Ottoman Empire and Empire Building

Category: Islam, Ottoman Empire, Trade
Last Updated: 05 Mar 2020
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Compare/Contrast Essay Student Essay Samples Directions: Using the grading rubric, read the attached essays and score them. Be sure to read thoroughly, and remember that you are trying to find ways to GIVE the writer points, rather than trying to find ways to TAKE points away. With that said, however, the information must still be correct in order for a point to be awarded **You MUST record the final score, as well as why you are/are not giving the writer points. **You are allowed to give the essay 2 possible scores (Example: I think the essay is either a 3 or a 4). *Please do not look at the official explanation until after you have scored the essays. You don’t get any special reward for getting them right. The goal is to learn something. Essay Question: Within the period from 1450-1800, compare the processes (e. g. political, social, economic) of empire building in the Spanish Empire with the empire-building processes in ONE of the following: The Ottoman Empire OR The Russian Empire. CC Essay #1 (3RR) Between the years 1400 and 1800, new empires appeared on the globe. One of these empires is the Spanish and the other is the Ottoman Empire.

Both of these bear similarities but had their differences as well. They both carved out major chunks of the globe and were both major powers in the newly formed global world. Politically, economically, and socially, these empires were similar in many ways, but they had important differences that separated them apart. The Spanish were an up and coming world power in this time period between 1400 and 1800. They soon dominated overseas and trading. Differing from the Ottoman Empire to the east. The Spanish Empire was largely sea based.

Their advanced ships and naval technologies allowed the to discover new continents and claim them to be their own. The Spanish set up colonies for the economy to run and they relied heavily on imports from their distant colonies across the Atlantic. They imported large amounts of silver and food goods to run their economy. Also, the foundation of their empire was primarily focused on the spreading of Christianity. They founded the Americas on their slogan “Gold, God and Glory” as they forcefully converted the natives in the New World.

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Also, their government was based on a monarchy with lesser nobles beneath him. The Spanish completely opposed the Islamic religion which can be seen it the Spanish Inquisition as they fought the Moors in Spain to make it purely Christian. The Ottoman Empire holds many differences against the Spanish Empire. Unlike the Spanish, the Ottoman Empire as a land-based empire that dominated the Middle East right up to Eastern Europe. The economy of the Ottoman Turks was based on conquering new lands and exploiting them for their value.

The Ottoman’s continued to conquer, not only so their economies wouldn’t fall but also to spread their religion, Islam. Unlike the Spanish, they did have some religious tolerance in their empire, but hey mostly forcefully converted who they conquered The Ottoman Empire was an ethnocentric one, not open to too many outside ideas. The Empire was reigned over by a religious leader know as the Sultan, but his advisors, or the viziers were the rue voices of the government. They made those who didn’t covert to Islam their military or the janissaries, unlike the Spanish who just enslaved or killed them.

Though having many differences, the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire were actually quite similar. Both were ruthless empires that conquered and dominated. Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if it wasn’t for the desire to spread their religious beliefs and they both persecuted if necessary. Both of the empires had a lowe class of slaves or serfs that did all the work to maintain production and they both participated in the slave trade out of Africa. The governments of the Spanish and Ottoman Empire were run by religious icons or figures who had absolute control.

These empires were among the wealthiest in the world, but only the elite had the money. The economy of both the Spanish and the Ottoman Turks both would not prosper if they had not conquered in the first place. Politically, economically, and socially the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Empire were similar in many ways. The Spanish and the Ottoman Empire, one dominating the sea and overseas, one dominating the land, were politically similar in governing system, but different tin the way the distributed their policies.

Economically, they differed in that the Ottoman’s relied on conquering and the Spanish on colonies but were similar in that they both needed to take over lands that weren’t originally theirs. Socially, the class system was rough and rigid in both with slaves at the bottom and absolute rulers at the top but they differed in the religion that was part of life in the two empires. Both empires would eventually see their downfall but for the time period 1400 – 1800 they made their time worthwhile, similarly and differently.

CC Essay #2 (3EE) European colonialism had an enormous impact on the world, then and today. What most tend to overlook, however is the empire of Russia, simultaneously rising in the east. In the 350 years after 1450, Spain and Russia built their empires, each with different locations, political structures , and goals. Spain, during this time period, was colonizing Latin America. A very small mother country, in relation to its colonies, was expanding greatly into weakly established tribal lands.

The strongest threat, the Aztecs were conveniently naive and unlucky, leading to their fall, and the ultimately largely uncontested spread of the Spanish Empire. In Russia, however, strongly established nations bordered a large mother country. Russia’s targets were its immediate neighbors. Russia needed careful diplomacy and established treaties and pacts to craftily add land to its empire, as opposed to Spain’s method of forceful takeover. Spain, in order to maintain control of colonies so far away, appointed officials to rule over designated areas and report to the mother country directly.

The landlords in the new colonies, who employed forced labor of natives, had to report to the officials. This was called the hacienda system. The Russians, by virtue of the means which they used to add to their empire, were forced to grant more power to their local governments, leaving them nearly sovereign. The landlords, employing forced labor of serfs, had to report to their local officials, who in turn made their own decisions. Oddly enough, the Spanish colonial system, spread out over the globe, was more centralized than the Russian counterpart.

The Spanish colonies were set up in such a manner as to yield the greatest economic benefit to the mother countries. Precious metals were exported in vast quantities to Spain, cementing Spain’s economic influence in the world market. Spain’s silver was especially valuable in China, who would soon only accept silver as currency. Cash crops such as tobacco, sugar and bananas brought more wealth to Spain and only served to make the colonies more dependent on the mother country to staple foods and supplies. Russia, however assimilated the newly acquired land into their culture.

Northern Eurasia has very poor farmland and so the farther south Russia expanded, the more crops Russia could make available. Northern Russia’s population could not support itself farming the dirt that the cold tundras provided, but the more warmer lands added to Russia’s empire, the more surplus crop that could be sent north. The most valuable resource of Russia’s empire was the vast numbers of people who could enlisted or recruited. Spain’s empire was meant to create wealth, while Russia’s was meant to create power. Two empires, occupying the same time period, were as different as empires can be.

Spain had a spread-out, yet centralized empire governing forcefully conquered lands with the goal of creating great wealth, while Russia created her condensed, loosely organized diplomatic coalition of an empire, with the goal of accumulating power, should war become necessary. CC Essay #3 (3M) The Spanish and Otoman Empire were both involved in the process of empire building during the period of 1450 to 1800. Though both began to develop economically, politically and socially, their underlying strategies for this process differed greatly.

The Spanish Empire followed and was helped along by the Catholic Church, while the Ottoman were a Muslim people that were governed by the Islamic religion. The differences between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empires stemmed from their very different religions, though the were both involved in global trade which made many of their developments similar. Economically, both the Spanish and Ottoman Empire had similar aspirations. During this period trade, as well as agriculture dominated.

The Ottoman Empire, like the Spanish Empire cultivated their own crops and through importing received their needed goods on one of the developing trade routes such as the Indian Ocean route. However, the Spanish Empire during this period also began the process of widespread colonization along with the Portueugese. The Ottoman Empire began to conquer surrounding regions but was not a part of the major movement into the Americas. Both Empires, however, took part in the developing and growing slave trade during this period. The Ottoman especially used African slaves, as it was against the Islamic faith to use Muslim slaves.

Economically the Ottoman and Spanish Empires followed very similar paths, though they differed significantly in their political structures. The Ottoman Empire based on Islam, and the Spanish Empire based on Christianity followed very different political paths. The Spanish Empire, for instance, began the process of colonization which meant the use of administrators as bureus. The Ottoman Empire also moved into surrounding areas in the Middle East, though they favored a more centralized form of government. Also a crucial difference was that the Ottoman Empire followed the Islamic faith.

This meant strict adherence to Islamic laws. Similarly, the Spanish Empire had no separation of church and state and received influence from the Catholic Church. This often meant that both political structures were dominated by a leader that was influenced by religious motives, rather than what was best for the state. This religious backing also produced a new practice for the Ottoman, the janissaries, or an army of Christian men taken as prisoners. The Spanish Empire relied on their own men to produce an army, such as the conquistadors which were used in colonization into the Americas.

The major differences between the Ottoman and Spanish Empires politically was significant as were those socially. Socially, both empires saw significant influence from religion. For example, the Ottoman Empire followed the practices of the Islamic faith, and remained tolerant of other religions in their Empire. However, those that were non-Muslim were forced to pay a tax, but conversion was still not mandatory. The Spanish Empire was not as tolerant of other religions, and missionaries were widely used to convert others.

Also in the Spanish Empire stratifications between those in Latin America and Spanish Europeans developed, along with colonization. The Ottoman Empire promoted relative equality among its people, as all were seen equal under Allah. Nonetheless, however, traditional ideas towards women remained the norm in both empires. Women were seen as child-barers and remained in the home, while in the Ottoman Empire some even were convened to the Islamic faith. Socially, as in other regions, similar developments occurred among the Ottoman and Spanish Empires in their social structure.

The period 1450 to 1800 saw many developments in Empire building for the Spanish and Ottoman Empire. Though, like in all other empires, these were forced to go through the tedious work of building a social, political, and economic structure, one major difference existed. In the case of the Ottoman and Spanish Empires religion had the biggest effect on the paths that were taken in building empires. CC Essay # 4 (3 AA) The Spanish Empire and Russian Empires during 1450 - 1800 were two different Empires with different goals in mind. The Spanish were more oncerned with overseas expansion, while the Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts. During 1450-1800 the Spanish were one of the leading countries in terms of overseas expansion. They were one of the first countries to have a representative sailor reach the New World. The reason for their great success in overseas expansion was the support the government had for it. The King and Queen payed for many explorations to new lands because they knew the fruit discovery could bear. They were rewarded with new goods and new markets of trade.

Soon, Spain began colonizing these newfound lands which benefited them even more. By colonizing lands rich with resources and commodities such as silk, gold, and silver, the Spanish made themselves the primary beneficiary. They were able to control imports and exports from these lands and open new trade routes. Also, in the colonies they made the citizens work for the prospects of Spain, for example searching for gold, or growing prosperous cash crops. The result of all this was that Spain was becoming increasingly powerful and spreading throught the world.

The Russian Empire during 1450-1800 was one that was trying to establish itself as a world. It’s leaders were focused using the ways of the West to promote itself. For example Peter the Great who greatly reformed Russia using Western European ideology. He rebuilt buildings, roads, and government systems. BY 1800 Russia, although not exactly a world power, had built itself up from its lowly state 400 years earlier. The major differences between the processes of Empire building between the Spanish and Russia from 1450-1800 was that Spain was already an empire to begin with which made it easier to grow.

Spain was already powerful around 1450 while Russia was not. Therefore Russia and Spain had two different mindsets about building up their Empires. Russia was focused on establishing itself through reforms of government, architecture and other things. Spain wanted to expand its empire and did so by using their navy and by taking advantage of these newfoundlands. It was easy for the Spanish to colonize these new lands because they had superior weapons, tactics, and they brought diseases with them that killed off many of the native populations. CC Essay #5 (BBB)

Within the period 1450 to 1800 the Spanish and Russian empires grew greatly. Both had changes in political structures, social structure, and economic structure. The political structure of the Spanish empire and Russian empire both changed within 1450 to 1800. The Spanish empire went from a monarchy to a democracy after having a few very bad kings and queens. The Russian empire went also from a monarchy to a democracy. This change also changed the social structure. As in most countries around this time the caste system was released and there was no more of it.

With the change of the political structure also came the change of the economical structure. Spain along with Britain, France, and the other western countries, became westernized with factories and the new trade routes faster than Russia. The Russian empire became westernized later because, of course, they were very far away from the major technological countries. But as Spain did Russia became very westernized. The two empires were very similar and Russia seemed to follow in Spains footsteps. AP WORLD Scoring Rubric for 2007 CC Essay: Empire Building in Spain, Russia & Ottoman Empire

Sample Identifier: 3MScore: 9 Strong thesis in first paragraph. (1 pt) Addresses similarities at beginning of 2nd paragraph and differences in first paragraph of page 2. (2 pts) Evidence abounds. (2 pts) Direct comparison in 5th line of page 2. (1 pt) Analysis on 4th line of page 3. (1 pt) Two expanded core points for thesis and rich evidence. Sample Identifier: 3RRScore: 8 Thesis is found at beginning of last paragraph. (1 pt). Addresses similarities in 5th line, page 1. Address differences in 3rd line of the 2nd paragraph. (2 pts) Rich in evidence. 2 pts). Direct comparison found on page 2, 1st paragraph: “Unlike the Spanish…” (1 pt). Analysis is found on page 3, at top: “Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if…” (1 pt). Expanded core for evidence and comparisons. A strong 8. Sample Identifier: 3JJScore: 7 Thesis is found in the last sentence of the essay: “…politically, and socially different but economically both needed to expand…” (1 pt). Similarities are addressed in the narrative just above the thesis. Differences are addressed at the beginning of the essay (2 pts).

Enough evidence for (2 pts). Direct comparison is found in middle of page 1: “The Spanish however…” (1 pt). The analysis point follows immediately: “It was easier for the Spanish to expand rather than the Russians because…” Use asset model to ignore references to Ottoman Empire. A solid 7. Sample Identifier: 3CScore: 6 No thesis at beginning or end of the essay that compares (similarities and differences) of the process of empire building in Spain and Russia. Addresses similarities at the end of page 1, “…and Russia too felt the pull of expansionism. Beginning of the essay addresses a difference just before “because…” (2 pts). Rich in Spanish evidence on page 1. Russian evidence is on page 2, 3rd line. (2 pts) Direct comparison in first sentence of page 2, which references the previous sentence. (1 pt) First sentence of last paragraph on page 1 isn’t a direct comparison because it is not true of Russia in 1450. Analysis of a comparison is found in the 3rd line of page 2, “…so Russia expanded eastward…” (Evidence may be found within analysis or within a direct comparison. ) Addresses similarities on line 10 of page 1.

Sample Identifier: 3EEScore: 5 No thesis. Addresses differences at beginning of essay. (1pt) Especially strong in Spanish evidence. 2 examples of Russian evidence. (2 pts) Direct comparison in second paragraph: “In Russia, however…” (1 pt) Analysis of differences between Spanish and Russian empires on first half of page 2. Sample Identifier: 3RScore: 4 No thesis. Addresses similarities in middle of first paragraph, and differences beginning in 4th line of page 2, in regard to the way each empire accumulated wealth as they expanded. 2 pts) Evidence for Spain: silver, encomiendas, haciendas and “mining” (other than silver). Ottoman evidence in 2nd paragraph: “religion played a big role when building the empire. ” (2 pts) Last paragraph unscorable because the argument is unquantifiable. Sample Identifier: 3AAScore: 3 No thesis. (“…Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts” does not explicitly address empire building process). Addresses differences in first paragraph. (1 pt) Evidence for Spanish empire building on most of page 1. Russian empire building evidence begins in 1st paragraph of page 2 (2 pts).

Attempt at direct comparison at bottom of page 2 is historically inaccurate. Sample Identifier: 3DDDScore: 2 No thesis. Addresses similarities in first two sentences of 4th paragraph. Addresses differences in first sentence of 3rd paragraph. 2 relevant examples of evidence for Spain, none for Ottoman Empire. No direct comparison or analysis. Sample Identifier: 3BBBScore: 1 No thesis. Addresses similarity in first sentence of second paragraph. Not sufficient evidence supporting empire building in Spain and Russia. No direct comparison or analysis.

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