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Urdu As A Modern Language In The Uk Education Essay

Abstraction

The survey was designed to look into the hereafter of Urdu in the UK. British born Asians were the population of the survey. The survey was a study type which was delimited to the schools of Lancashire, Midlands and West Midlands and one school from each was the sample of the survey.

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Questionnaire was used as a research tool and 40 five questionnaires were distributed to roll up informations from which 40 responses could be possible. Parameters of involvement were, ages, background ( Natural ) , mother lingua, gender, topographic points of survey, instruction degrees and usage of Urdu. After analysis of informations, it was found that hereafter of Urdu in the UK is bright and it enjoys still most normally used community linguistic communication among Asians. Finally, countries of consideration are suggested that will let us to heighten the survey of Urdu and besides do it an instrument of societal development ( wellness, societal attention etc ) .

Research inquiry and context:

“ Urdu is a living linguistic communication and has a bright hereafter in the UK ” .

During the writer ‘s PGCE arrangement at School, the caput instructor said and by and large believed that Urdu is losing its entreaty to British born Asiatic scholars as ; parents prefer to learn a linguistic communication other than Urdu to their Children. The writer besides realized and observed that students have had less motivation towards Urdu as compared to other linguistic communications. So, in the visible radiation of the writer ‘s observations and the caput instructor ‘s positions the writer conducted a study to acquire a better image about the hereafter of Urdu in the UK. There may be a batch of grounds behind this deficiency of motive but the writer focused on following inquiries:

Why is Urdu less appealing to British scholars?

What are the beginnings of larning Urdu in the UK?

What are the involvements of British Asians for larning Urdu?

How do British Asiatics use Urdu linguistic communication in their day-to-day life?

Which composing book of Urdu is preferred by British Asians in the UK?

How is it possible to advance and continue Urdu through electronic and print media?

Does Urdu necessitate a modern teaching method to get by with modern demands?

Literature Review

Language seems to hold many utilizations like, a agency of communicating, an instrument of conveying cognition and an look of cultural and originative impulses of a community. “ A linguistic communication is the emblem of its talkers. Each linguistic communication determines a alone manner of sing the universe. It encapsulates the Torahs and traditions and beliefs of its cultural group. ” ( R.M.W.Dixen.1997:135 ) . So is the instance with the linguistic communication of Urdu as, harmonizing to George Weber ‘s article Top Languages:

“ The World ‘s 10 Most Influential Languages in Language Today, Hindi/Urdu is the 4th most spoken linguistic communication in the universe, with 4.7 per centum of the universe ‘s population, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish ” .

Urdu is a South Asiatic linguistic communication spoken in Pakistan as a national linguistic communication ( Qaumi Zabaan ) . Urdu is besides one of the officially recognized linguistic communications in India and has official linguistic communication position in the Indian provinces of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the national capital, New Delhi. In Indian administered Kashmir, Urdu is the primary official linguistic communication. It is the lone province in India where Urdu has been given such a position.

Harmonizing to Mehrab on line study on International Urdu Conference “ Urdu has no boundary and has its roots all over the universe ” . BBC Urdu website provinces:

“ Urdu is closely related to Hindi. Urdu is spoken as a first linguistic communication by over 60 million people ( including 10 million in Pakistan and 48 million in India ) ” .

Masica ( 1991: 22 ) describes “ Urdu as holding no specific territorial base, in the sense that there is no vicinity or set of vicinities in the Indian sub-continent that can be pointed out at as an Urdu-speaking country. ”

However, Urdu is demographically important in another manner as good. It is widely used as a 2nd linguistic communication throughout the Muslim communities of South Asia. As Schmidt ( 1999:16 ) says, “ Urdu is besides spoken in Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Nepal, and has become the cultural linguistic communication and lingua franca of the South Asiatic Muslim diasporas outside the subcontinent ” .

Urdu in Britain

The relationship between Urdu and Britain is non new ; it started around three and a half hundred old ages ago when the British entered into the sub-continent as a bargainer and established the East India Company. British studied in deepness the civilization, lingual, societal and economic background of the sub-continent and they realised that to obtain full political power they needed to larn the linguistic communication of the land. To carry through this intent they established Fort William College in Calcutta. It was founded on July 10, 1800.

Harmonizing to Wikipedia “ Fort William College was an academy and acquisition Centre for Oriental surveies established by Lord Wellesley, so Governor-General of British India ” .

Gilchrist was named caput of the college and he produced a batch of literature in Urdu. Queen Victoria hired an Indian Muslim to learn her Urdu and his portrayal can still be seen in the Royal Palace. Manama Afkaar Printed “ Urdu in Britain ” particular figure and on the rubric page there is a image of Queen Victoria with Munshi Abdul Karim ( the Queen ‘s Urdu Tutor ) . ( appendix1 )

John Joshua Keterlaer, the Dutch embassador to India, wrote Urdu ‘s first grammar circa 1715. Written in Latin, it was named ‘Grammatical Indostanica ‘ , as Indostan, Indostani, and Hindustani are among the different names Urdu has had through centuries. In 1741, Benjamin Schultz, a German missionary, wrote ‘Grammatica Indostanica ‘ in Latin. The first-ever grammar of Urdu in English was written by a MrGliston. John Gilchrist had besides written a grammar book of Urdu himself but it was a British military officer named Hadley who was credited with authorship and printing the first-ever grammar of Urdu in English.

There were two national Urdu conferences held in the UK. The first was held at the SOAS on Saturday, 8th December, 1979. The 2nd Urdu national conference was called by the Urdu Majlis ( UK ) , the Centre for Multicultural Education and it ‘s took topographic point on April 24th-25th, 1981 in London. Both conferences were a immense success towards the function of Urdu instruction in the UK.

Professor Ralph Russell was a British bookman of Urdu literature and his scholarly research earned him a unique and enduring topographic point among great names of Urdu literature. He did enormous work to advance and do Urdu popular in the UK.

Harmonizing to Community linguistic communications in higher instruction study 2008 Urdu is top of the chart and it is most widely spoken community linguistic communication in the UK. See chart below:

Beginning: Community languages in higher instruction study 2008, p11.

Urdu is a linguistic communication spoken either as a first or 2nd linguistic communication by a subdivision of British Asiatic people, peculiarly those of Pakistani heritage. It is widely spoken in the UK by immigrants and their posterities. As stated by the BBC Urdu web site

“ The Urdu community in the UK Numberss about one million talkers. ”

The Urdu community in the UK is really much larger than the Hindi community. Most of those who identify themselves as Urdu talkers use a assortment of Punjabi as the linguistic communication of the place, and speak Urdu as a 2nd linguistic communication for spiritual and cultural grounds. The overpowering bulk comes from the West Punjab and the Mirpur territory of Azad Kashmir, but smaller groups of Gujarati Muslims from both India and East Africa besides use Urdu for spiritual intents as mentioned on the BBC web site. David Mathews mentioned in his address at the five-day International Urdu Conference held in Islamabad. “ Urdu is recognized as the 4th international linguistic communication in the UK ” .

The version spoken in Britain is to a great extent laced with Punjabi and Mirpuri ( which is apparent in my study ) words and footings. The ground for this is that the bulk of UK occupants who are of Pakistani descent originally came from the Mirpur territory in northern Pakistan which is besides following to the Punjab.

The Pakistani community is the 2nd largest of the three South Asiatic communities in Britain, with a population estimation of 899,000. Over 92 per cent of Pakistanis in Britain identify themselves as Muslim. Whilst a big proportion of the community is concentrated in London, it is more equally dispersed across the state than most other Muslim populations, with major colonies in the Midlands, Yorkshire and the North West.

Harmonizing to CILT study 1995 Urdu is the most widely used community linguistic communication in England and 69 local instruction governments are offering Urdu instruction.

Methodology

Methodology is a image of procedure which can be explained as suggested by

( Cohen et Al, 2003:44 ) , “ the scope of attacks used in educational research to garner informations which are to be used as a footing for intervention and reading, for account and anticipation ” For the intent of my research I have preferred to utilize a study as it can be “ used to scan a broad field of issues, populations, programmes etc. In order to mensurate or depict any generalized characteristics ” ( Cohen, 2007:206 ) .

Harmonizing to Sapsford ( 1999 ) , readying of study involves four different phases ; of job definition, sample choice, design for measurings and concerns for participants, therefore I took into the history to provide all the four phases. The first phase of research involved the pilot study as it is “ a preliminary piece of research conducted before a complete study to prove the effectivity of the research methodological analysis ” . It was decided after the suggestions made by the Curriculum and Professional Mentor to transport out the Pilot survey which was accomplished in December 2009. A study was prepared to determine the chosen informations aggregation method and to derive some preliminary findings. I chose closed complete inquiries for my study as Fink ( 1995 ) urges that “ they are easy to standardize, and informations gathered from closed terminal inquiries lend themselves to statistical analysis ” .

For this intent I produced a questionnaire utilizing the likert-scale, multiple pick and ordinal side of closed terminal inquiries which required attending towards trying every bit good as to guarantee that the information on which the sample is based is comprehensive. The research inquiries for this survey asked how people used Urdu in their day-to-day lives. After the suggestions to the pilot study, the development of the full study questionnaire was done together with the suggestions made by Stephen Toll ( Email, Appendix2 ) and Professor Itesh Sachdev ( Email, Appendix3 ) to formalize the pilot study questionnaire.

In decision, the research will supply me every bit good as the readers with a clearer image of the Urdu ‘s Future as a Modern Language in the UK and will raise motive towards Urdu survey. The observations were made to verify the consequence of the research and proposals were made to increase the motive and popularity among Urdu scholars in the UK.

The studies were completed towards the terminal of the winter term 2010. A sum of 45 questionnaires were sent out to three different schools, one in Lancashire, one in the Midlands and one in West Midlands. Of the 45 studies sent out merely 40 responses were received ( 89 % response ) of which 8 were over 16 ( 20 % ) and 32 ( 80 % ) were under 16.

Findingss and Analysis

Figure ( Gender )

In footings of gender it is clear the sample is non declarative representative of population. Since merely 10 % of that population surveyed were adult females. It is apparent that the study needs to be modified and expanded since it is non conformist, i.e. merely 10 % of the surveyed of were female. From formal experiences it is apparent that a big population of females tend to show involvement in linguistic communications than males. So to acquire a more feasible image of the hereafter the study should hold been conducted in two stages:

Females

Males

It is hence suggested that the present findings will be biased since 90 % of the group were males, who do non be given to demo involvement in linguistic communications study.

Figure ( Location )

It is besides apparent that a disproportional sum of those surveyed were larning Urdu linguistic communication in a private constitution for illustration at a mosque. From these consequences it is clear that due to big figure of males surveyed the consequences are biased. From my ain experiences I find that more misss tended to analyze Urdu at school than male childs. Therefore, it is clear that of the study was extended a clear image of the figure of male pupils would be obtained.

In footings of degree of Urdu being studied 98 % of these persons studied to GCSE degree with merely 2 % traveling farther to analyze A/S degree.

Figure ( demoing Education Level )

Another factor which needs to be born in head is the age groups surveyed, since the present research took into history merely those analyzing GCSE ‘s ( i.e. – 16 ) . This needs to be extended to include a big figure of stations 16 ‘s. Since this is the group which will take to do greater usage of the Urdu makings.

Figure ( demoing Mother lingua )

Use of Urdu linguistic communication in

Daily lives

Importance on a graduated table of 1- 5 with 1 is the most and 5 is the least.

1

2

3

4

Using it with members of household

15 %

20 %

30 %

5 %

Using it in the community.

0 %

5 %

40 %

15 %

Using it for travel. Visiting Pakistan and India.

50 %

7 %

3 %

20 %

Using it for friendly relationship and societal networking.

23 %

13 %

0 %

14 %

Reading newspapers, magazines and books in Urdu.

10 %

10 %

20 %

20 %

Cinema, Television, cyberspace and Radio

15 %

10 %

10 %

15 %

Figure for non Urdu talkers analyzing Urdu shows a broad scope of nationalties analyzing Urdu linguistic communication. These ranged from linguistic communications of the Indian sub-continent, Africa and Europe.These consequences are really interesting in that they show that the figure of pupils analyzing Urdu came from a assortment of backgrounds, in footings of their female parent tongue.It can be inferred that Urdu has same involvement in a assortment of nationalties and this can be extended further with exposure of the linguistic communication to other backgrounds.

Consequences for How do you utilize Urdu linguistic communication in your day-to-day lives?

The study asked to depict the usage of Urdu linguistic communication in their day-to-day lives and rank these statements in order of importance on a graduated table of 1- 5.

The most interesting and stating set of informations are obtained from the ‘Use of Urdu ‘ ( Table 1 ) .

From initial review of the information it seems that 50 % of the group surveyed do non give much acceptance to the usage of Urdu. However closer penetration shows some interesting tendencies, these are outlined below:

65 % of the group uses Urdu in the place, likely due to the fact that the parents and grandparents find it easier to discourse in Urdu instead than English. Besides the cultural facets of the communications are easy communicated in Urdu than English.

From the usage of Urdu in the community it seems that most of the group members seem to give most importance to Urdu in the community. This may be due to the colored nature of the study, i.e. 98 % males. From a cultural point of position the male ‘s function in that of staff of life victor so if he is working all twenty-four hours there is small demand for him to utilize the linguistic communication to pass on in a manner as to acquire things done. I believe a more thorough study will demo that when female positions are taken into history this standard will demo different consequences.

Traveling tendency will demo the highest usage of Urdu, and so this is the instance. Even here I believe the extension of the study to include more females will ensue in an even higher figure who use Urdu when traveling.

Social networking has a important figure of surveyed groups who use Urdu for pass oning, but it should be born in head that the Urdu used is written in Roman book for on-line communicating!

It is with some unhappiness that we note that usage of Urdu seems to be on the diminution in media and amusement.

Therefore from an initial expression at the consequences it would look that Urdu is diminution in the UK, but one needs to convey in other factors and deficits in the study to to the full understand the province of personal businesss.

Figure 5 ( analyzing Urdu as a topic at degree degree )

Of the 40 studies completed questionnaires answered 12 % responded positively to this inquiry whilst 35 % stated that they did non see to analyze Urdu at degree degree and 53 % were diffident to analyze Urdu at degree degree. Figure shows that 35 % of respondents want to analyze Urdu as a individual topic whilst 65 % expressed that they want to analyze Urdu combined with other topics.

Survey of the possibility of analyzing Urdu at higher degrees shows that a really big Numberss would wish to analyze Urdu at higher degrees, in some signifier. I believe Urdu as its ain would be selected by really few persons, but when given a pick of holding under as a combined faculty a big figure showed involvement. This ties in with how Urdu can be made more available to the whole community in different country: wellness, instruction, societal services etc.

Which Urdu authorship book is easy to read and understand?

Figure 6 ( Which Urdu composing book is easy to read and understand: Traditional/Roman. )

An overpowering bulk found Urdu written in Roman book to be easy read and grok, whereas merely 65 % thought that traditional Urdu book was easy to read and understand.

Discussion

The present research has highlighted of import issues sing the hereafter of Urdu as a ML and the hereafter of Urdu in the community. On first glimpse it appears that Urdu is losing its grass root importance. This can be understood if one takes into history the continued changing of the population of the Urdu speech production groups. Obviously the first coevals group which give much importance to the Urdu Language since it is the linguistic communication of their family and it is a linguistic communication in which they have had their formal instruction or have grown up being surrounded by the usage of the linguistic communication ( i.e. their formative old ages ) . The 2nd coevals immigrants held on to the usage of Urdu in the place due to strong ties with their relation in the native states. As the immigrant population became educated their usage of Urdu at place and within the networking socialization circles decreased. This sidelining of Urdu has led to many British immigrants of “ Urdu descent ” non being able to talk Urdu fluently ; even within the place. However, initial basis suggests that Urdu still seems to be spoken widely among the male group for grounds of civilization and their functions. Thus Urdu is still being studied in schools but the bulk of the pupils analyzing Urdu are males or pupils in spiritual based schools of Indo-Pakistani beginnings.

From my treatments in schools and the community it is evident that Urdu is once more gaining popularity perchance due to the fact that there are important alterations happening in the provinces of the immigrant population from India/Pakistan. First, there are a big figure of people making old age ( 60+ ) who have to set to a non-nuclear household. There has been a big addition in old people ‘s places lodging Urdu speech production immigrants. By necessity they have to set from populating off from their households which has reverberations for their callings. The aged prefer to pass on in their native linguas, so the wellness callings need to be able to understand and pass on consequently. This evidently means that these professionals who can understand and utilize Urdu can look after this population more efficaciously. This evidently means that the importance of Urdu can be enhanced by aiming persons who work in these countries. Restrictions of the present work of this papers make non let an in depth treatment of all points, but the writer suggests the undermentioned points to heighten Urdu and procure its hereafter:

Highlight the profusion of Urdu literature.

A planetary market of present times can let enterprisers to utilize the assorted chances to spread out concern into countries where Urdu is still widely used.

NHS will necessitate to provide for a turning population who will necessitate to utilize Urdu to pass on with a group which is now turning and demands health care.

Social public assistance groups need to be ready for the clip when big figure of Urdu talking population will necessitate aided lodging and attention.

The importance of higher instruction classs that offer survey of Urdu alongside the major topics. E.g. Medicine with Urdu, Pharmacy with Urdu, Dentistry with Urdu, Nursing with Urdu, Healthcare with Urdu etc.

Evaluation and Implications for Practice

This subdivision deals with the significance of chief findings of this survey for the writer every bit good as for others and, how the findings relate to the literature cited in the subdivision of ‘Literature Review ‘ . Actually the chief focal point of this survey was to look into the hereafter of Urdu as a Modern Language in the UK. The use of Urdu by British Borns Asians in their everyday affairs of day-to-day life was besides investigated and there was some focal point on to happen out their penchants of larning Urdu. The chief findings present a clear image of the hereafter of Urdu non merely for the writer but besides for future research workers carry oning some survey in this country. Harmonizing to this survey, the hereafter of Urdu in this state is really bright and use of Urdu may be enhanced with some schemes suggested in the subdivision of ‘Recommendations ‘ as, informations show considerable thirst for larning Urdu whether it might be as a individual topic or as a combined topic. In add-on to it, a big figure of participants desired to larn Urdu at higher degrees besides. The point of position may be supported by the mention quoted earlier in the subdivision of Literature Review which describes CILT study 1995. Harmonizing to the study, Urdu is the most widely used community linguistic communication in England and 69 local instruction governments are offering Urdu instruction. So, Urdu still seems to be an of import linguistic communication in this state. Significant first coevals Urdu talkers are still alive and are working, still necessitating wellness and societal attention advice. They will stop up in old people ‘s places due to alterations happening in the atomic household in the UK. Where you need childs to look after them in footings of nurses and callings ( people around them ) and those childs must be equipped with Urdu linguistic communication to make a comfy ambiance. Therefore, it may besides be easy concluded acording to Community linguistic communications in higher instruction study 2008, “ Urdu is top of the chart and it is most widely spoken community linguistic communication in the UK ” .

Beginning: Community languages in higher instruction study 2008, p11.

In add-on to it there is found a positive attitude of childs towards Urdu acquisition and use. The writer ‘s ego created figure below shows the attitudes towards larning the Urdu linguistic communication in the UK. There are three interior thrusts which motivate the British scholars to analyze Urdu. Interest in the Urdu is due to its rich history and literature. Interest leads towards ability and ability brings good calling chances.

Inner Drivers towards analyzing Urdu

Interest

Ability

Career

There will be some external influences besides which may play a critical function towards Urdu acquisition. Parents are the first point of contact or communicating and if they speak the linguistic communication at place, scholars will automatically pick up the linguistic communication. Parents besides can raise and heighten motive towards Urdu survey. Teachers besides influence the scholars and media besides plays an of import function to larn and do any linguistic communication popular. The writer ‘s above mentioned point of position is described in the ego created figure below:

Still there seems some demand to heighten the involvement of immature coevals towards Urdu acquisition. If immature coevals appears non to pay any serious attending to the Urdu linguistic communication, it is due to miss of involvement and chances they do non cognize, Urdu has a wealth of literature and has produced great bookmans.

External Influences towards Urdu

Survey

Family

Teachers

Media

Urdu has fantastic poesy, Novel, Fiction and Prose. So, the procedure of larning Urdu may take topographic point in educational establishments. Here is the writer ‘s ego created figure which shows the function of school, instructor and schoolroom in the acquisition of Urdu linguistic communication.

School

School Leadership

Interest in Languages

Relationship with community

Motivational Environment

Teachers

Teacher Academic Skills

Teaching Methodology

Teacher Experience

Professional Development

Classrooms

Course Content

Teaching method

Technology

Class Size

Resources

Student Learning of Urdu Language

In the visible radiation of above mentioned rating and deduction for patterns, there is a demand to do Urdu the linguistic communication of employment and professionalism. There is besides a demand to present higher instruction classs in Urdu combined with Historical Studies, Language and Linguistics, Film Studies, Philosophy and Religious Studies, Literary Studies and Drama and Sciences and Psychology, every bit good as medical professions and wellness and societal attention. In the visible radiation of above mentioned worlds, the survey may be declared really successful holding a considerable value for the writer every bit good as for others interested in the country to pull some decisions about the hereafter of Urdu in the UK. The worth may be due to some grounds in which the major ground describes a singular figure of childs holding Urdu as their female parent lingua and their motive towards Urdu larning even at their degree degree. The survey is precisely harmonizing to the outlooks of the writer and frights of the caput instructor and the writer about the worsening state of affairs of Urdu proved non to be true. However there is need to supply chances to immature coevals to larn Urdu. The writer was much focused during survey as the study was of personal involvement of the writer and so, concentration and focal point remained mark oriented holding no asides.

This survey seems projecting really important influences on the writer as, now the writer is much determined to use such techniques while learning in schoolroom which may be more and more helpful to make involvement for pupils in Urdu acquisition. Equipped with the overpowering tendencies for Urdu acquisition, the writer may make and heighten gustatory sensation for Urdu larning better than earlier in schoolroom and therefore may lend to do Urdu a life linguistic communication in the UK.

Decision

The hereafter of Urdu is rather bright in the UK and it ‘s proved by my study. Majority of peoples took portion in the study considered Urdu as an of import linguistic communication. They think it ‘s of import for communicating with parents, for interaction with community and for being able to talk Urdu during going figure of states where you can travel to is rather big.

The importance of Urdu can be farther enhanced by developing classs which incorporate the Urdu linguistic communication. The female parent lingua plays a really of import function in determining the hereafter of a kid. Determining the hereafter of the Urdu linguistic communication is in the custodies of the parents. If they realize this most of import responsibility and seed the seeds of the female parent lingua in the childhood old ages, the hereafter of the Urdu linguistic communication takes a promising form. The responsibility for continuing Urdu in UK falls onto the shoulders of parents, community, and bing pedagogues.

As Gopi Chand Narang justly said in his address during International Urdu conference 2005, held in Islamabad ( Pakistan ) “ Urdu is a functional linguistic communication and functional linguistic communications do non decease. Urdu yesteryear was glorious, its present is safe and its hereafter assured. Urdu is unstoppable exactly because this is the linguistic communication that quenches society ‘s cultural thirst. ”

Recommendations

On the footing of this survey and study, I would urge the followers:

The demand to develop an institute of Urdu research in UK. ( For employment and CPD ) .

To heighten and foreground Urdu learning programmes for British Asiatic scholars through native British Urdu examples through wireless or cyberspace.

The usage of non-commercial broadcast medium targeted to all and will heighten motive among Urdu scholars.

Bilingualism is going progressively of import for economic invention and growing. Urdu concern classs should be introduced in schools and colleges.

Train Urdu Language Teachers utilizing the cyberspace and ICT.

E-Learning instructor preparation Courses should be launched in the UK.

To salvage the hereafter of Urdu in the epoch of Computer engineering, there is a demand to run and present specially designed programmes to provide mundane life in Urdu and to do Urdu a linguistic communication of the cyberspace.

To associate Urdu to the up-to-date research and use of Urdu to the modern information and communicating engineerings in instruction and concerns.

To present Degree, Master, M.Phil and Ph.D makings in Urdu with other topics.

To heighten Urdu popularity Urdu books should be readily available in Roman Urdu and Traditional Urdu composing books.