, place single inverted commas around the author’s words, and place his/her family name, the date of publication, and the page number in brackets after the quotation, for example: Truly difficult ethical conflicts in the work place exist ‘between one’s deeply held, subjectively informed relational ways of being in the world and more objectively fashioned general rules’ (Ladkin 2006, p. 8). The corresponding entry in the reference list would look like this: Ladkin, D. 2006, ‘When deontology and utilitarianism aren’t enough: how Heidegger’s notion of ‘ dwelling’ might help organisational leaders resolve ethical issues’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 87-98. Below is an instance of using a direct quotation to refer to someone else’s idea in your writing: Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari propose an unusual idea of philosophy. They define philosophy as the ‘art of forming, inventing, and fabricating concepts’ (1994, p. ). This idea is useful for exploring ways in which various forms of intellectual work can be seen not as a reflection on the world, but as an opportunity to intervene in the world. The corresponding entry in the reference list would look like this: Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. 1994, What is philosophy? , Verso, London. Quotations which are more than about 30 words must be set apart in the text by indenting in a block format, without using quotation marks. A font size one point smaller can also be used.
Below is an instance of using a direct quotation to introduce someone else’s argument. Rowold and Heinitz (2007) make a link between trust and the transformation of followers in the following way: In addition, if the leader is a trustworthy model and represents a code of conduct, transformation occurs more easily. As a consequence of the leader’s charismatic qualities and behaviours, followers identify with the leader. In turn, values and performance standards are more likely to be adapted by followers.
Finally, transformational and charismatic leaders foster performance beyond expectations (p. 122). The corresponding entry in the reference list would look like this: Rowold, J. and Heinitz, K. 2007 ‘ Transformational and charismatic leadership: assessing the convergent, divergent and criterion validity of the MLQ and the CKS’ ? , The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 121-133. Quoting a fact Whenever you include a fact that is not commonly known information in your writing, you must use in-text referencing to identify the source.
For example: The recent global financial crisis has led to significant rises in unemployment levels throughout the developed world. The November 2009 Australian unemployment rate of 5. 7 per cent (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009) is a welcome sign that the economy may be on the road to recovery. The corresponding entry in the reference list would look like this: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, 6202. 0-Labour Force Australia – November 2009, viewed 15 December 2009, http://www. abs. gov. au/AUSSTATS/[email protected] sf/mf/6202. 0 Paraphrasing and summarising If you use your own words to express a source’s ideas or information, you must still reference the source by providing the author’s surname and the date of publication in brackets at the end of the relevant passage. For example: Marketing potentially harmful products, like genetic tests, poses a challenge for corporate decision-makers in making sure they appropriately balance the benefits and harm of their product in their advertising (Williams-Jones and Ozdemir 2008).
The corresponding entry in the reference list would look like this: Williams-Jones, B. and Ozdemir, V. 2008, ‘Challenges for corporate ethics in marketing genetic tests’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 33-44. Referencing according to the type of assessment task Although you need to reference in all university assignments (unless it is explicitly stated otherwise), what you are expected to reference – and how references must be expressed – depends on the type of assessment task. For example, research essays require full referencing.
However, other assessments, such as a closed book exam, are unlikely to require you to memorise entire quotations and page numbers. Reference requirements in some assessment tasks – for instance, oral presentations – are not as clear, and in such cases you should consult your unit of study coordinator or tutor. A note on using referencing systems This module helps you understand the principles and practice of academic honesty. It is essential that you learn and use the referencing system prescribed by each unit coordinator for any particular course of study.