Sabrina Shaw Hunter 2A IB History of the Americas HL 7 November 2012 Paper 3 Guide: Mexican Revolution Bullet Points: Defined and Summarized:
1. Causes of the Mexican Revolution: social, economic, and political; the role of the Porfiriato regime * Porfirio Diaz was the dictator of Mexico from 1876 to 1910. His regime is known as the Porfiriato regime. Diaz’s social ideologies and aims were to divide and rule, obtain absolute power Diaz’s methods were the Pan o Palo policy and the spoil system.
Diaz wanted to increase industrialization without increasing foreign investment and he used the spoil system to gain the support of the wealthy landowners. Diaz’s political goals were to have autocratic rule, have absolute power, and obtain these through this policies and systems mentioned earlier. * Through Diaz’s spoil system, the wealthy became wealthier and the poor, common Mexicans were starving.
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Hacienda owners were benefiting from the economic situation of Mexico but the people were being oppressed socially, economically, and politically, until Madero began spreading non re-election campaigns and revolutionary leaders began to form groups and later armies, starting the Mexican Revolution.
2. The revolution and its leaders (1910-1917): Ideologies, aims, methods of Madero, Villa, Zapata, Carranza; achievements and failures; Constitution of 1917: nature and application * Madero: Came to power through the overthrowing of Diaz- Popular for his book, Presidential Succession of 1910.
Sought democracy, gained presidency through popular vote. His 15 months in office were followed by resistance political disaster, non-cooperation, and disunity between his followers and eventually Huerta. (His supposedly appointed commander of the government forces who conspired with the rebels for Madero’s fall) * The aims of Madero were to remove Diaz from power and then take Diaz’s power. Villa’s aims changed impulsively and for immediate convenience. Zapata’s aims were for agrarian reform complete revolutionary changes and land distribution evenly to the poor.
Carranza’s aims were to overthrow Huerta and to create a plan similar to Madero’s but without the ambitious social reforms. The ideologies of each revolutionary leader are very similar to the aims of each leader. The methods of Madero were forming the Anti-Reelectionist Center of Mexico and creating the Plan of San Luis Potosi. The methods of Villa were guerilla tactics and being a charismatic leader that connected with the lower class. The methods of Zapata were choosing small, easy battle to boost morale among his men and fighting while Diaz was occupied with the North.
The methods of Carranza were fighting Huerta and creating the Plan of Guadalupe. Madero and Carranza both became president, however they did not keep this position for very long because of their lack of social reform. Zapata’s Plan of Ayala was accepted by the other revolutionary leaders. Villa was able to fight and then able to retire after the revolution. * Constitution of 1917: The Constitution of 1917 is described as one of the most progressive constitution created at this time within Mexico; it had significant influence on the political developments of the country.
The constitution of 1917 was approved by the Constitutional Congress on February 5, 1917 as the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. It was similar to the constitution of 1857 but gave more power to the Executive branch and gave additional rights to the Mexican people. The constitution displayed significant changes in Mexican political philosophy that helped frame the political and social backdrop for Mexico in the twentieth century. For its time it is important as it was established prior to the ending of the revolution, showing that the Mexican people were slowly gaining what they were fighting for. Carranza was the first president to serve under this constitution.
3. Construction of the post-revolutionary state (1920-38): Obregon, Calles, and the Maximato; challenges; assessment of their impact in the post-revolutionary state Obregon: * Mexican president from 1920 to 1924. Obregon was assassinated in 1928 before he won the reelection his second presidential term. Calles: * Calles held power indirectly through 3 presidents which were his “puppets”. They were Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio, and Abelardo Rodriguez.
Calles plays an important role after the revolution since, because of him, there was a constitutional change that allowed non-consecutive reelection within Mexico. In 1926, Calles also made an anticlerical legislation by reforming the penal code, this law outlawed religious orders. Some Mexican states such as Jalisco, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Colima, and Michoacan, strongly opposed the idea of this law ultimately leading to the Cristero war. The impact of Calles was very negative on Mexico, because it plunged Mexico into another war. Maximato: A time period of 1928-1935 in which Mexico was led by Plutarco Elias Calles, who is also known as el Jefe Maximo (the supreme leader)
4. Lazaro Cardenas and the renewal of the revolution (1939-40): aims, methods, and achievements * Lazaro Cardenas was the president from 1934-1940, quite a few years after the 1920 end to the Mexican revolution. He distributed land, made loans available to peasants, organized workers’ and peasants’ confederations, and expropriated and nationalized foreign-owned industries. One of his successes was the six year plan, continuing the spirit of the Mexican Revolution.
Cardenas reorganized and purged the party of Calles' influence. These actions focused on the three pillars of his party, labor, peasantry, and the army. One of his methods included reassessing the Indian cultural heritage, pushing the greatness of old Indian arts and the reevaluation of the Aztec culture which emphasized their influence on modern culture and increased nationalism. Another success of Cardenas included Tienda de Raya. This was a system in which workers on large landholders' land would be paid in vouchers or tokens that were only redeemable at the stores belonging to the landholders. Any debt created by one worker would be passed to his children if he was unable to pay it, this created a system where debt would continue to move through the generations until fully paid.
5. The role of foreign powers (especially the United States) in the outbreak and development of the Mexican Revolution; motivations, methods of intervention and contributions * Before the war, the United States decided that they would aid civil authorities in enforcing neutrality laws. The United States distinguished themselves and made Mexico aware of their actions in light of war and assistance.
Jacob Dickinson, secretary of war for the US authorized American Military to warn Mexican militaries about actions that would be taken if American lives and properties were threatened. This action made it clear to Mexico that the US would only intervene under these circumstances. Wilson’s goal of intervention was to get the constitutionals, including Carranza, into power so that he could attempt to control the party. Wilson desired for Mexico to be educated in liberal and constitutional lines. During the revolution the largest involvements of the US and Mexico was the Tampico affair and the storm of Veracruz.
Woodrow Wilson sought to influence the conflict by controlling the flow of foreign military supplies to Mexico through its primary port, Veracruz. Wilson intended to weaken the government of Huerta by seizing and blockading Veracruz. This would weaken Huerta as Veracruz was the most important port for arms coming in to Mexico. With Americans controlling the port city Wilson could limit the Mexican Army's access to military supplies and could ultimately dictate the flow of arms to the next government of Mexico.
By getting involved in both the Tampico affair and storm of Veracruz, Wilson was announcing to Mexico and the revolutionary leaders who he supported and didn’t. Other than these two physical involvements, the US aided several leaders by providing Madero with a safe haven, and several other leaders with arms to overthrow some leaders while supporting the rise of others. Wilson tried to eliminate the problem of Villa in an attempt to satisfy outraged Americans after a Villista raid on Columbus, New Mexico. The United States officially acknowledged the new Mexican government when Carranza came to terms on March 11.
6. Impact of the revolution of the arts, education and music (suitable examples could be Siquerios, Rivera, Orozco); the impact of Vasconcelos’ educational reforms; the development of popular music; literary works on the revolution * Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974)- A Mexican social realist painter who is known for his large murals in fresco. These murals helped build the post-revolutionary Mexican renaissance. Siqueiros as a person historically, participated in the assassination attempt to Leon Trotsky.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957) – A very well-known Mexican painter whose works are displayed from New York City, to Mexico City, and all the way to Buenos Aires. He was married to another famous Mexican artist, Frida Kahlo. Rivera's radical political beliefs, his attacks on the church and clergy, as well as his dealings with Trotskyists and left-wing assassins made him a controversial figure throughout Mexico. * Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949) - Mexican social realist painter who specialized in bold murals. Orozco was the most complex of the Mexican muralists.
He was very fond of the theme of human suffering, being less realistic in his works. He was also more fascinated by machines than Rivera. He promoted the political causes of peasants and workers, similar to the ideals of Zapata. * Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) - Mexican artist known for her great self-portraits, she is remembered for the passion and pain, their vibrant colors. As communists, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera were active communists and were friends with Leon Trotsky as he sought political asylum in Mexico from Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s.
It is important to note that the artistic movement began in Mexico around the 1930s. The artist movement following the revolution stands out historically because of its political undertones, the majority being of a Marxist nature. Many pieces of artwork from the time period are related to the social and political situation of post-revolutionary Mexico. * Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959) - Vasconcelos was a Mexican writer, philosopher, and politician. He worked as Secretary of Education under Alvaro Obregon. He is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico.
Vasconcelos started the Mexican mural movement that allowed famous Mexican artists to paint on the walls of the most important Mexican buildings. "El pueblo a la universidad, la universidad al pueblo" - It’s a mural painted by Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros that represented the people from rural areas were going into school as a result of Vasconcelos’ educational reforms. i. He is a controversial figure in Mexico, he denounced democracy and supported the ideas of race and power. Supportive of both Madero and Villa during the revolution, he was responsible for initiating major reforms in the Mexican school system. Manuel Ponce - Mexican composer active throughout the 20th century.
Ponce connected the concert scene with a forgotten tradition of popular song and Mexican folklore. Many of his compositions are strongly influenced by the harmonies and form of traditional songs. He was able to revive the idea of traditional songs and music. La Cucaracha (The cockroach) - Mexican folklore corrido whose origins are unclear but some argue it began during the revolution and became popular after it ended. Some verses were changed and it said that revenge was wanted for Madero’s death. Carlos Chavez- Mexican composer, music theorist, and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. Chavez’s music was influenced by many native Mexican cultures such as the Yaqui. After the Mexican revolution and the democratic election of President Alvaro Obregon, he was well known for using Aztec themes in his music.
Key People (10) 1. Porfirio Diaz * Was the leader of Mexico from 1876 to 1910. Diaz came from a military background, with an Indian history. He governed with the Pan o Palo policy, a policy where Mexican citizens were threatened with the ability to eat or be beaten.
The policy won Diaz the support of the church and wealthy landowners. By instilling fear into Mexican citizens Diaz was able to remain in control. His rurales tried to suppress peasants and their revolts during his reign. Diaz was known to use the spoil system, awarding and promoting unqualified people for his own personal gain. He struggled with finding a way to modernize Mexico and how to boost the economy without foreign investment. Diaz was ultimately overthrown in 1910 with the opposition of Madero, and went into exile in 1911. 2. Francisco Madero Madero opposed the dictatorship of Diaz and was pro-democracy. He wrote and published “The Presidential Succession of 1910” in hopes that Diaz would stick to his word and allow for a democratic leader to take charge of Mexico. His democratic ideologies were reflected in his non-reelection campaigns and his desire to enact political change. He came from an upper-class family, possibly one of the reasons he wasn’t so focused on social conflict in Mexico at the time. His anti-reelection clubs landed him in jail by Diaz, which led to his escape to Texas.
This is where Madero planned San Luis Potosi , ultimately calling for the election of 1910 declared void and Diaz to be officially overthrown. Madero assumes power in 1911 by constitutional presidency. Madero used his educational background to spark the revolution, using his knowledge to his advantage. His revolutionary ideals, however, were unsuccessful as he was focused on power instead of pleasing the people. It is also important to know that Madero lacked support of rural leaders, specifically the support of Zapata who was a leader focused on social change.
3. Pancho Villa Villa’s aims were based upon convenience as he was a revolutionary leader that tagged alongside those in power at the time. He was well known for using guerilla tactics and primarily advocating for the poor and supporting the idea of agrarian reform. He was an unstable leader as he was one who sought action and crime. He was eventually murdered on July 20, 1923.
4. Emiliano Zapata * Zapata fought a primarily defensive war. He held non-political methods and ideologies, fighting for a non-violent diplomacy. In that, his main goals were social and agrarian reforms. This is seen as he formed the Ayala plan and spent his time supporting this plan. It revolved around the Mexican land and returning it to rightful land owners. Zapata was focused on controlling small farms and redistributing land in the South rather than focused on power in the North.
5. Venustiano Carranza * Carranza became president of Mexico after the overthrow of Huerta in 1914. His success in the revolution was because of his ability to portray himself as wise leader with a hope for peace. Carranza was a supporter of Madero, following his no reelection movement in 1910.
Madero named him commander in chief in the revolution of Coahuila and Tamaulipas. Carranza believed that the Plan of San Luis Potosi, originally created by Madero, was inaccurate as the social reform would be nearly impossible to achieve. He then created the Plan of Guadalupe. This plan promised to restore the 1857 Constitution of Mexico without the promised social reforms. The plans then lead to the introduction of Obregon, as he would be the one to create the army for Carranza to lead. Carranza was an ambitious leader, allowing him to be more successful in the revolution than those who relied strictly on arms.
6. Alvaro Obregon Obregon supported Carranza in the overthrowing of Huerta, which led to Carranza becoming president. In 1920, Obregon started a revolt against Carranza and Carranza was assassinated. Obregon became the president. His presidency is known as the first stable presidency since the revolution began in 1910. He made education reform, land reform, and made labor laws, for example.
7. Victoriano Huerta * Madero sent Huerta to stop Orozco’s revolt. After defeating Orozco, he returned to Mexico with a hero’s welcome. Huerta was promoted to Commander in Chief. Madero put Huerta in charge to stop the coup started by a U. S. ambassador.
Madero successfully stopped the attempted coup and when he returned, he gained a lot of power and made Madero resign from the presidency. Huerta becomes president on February 19, 1913. In 1913, Carranza leads a rebellion against Huerta, because all the revolutionary leaders are against Huerta except for Orozco. * In 1914, the U. S. turns against Huerta after he killed a senator. * Huerta tried to unite Mexico under a common hatred for America, but inevitably failed. * He realizes that he cannot win after the US storms Vera Cruz after the Tampico affair, Huerta resigns on July 15, 1914 and Carranza becomes president.
8. Pascual Orozco * Orozco supported Madero, because he wanted to remove Diaz from power. He grew to dislike Madero because of Madero’s lack of reforms and because Madero did not give Orozco a position in the cabinet or a state governorship. Orozco resigned, but Madero did not accept it until he turned down the governorship of Chihuahua. On March 3, 1912, Orozco declared that he was rebelling against Madero. Orozco was defeating Madero’s army, so Madero sent Huerta to stop Orozco, which he accomplished by August. Orozco fled to the U. S. ut later returned to partner with Huerta when Huerta became the president. After the fall of Huerta, Orozco returned to the U. S. , where he was shot and killed on August 30, 1915.
9. Benito Juarez * Juarez was a lawyer who was the president of Mexico for 5 terms. His death led to the beginning of the Porfiriato regime of Diaz. 1806-1872 10. Lazaro Cardenas * Cardenas was the president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. He was a very revolutionary president. He arrested Calles and some of Calles’ associates for their persecution of the church that led to the Cristero War.
He used the National Revolutionary Party’s six-year plan of social and political reform. His programs built schools and roads, promoted education, and included land reform. After his presidency Cardenas continued to have power through puppet-like men that he controlled who became president.
Key Events (7)
1. Presidential Succession of 1910 * This was a book written and published by Madero. Its purpose was to call for the current president, Diaz, to step down from power and allow free elections. It ultimately helped Madero gain power during the revolution.
2. Plan of Ayala * November 25, 1911 The plan of Ayala was created by Zapata and enacted on November 25, 1911. It was a plan that called for agrarian reform, the basis of Zapata’s revolution and the reason why he is an important leader in the revolution. The plan sets Zapata, as a leader, apart from the others as it shows Zapata’s ideals of social reform through agriculture rather than the fight for political power.
3. Plan of Guadalupe * February 24, 1913 The plan of Guadalupe was established by Carranza in 1913. It focused around political power, calling for the transfer of power in Mexico and improving conditions for the poor.
It came as a result of Huerta’s overthrow of Madero, with Carranza believing that Huerta’s rise to power was illegitimate. The plan rejected Huerta's government and focused on a continuation of Madero's policies. It was recognized by leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Obregon. It was one of the three most important documents within the Mexican revolution. The plan gathered Villa, Zapata, and Orozco to help Carranza in the overthrow of Huerta in July 1914. * Carranza calling for the overthrow of Huerta and restoration of the constitution of 1857 (limiting the church’s power)
4.Tampico Affair * Led to storm of Veracruz * April 9, 1914 * A battle was taking place in Tampico when a U. S. ship landed there. The federal authorities of Mexico arrested all the Americans to protect them from the fighting. The American general was outraged by their treatment and demanded an apology with a 21 gun salute. The federals refused to grant his request of a 21 gun salute, further angering the Americans. The U. S. placed an embargo on armament shipment to the federal authorities of Mexico as a result of the affair. The Tampico affair ultimately leads to the storm of Vera Cruz.
The U. S. invaded Vera Cruz instead of Tampico because U. S. businesses had oil refineries in Tampico and they did not want to disturb oil production, illustrating the expanse of U. S. industry in Mexico.
5. Treaty of Ciudad Juarez * May 21, 1911 * The treaty of Ciudad Juarez stated that Diaz had to resign by the end of 1911, the interim president would be Francisco de la Barra, and that De la Barra is in charge of holding free elections. It is an important document as it ends Diaz’s reign and allows for the beginning of Madero’s power.
The treaty left all of Diaz’s political leaders and institutions in place, making it hard to rid the system of Diaz and his way of running Mexico. 6. Obregon offers amnesty to Villas army: December 1915 * Obregon offered amnesty to all the Villistas, the soldiers in Villa’s army. The amnesty was only not offered to high-ranking officials and Villa himself. This event gave Villa’s soldiers a way out of the war after fighting for five years. Villa’s army was severely reduced and he was forced to retreat to the hills of Chihuahua.
7. Convencion de Aguascarlientes of 1914 This was a constitutional convention that raised issues between the central leaders, bringing forth their differences once again. Obregon attends the meeting while the other leaders are absent. It is here that the Plan of Ayala gets its first support, it is voted on to dismiss Carranza from office, and sparks a string of events surrounding Villa and Carranza. Villa then enters the US and makes an attack, in which the US retaliates by sending troops into America trying to capture Villa. Carranza at this point was being supported by the US and was defending the interests of the upper class citizens of Mexico.
Key Dates (7)
1.Resignation of Diaz * May 25, 1911 The resignation of Diaz ended an era of dictatorship and sparked the revolution as multiple leaders had conflicting ideas on what was best for Mexico and what were the best ways of achieving these goals. Diaz’s resignation led to Madero’s assumption of power and ultimately the beginning of the Mexican revolution.
2. Meeting of Zapata and Villa * December 4, 1911 Zapata and Villa met for the first time in the presidential palace on December 4, 1911. At this meeting the two leaders agreed that they did not want the presidency, the power over Mexico,
3. Storm of Veracruz * April 21, 1914Within this incident there were over 200 Mexicans dead, 300 wounded and 19 American dead and 47 wounded. These numbers showed the United States’ superiority in numbers, technology, and strategy at the time. The United States stormed Veracruz in light of Tampico affair after not receiving a 21 gun salute after the arrests in Tampico. They stormed Veracruz because they did not want to invade Tampico because America had oil refineries in Tampico. It is also one of the main ports in which Huerta was receiving arms, if the US could control that port they could show dominance in support of Carranza and against Huerta.
4.Madero wins presidential election * November 6, 1911 This is revolutionary as Madero has successfully overtaken Porfirio Diaz. Madero’s reign was to be short as he made several mistakes as he assumed power. The biggest mistake that Madero made was not officially taking over for a couple of months, this allowed Diaz’s supporters and leaders to down talk Madero and undermine his authority to the citizens of Mexico.
5. Murdering of Madero * February 22, 1913 * The U. S. ambassador stages a coup led by Diaz’s nephew, but the coup is not supported by the U. S. government. Madero puts Huerta in charge of stopping the coup. Huerta stops the attempted coup, but returns and makes Madero resign as he gains power. Madero believes Huerta will let him resign peacefully. However, Huerta kills Madero’s brothers and then kills Madero. Madero becomes a revolutionary martyr and killing Madero alienates international opinion * Huerta gains power
6. Carranza becomes president * August 20, 1914 * Carranza led a rebellion against Huerta. Combined with Carranza’s rebellion and the U. S. invasion of Sera Cruz, Huerta’s power was drained. Huerta resigned and Carranza became the president.
7. Zapata is murdered * April 10, 1919 * By a group organized by Carranza . 1920: Obregon with the help of Zapatistas, Villistas, and other revolutionaries overthrow and kill Carranza.
Obregon becomes president Quotations (2)
1. “A dog with a bone neither kills nor steals” –Porfirio Diaz
2. “It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees”-Emiliano Zapata * This quotation is an important one when dealing with the Revolution. It characterizes Zapata as one of the revolutionary leaders quite nicely. This is because Zapata was the leader that stood strong, and fought enthusiastically, for what he believed in; he fought hard for agrarian reform in the South of Mexico.
It is a good reflection of how he would rather stand up for what he believed in than to subject himself to something that’s not as worthy. Two Historians: Michael C. Meyer- The Course of Mexican History| * “They neither were not just traditional organized armies nor were they simply peasant mobs. ”Meyer focuses on the uniqueness of the rebel armies and how the uniqueness of the armies led to internal migration and mixing of languages, as well as giving more power to the people.
Meyer says, “since the base of power was shifting to new hands the future for the masses seemed auspicious and this hope stems into later generations. | Frank Mclynn- Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution| * Mclynn claims that “Capitalism took a stronger hold on Mexico because of the revolution. ”In this quotation Mclynn says there are three main strands of the revolution. First, the improvement of capitalism leading to a rise in industrial bourgeoisie. Second, the movement of peasants leading to demands for ancestral lands. Third, the alliance of persons from the North with different occupations led to increased capitalism. | Past Test Questions (10)
- To what extent did foreign intervention prolong the Mexican Revolution? 2003)
- “Technology is a new type of imperialism. ” Discuss this statement with reference to the impact of technology upon at least one country in the Americas during the twentieth century. (2003)
- “By the end of the 1920s the original objectives of the Mexican Revolution had been abandoned. ” To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2005)
- Examine the major stages of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20) and explain the programmes of three of the most important leaders. (2006)
- Analyse the causes of the Great Depression in one country in the Americas. 2006)
- Compare and contrast the treatment of indigenous peoples in two countries of the region in the eighteenth century. (2005)
- Analyse the main features and impact of one cultural or one intellectual development in the
- Americas in the period from 1850 to 1919. (2005)
- For what reasons, and with what results, did railroads develop in one country of the region between 1860 and 1929? Support your answers with examples. (2008)
- How did Malcolm X and the Black Panthers affect the goals of the Civil Rights Movement?
Outline: Examine the major stages of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20) and explain the programmes of three of the most important leaders. (2006) The course of the Mexican Revolution from 1910-1920 is complicated amongst its many leaders and quite frequent shifts in power. With leaders fighting over power of the same country, they each individually had different ideals and tactics. The separation in goals for Mexico, and a lack of Mexican citizen involvement, ultimately determined the temporary leader of Mexico until another one was able to come to power throughout the war.
The Mexican Revolution follows a transfer of power from major leaders as Diaz to Madero, Madero to Huerta, Huerta to Carranza, and finally Carranza to Obregon. Diaz to Madero * Presidential Succession of 1910 (importance) Madero to Huerta * Couldn’t switch land issues and keep social order * Lacked army support * 1913 Coups- Huerta gains control of army and kills Madero Huerta to Carranza * US involvement * Tampico Affair and Vera Cruz * Embargo on arms shipments * US did not like Huerta
The programmes of the three most important leaders were Madero’s Presidential Succession of 1910, Zapata’s Plan of Ayala, and finally Carranza’s Plan of Guadalupe. Each of these three plans reflected the leader and their primary ideas for Mexico. While Zapata stood by his Plan of Ayala throughout the entire revolution, the Presidential Succession of 1910 only provided a short amount of support for Madero, and the Plan of Guadalupe was successful for Carranza as it was focused on by more than just one leader, as well as it provided a common element in overthrowing Huerta.
Presidential Succesion 1910 Madero * Book, well read in Mexico * Called for Diaz to step down and for free elections * Was the first major event in the Mexican Revolution as it was the first widely supported anti-Diaz campaign. Plan of Ayala * Supported by citizens * Mainly in the South * Zapata- Agrarian reform * Appeals to the people * Stood by it throughout the war (Central idea for Zapata) Plan of Guadalupe Carranza February, 1913 * political power, calling for the transfer of power in Mexico. * result of Huerta’s overthrow of Madero. * rejected Huerta's government and focused on a continuation of Madero's policies.
It was recognized by leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Obregon. * It was one of the three most important documents within the Mexican revolution. * The plan gathered Villa, Zapata, and Orozco to help Carranza in the overthrow of Huerta in July These three plans were major events during the course of the Mexican Revolution. They aided the leaders in their goals for Mexico during a time of controversy and power differences. As one leader lost power, another would quickly gain it. Sometimes working together, and sometimes against, the leaders of the revolution followed a pattern of overthrowing , followed by the assumption of power.
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