Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income families particularly in the United States. The socioeconomic status of these families contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. Summary of Article 1 The article, “Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status” is a study that was conducted by Alison Kalinowski, Kylene Krause, Carla Berdejo, Kristina Harrell, Katherine Rosenblum, and Julie Lumeng.
The study was published in the Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior. The focus of the study was to examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. According to the study Children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) in the United States are more likely to be obese. The study focused on 91 mothers from different populations who were asked a series of questions ranging from meal schedules to rewarding children with food. The results of the study reflected three primary themes.
These themes are negative memories of being fed in childhood, maternal emotional investment in the child enjoying the meal, and attributing obesity in other people’s children to inept or neglectful parenting. Many of the mothers in this study attributed obesity to poor meal plans because their parents could not afford to provide a nutritious meal. Mothers in this study were also afforded the opportunity to reflect on how they were fed as a child and how it influences their relationships with their own children. Summary of Article 2
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The article, “Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children” is a study that was conducted by Danielle Hollar, PhD, MHA, Sarah E. Messiah, PhD, MPH, Gabriela Lopez-Mitnik, MPhil, MS, T. Lucas Hollar, PhD, Marie Almon, RD, MS, and Arthur S. Agatston, MD. The study was published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2010. The focus of the study was to assess the effects of a school-based obesity prevention intervention that included dietary, curricula, and physical ctivity components on body mass index (BMI) percentiles and academic performance among low-income elementary school children. According to the article the prevalence of obesity remains high among all age and racial groups in the United States, particularly among African Americans, Hipic and Mexican Americans, and low-income children. The article also states many factors affect a child’s school achievement including socioeconomic status and obesity. Schools play an integral part in improving the health of children and in turn academic performance.
The findings of the study concluded that school based interventions play an important part in the improvement of health among low-income children. Summary of Article 3 The article, “Healthcare providers' perceptions of the factors contributing to infant obesity in a low-income Mexican American community is a study that was conducted by Susan L. Johnson, PhD, Lauren Clark, PhD, Kristen Goree, DPN, Mary O’Connor, MD, and and Lorena Marquez Zimmer, MS. This study was published in the Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing in 2008.
The focus of the study was to examine the perceptions of Mexican American infant feeding practices and obesity. Obesity affects 17% of school-age youth (6–19 years) and 11% of infants and toddlers (6–23months) in the United States. Over the last two decades obesity among Mexican American infants have drastically increased. Some of the socioeconomic factors affecting Mexican America factors are this community is their cultural background. Findings of the study showed that obesity in Mexican American infants are related to the belief that a chubby baby is a healthy baby.
Some of the other findings showed that obesity in Mexican American infants are related to the introduction of complementary foods early, extended family members' infant feeding practices, offering infants high-calorie foods, and prolonged bottle feeding and sweet beverages. Summary of Article 4 The article, “Factors associated with obesity in Latino children: a review of the literature” is peer reviewed article that was conducted by Melanie L. Kornides, Panagiota Kitsantas, and Antonia Villarruel. The study was published in Hipic Health Care International.
The purpose of this article was to review the current literature on the factors associated with overweight and obesity in Latino children, provide nursing implications, and suggest direction for future research. The findings of this review indicated that factors related to activity, diet, genetics, the environment, and acculturation influence overweight and obesity in Latino children. The strengths of the studies reviewed included analyses by Latino subgroup, large Latino sample sizes, and inclusion of both English and Spanish speakers.
Limitations included inadequate sample sizes in some studies and lack of data on potential confounding factors such as acculturation and immigration status. Future research is needed to determine how factors associated with obesity can be used in prevention efforts targeting Latino children. Summary of Article 5 The article, “Disparities in obesity and overweight prevalence among US immigrant children and adolescents by generational status” written by Singh and Kogan is a study that was published in the Journal Of Community Health.
The study examined the prevalence and socio-behavioral correlates of obesity and overweight among 46,707 immigrant and US-born children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate obesity and overweight prevalence among children in 12 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and generational status. Logistic regression was used to examine immigrant differentials in the prevalence and odds of obesity and overweight. Summary of Article 6
The article, “Rising Social Inequalities in US Childhood Obesity, 2003–2007” written by Gopal K. Singh, Mohammad Siahpush, and Michael D. Kogan is a study that was published by Annals Of Epidemiology. The purpose of the study was to examine changes between 2003 and 2007 in obesity and overweight prevalence among U. S. children and adolescents 10 to 17 years of age from detailed racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. According to the study, in 2007, 16. 4% of U. S. children were obese and 31. 6% were overweight. From 2003 to 2007, obesity prevalence increased by 10% for all U.
S. children but increased by 23%–33% for children in low- education, low-income, and higher unemployment households. The study found that social inequalities in obesity and overweight prevalence increased because of more rapid increases in prevalence among children in lower socioeconomic groups. Summary of Article 7 The article, “Prevalence and trends of severe obesity among US children and adolescents” written by Joseph A. Skelton, Stephen R. Cook, Peggy Auinger, Jonathan D. Klein, and Sarah E. Barlow is a study that was published in the Academic Pediatrics.
The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the 2007 defini- tions for severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] $99th percentile for age and gender) and morbid obesity (BMI $40 kg/m2) affects different groups of American children and adolescents and has increased over time. Based on the results of the study it found that rates of severe childhood obesity have tripled in the last 25 years, with significant differences by race, gender, and poverty. This places demands on health care and community services, especially because the highest rates are among children who are frequently underserved by the health care system.
Summary of Article 8 The article, “Will our children survive us? The consequences of childhood obesity” written by N. Malek was published in the Journal of the Council on Nutrition. According to the article, up until the mid 2000s, obesity among the adult American population has been steadily rising culminating with a staggering 31 - 35% of Americans having a BMI greater than 30 and over 6% having a BMI of over 40. i Although that, in and of itself, is a cause for concern, the more alarming situation is the epidemic rise of children obesity that is quickly becoming the current trend.
The article also stated that that some of the factors contributing to childhood obesity are poor food choices and lack of exercise and physical activity. Summary of Article 9 The article, “Trends and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Severe Obesity Among US Children and Adolescents” written by CY Wang, SL Gortmaker, and EM Taveras was a study that was published by Nutrition in Clinical Practice. The purpose of the study was to describe the trends and racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of severe obesity among US children.
The study examined the height and weight measurements from US children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years using three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The findings of the study found that children of racial and ethnic minorities are at increased risk of obesity and its related comorbidities. Summary of Article 10 The article, “Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity” is a study conducted by Danilea Werner, PhD, James Teufel, Peter L. Holtgrave, and Stephen L. Brown and published in the Journal of School Health.
The study focused on an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilized older adult volunteers to implement a version of the evidence-based childhood obesity prevention program, Coordinated Approach to Child Health, in 8 US cities. The results of the study found that students significantly increased their reported fruit and vegetable consumption post-program. It also concluded that Active Generations was a promising childhood obesity prevention program.
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