Use of multiple cropping.
- It means growing more than one crop on a given piece of land at the same time.
- Use of Have. These can be used to produce much greater amounts of grain in a single plant.
- Chemical fertilizers and Pesticides. Their use produce better results by providing sufficient materials to the soil and pesticides protecting the crops from pest attacks.
- Modern equipments like tractors, threshers, which made polluting and harvesting faster.
- Tubercle irrigation. Electricity run tubeless irrigate much larger area in a more effective manner and increase the yields. Q.
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- How do medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming?
- How is it different from the small farmers?
NAS: Medium and large farmers sell surplus farm produce in the market and earn good money. The money so earned is used to buy capital for farming in the next season. Thus medium and large farmers are able to arrange for capital for farming from their own savings. On the other hand, small farmers do not have their own savings because their production is small which is mainly used for fulfilling their own family needs. Small farmers therefore, avail loans from the medium and large farmers at very high rates f interest.
Small farmers also borrow money from various inputs for cultivation. These farmers are put to a great distress to repay the loan. Q. Explain the 4 factors of production? NAS: The aim of production is to provide goods and services that we want. There are four requirements for the production of goods and services which are known as factors of production. These are:
- Land and other natural resources such as water, minerals, forests etc.
- Labor. It refers to the people who will do work for us. There are 2 types of labor: 0 Skilled Labor. These are the high trained or educated workers to perform the facial and necessary tasks. Unskilled Labor. These people do the manual physical work.
- Physical Capital. It refers to the variety of inputs required at every stage of production. It is off types. 0 Fixed Capital. Tools, machines, buildings etc. That can be used for production over many years. 0 Working Capital. Raw material and money in hand and other inputs that get used up in one round of production only.
- Human Capital / Entrepreneur. It refers to the knowledge and enterprise required to combine land, labor and physical capital to produce the output. Q. Economics Nicer Chapter 1 By Rather
NAS: The minimum wages for a farm laborer set by the government is RSI 60 per day but a farm laborer in Palmer gets only RSI 35-40 per day. It is because there is heavy competition for work among the farm laborer in Palmer, so people agree to work at lower wages. Q. Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land? NAS: A farmer with less than 2 hectares of land is regarded as a small farmer. Since the size of plot is very small, therefore, he cannot fulfill the needs of his family. He will have to work as a farm laborer in the fields of medium and large farmers for an amount of RSI 40-50 ere day.
In order to cultivate his field he will have to borrow money from large farmers or moneylenders or traders. From the borrowed money he will buy fertilizers, pesticides, Have etc. Q. Give the characteristics of Rural Industries. NAS: Rural Industries are small scale manufacturing units. Their features are:l
These involve very simple production methods. The output is very small. The work is carried out by the members of the family and rarely the laborers are hired. The work is carried out at home and not in workshops. The profits earned are also less.
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