The purpose of this manual Is to guide undergraduate and postgraduate students In the Department of Business Administration at university of Asia Pacific (PAP) in writing up their internship report. It will also be used as a standard with which students will comply in preparing their reports. Thus both students and faculty members acting as supervisors/co-supervisors are advised/expected to be familiar with the guidelines as mentioned in the manual.
The manual comprises: A. Formatting of the report B. Preliminary Pages C. Matt Text D.
References and Appendices The details of each section are presented below: A. Formatting of the Report The formatting of the report In the mall text should be as follows: Font size: 12 Font type: Times New Roman. Paper: AY size Line spacing: Double. Paragraph: To be indented after the first paragraph; Page margin: Left -1. 25 Len. ; Right, Top and Bottom – 1 In. Each. Page number: To be at the bottom-mid (or at the top-right) of the page, (1, Total length of the report: Maximum 40 pages, with the main body of the report not exceeding 30 pages.
There are a number of segments In this section; these are: (I) Title page it) Approval Page (iii) Declaration page (iv) Acceptance Letter (vi) Acknowledgements (vii) Executive Summary (viii) Table of Contents (ix) List of Tables (x) List of Figures (xi) Acronyms Title Page: The Title of the report should be in the top portion of the page to be followed by ‘BY and the name of the student. This should be followed by ‘An internship report…. For the degree of Business Administration’, the name of the department and the university. At the bottom, the date should be mentioned, first, the month, and then, the year (for ex. September, 2010). Please see the format on the Title page on page no. 7. Approval Page: While it is the primary duty of the student to strictly follow the guidelines of writing his/her internship report, the concerned faculty members acting as supervisors are requested to be involved and to guide the students to produce an authentic report free from ‘Plagiarism’ as stated in the next section. Declaration Page: It is of paramount importance that students understand clearly, when they write on this page that the internship work is absolutely theirs.
Normally, it is not allowed to copy and paste works of others from any Journal or proceedings, r working papers, or websites or from any other sources, without proper citation, which is termed as “Plagiarism”. There is, however, one exception: a maximum of 400 words can be copied in which case these must be presented in inverted quotations with the name(s) of the author(s) and page number included. The students also need to remember that it is not enough to state the source of information in the reference section only; rather, it has to be mentioned also in internal citation in the main text of the report.
Here is an example: ‘Knowledge management encompasses a systematized and integrated managerial tragedy, which combines information technology with the organizational process’; it is ‘a managerial activity that develops, transfers, transmits, stores and applies knowledge, as well as provides the members of the organization with real information to react and make the right decisions, in order to attain the organization’s goals’ in an ever-changing competitive environment (Hung et al. , 2005, p. 165).
Therefore, any student caught in plagiarism SHALL get an ‘F grade, in which case, s/ he has to redo the whole report. They, therefore, must put references/sources of information whenever they cite any numerical figure (for ex. GAP growth rate, or no. Of public/private universities in the country, etc. ), existing information, or any section. Acceptance Letter: Please see on page 10. Letter of Transmittal: The ‘Letter of Transmittal’ in an internship report is a formal letter to the Supervisor informing him or her of the completion of the report.
It contains the following items: Salutation Purpose of the letter Objectives/methodology/findings of the report Thanks Please see the sample Letter of Transmittal in Appendix-I on page no 13. Acknowledgements: Please see the acknowledgement section on page 10. Executive Summary: The executive summary is the snap shot of the whole report. It should be treated as a ‘stand-alone’ section through which the supervisor/reader would get an idea about the overall work done during the internship period.
While the length of an executive summary varies, for an internship report, it should not be more than 2 page-long. The content of an executive summary is given on page 1 1 . Table of Contents: In the Table of Contents, the preliminary pages should be stated first with page numbers to be in Roman letters ii. , iii. , etc. ]. This is followed by the main text here the page numbers are to be given as 1, 2, 3, etc. See the Table of Contents section on page 12. List of Tables: corresponding page numbers. The tables should be numbered as 1 . , 1. 2, 2. 1, 2. 2, etc, as presented in each chapter. In the main text, the guidelines for presenting the ‘Tables’ are as follows: There should be a double spacing between the text and the placement of the heading of the Table. Under the Table heading, the title should be written. Both the table heading and the title should be at the center of the page. Below that, there should be a blank single spacing for the table to be presented. After the table, again, there should be a double spacing for the next paragraph to start.
In putting any table, the column grid lines are to be omitted; only the row lines are to be kept. No Table no. Should be presented without putting any reference of it in the main text. List of Figures: The list of figures should present all the figures chronologically with their corresponding page numbers. The figures should be numbered as 1 . 1, 1. 2, 2. 1, 2. 2, As in the case of a Table, there should be a double spacing between the text and the placement of the Figure. Both the Figure number and the title should be at the center f the page, and written below the figure after a blank single spacing.
After the figure title, again, there should be a double spacing for the next paragraph to start. No Figure number should be presented without putting any reference of it in the main text. For both Table and Figure, see sample Appendix 2 on page 14. Acronyms: All the acronyms should be presented chronologically in alphabetical order. In the main text, while stating for the first time, no abbreviations are allowed. For example, if in a sentence the word UN or SCARCE is mentioned, first time it has to be Ritter as United Nations (UN) or South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SCARCE).
Subsequently, only the acronym or the abbreviated form UN or SCARCE is to be stated. C. Man-I Text: The main body of the report should contain the following chapters/sections as a general rule. However, it is up to the concerned faculty member(s) acting as deem it fit. For example, ‘Discussions’ in the Chapter Three might be in the last chapter with the heading, like, ‘Discussions and Conclusions’, or, the ‘Methodology section could entirely be a separate section, as the case may be.
Apart from this, the reservation of the tables and the figures should follow the guidelines as specified in the ‘List of Tables’ and ‘List of Figures’ sections. Chapter One: Introduction (I) (Origin of the Report) Background of the Study (iii) Objectives of the Report (v) Scope of the Report (v) Limitations of the Report (v’) Organization/Structure of the Report Here, the section ‘origin of the report’ found in every report might be ignored since this information is to be written on the title page ‘…..
An internship report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration’. This section thus seems to be an exercise in redundancy, and may be omitted. We therefore might start with the ‘Background of the study. Chapter Two: Overview of the Industry/Company This section may also be called ‘Literature Review/Survey. In this section, for an industry overview, there should be one/two introductory paragraph(s).
This may be followed by an analysis of the application of Michael Porter’s 5-forces industry framework that would shed light on the competitiveness of the industry. Here the analysis should illustrate the degree of the impact (high/ medium/low) of the 5 forces and discuss elaborately why it is so. As for the overview of the particular company/organization where the internship is carried out, it should comprise a number of issues, such as, the period of the operation of the business, its branches (if any), its competitors, its product portfolio, its sales/profits in the last few years with adequate analysis.
It may present BCC matrix of a few products in the company’s portfolio arguing why those fall in a particular category of the matrix. It should present ratio analysis, where various ratios comprising the data of the particular organization must be compared with hose of the industry average / leading company / its main competitor over a period. The section might be cap with the SOOT analysis presenting the four components in Chapter Three: Methodology In this section, the students must mention the sources of their information, primary and/or secondary.
If any particular method/technique is applied to analyses the findings, it should be discussed in detail. Chapter Four: Findings and Discussions In the ‘Findings’ section, it is expected that the student displays a mastery of his/her analytical ability to analyses the findings. It is, therefore, not enough only to state the exult, rather, s/he is expected to come up with the arguments that can convince the readers (supervisor and/or examiner) of why it is so.
For ex. , if in any particular year, sales or profit goes up significantly compared to its previous or subsequent year(s), it should be adequately analyses by presenting probable reasons for being so.