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Substance Abuse And Addiction Health And Social Care Essay

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`` Tens of 1000000s of Americans use habit-forming substances. Twenty-five million have a history of intoxicant dependance and more than five million qualify as difficult nucleus chronic drug users '' ( Bernhein and Rangel, 2004 ) . The alterations in the encephalon make it hard for people to halt mistreating drugs. Research shows that `` uniting dependence intervention medicines with behavioural therapy is the best manner to guarantee success for most patients '' (, 2008 ) . Treatment is tailored to the patient 's maltreatment or dependence job and any other jobs they may hold medically, socially, or psychologically.

Statement of Problem

The job of substance maltreatment and dependence is a turning job. Prevention is the key to assist control and halt this job. Intervention, parental influence, and the media can all impact a individual and their job. Substance dependence occurs when `` after important exposure, users find themselves prosecuting in compulsive, repeated, and unwanted usage despite clearly harmful effects, and frequently despite a strong desire to discontinue unconditionally ( Bernhein and Rangel, 2004 ) . Peoples in the United States have spent over $ 150 billion on baccy merchandises, alcoholic drinks, cocaine, diacetylmorphine, marihuana, and Methedrines ( Bernhein and Rangel, 2004 ) . Social costs such as wellness attention, non-productivity, and offense sum more than $ 300 billion per twelvemonth ( Bernhein and Rangel, 2004 ) .

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Drugs are `` chemicals that tap into the encephalon 's communicating system and interrupt the manner nervus cells usually send, receive, and procedure information '' (, 2008 ) . The drugs can direct incorrect messages to the encephalon by directing big sums of Dopastat into the system. By over-stimulating the system, the euphoric consequence causes a individual to reiterate the behaviour of mistreating drugs (, 2008 ) . Through changeless usage, the euphoric consequence wears off and the individual must go on taking the drug, and perchance more of the drug, in order to capture that experiencing once more.

`` Brain imaging surveies of dependent persons shows alterations in countries of the encephalon that are critical to judgement, determination devising, acquisition, memory, and behavior control. These alterations drive an maltreater to seek out and take drugs obsessively despite inauspicious effects to go addicted to drugs '' (, 2008 ) . Drug dependence is preventable. NIDA funded research show `` that bar plans that involve the household, schools, communities, and the media are effectual in cut downing substance maltreatment. Although many events and cultural factors affect substance maltreatment tendencies, when young persons perceive substance maltreatment as harmful, they cut down their drug pickings. It is imperative that in order to assist the young person and the general populace to understand the hazard of substance maltreatment and for instructors, parents, and health care professionals to maintain directing the message that drug dependence can be prevented if a individual ne'er abuses drugs '' (, 2008 ) .


Substance dependence is a `` chronic, frequently get worsing encephalon disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and utilize despite harmful effects to the person that is addicted and to those around them. It is a encephalon disease because the maltreatment of drugs can take to alterations in the construction and map of the encephalon '' (, 2008 ) . Substance maltreatment involves the `` perennial and inordinate usage of chemical substances to accomplish a certain consequence '' ( Segal and Cutter, 2009 ) . Substance dependence and maltreatment compels a individual to go haunted with obtaining and utilizing drugs despite the many inauspicious wellness and life jobs ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009 ) .

The research indicates people abuse drugs because they think they feel better on drugs. It is besides stated in research they take drugs in order to get by with the many troubles they may be confronting in their life. `` Drugs exert their effects mostly on the motive and pleasance tracts of the encephalon ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . Drugs affect the encephalon chemicals because the `` chemical construction of the drugs is similar to encephalon chemicals or neurotransmitters '' ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . `` Similarity in construction allows them to be recognized by nerve cells and to change normal encephalon messages '' ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009 ) .

Addiction is a `` developmental disease which normally beings in adolescence '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . `` Sixty-seven per centum of adolescence will experiment with marihuana for the first clip between the ages of 12 and 17 '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . Prevention would necessitate to get down at an early age in order to halt substance maltreatment before it starts.


There is no conclusive grounds why person can go addicted to a substance and another individual does non. In dependence there is a force which creates an inability to acquire control of a state of affairs. If a individual is in hurting, they may take a hurting pill. Once the hurting subsides any little feeling of hurting and the individual will take another pill. The individual becomes use to the feeling that the pill is giving them relief irrespective of how terrible or non the hurting still is. This is when people abuse prescribed medicines, nonprescription medicines or illegal pills. Substance maltreatment can besides be a trigger when a individual is experiencing down or lonely. Taking a pill can assist control that feeling. There are other triggers which can do dependence: household history, history of mental unwellness, untreated physical hurting, and peer force per unit area ( Segal and Cutter, 2009 ) .

Vulnerability is a `` merchandise of the interaction of a individual 's biological science, cistrons, environment, and age '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . Studies show that along with environment, emphasis, and equal influence, genetic sciences attribute anyplace from 40 % to 60 % per centum toward sensitivity to dependence. Environmental factors besides contribute to a individual 's impulse to take drugs. Factors such as a history of physical or sexual maltreatment, witnessing a violent act, or emphasize all influence the individual 's pick ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) .

Gender besides affects substance maltreatment and dependence. Abuse and dependence can impact a male otherwise from a female. Research on grownup substance maltreaters has `` revealed a figure of societal and psychological differences between males and females that have of import deductions for intervention '' ( Toray, Coughlin, Vuchinich and Patricelli, 1991 ) . A survey was done on 930 male and female striplings who were in intervention for substance maltreatment. They were analyzed to understand the difference between the genders ( Toray et. Al, 1991 ) .

While category and ethnicity influence the logical thinking behind adolescent substance maltreatment, small research has been done to understand how gender affects maltreatment and dependence. Research showed that `` gender differences may be in psychosocial factors such as depression and parental and equal influences which determine substance usage forms '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . Men are more likely to seek intervention so adult females are. `` The survey showed that 20 % of all clients in publically funded intervention services were adult females '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . Because of societal stigma, adult females seem to be less unfastened about their jobs. Female substance maltreaters `` tend to self-medicate to acquire off from emotional hurting '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . There are great differences in the figure of males and females who receive intervention. Females study higher rates of self-destruction, depression, and physical and sexual maltreatment so males do. Because of these differences, the success of intervention can be less successful for females ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) .

Data was collected from 1981 through 1988 from 930 striplings. Of these striplings, 90 % were from in-between category households and 10 % were from lower and upper category households. The age p was 16 old ages old for males and 15 old ages old for female. The striplings were chiefly of white beginning ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . The intent of this research was to garner information about the young person 's drug history and household history and to profile the young person sing their drug usage. The group was asked the particulars of their drug usage - what they used and how frequently. They were given a psychological profile sing depression, self-destruction efforts, physical and/or sexual maltreatment. They besides were asked about their parent 's history of drug usage and whether they used drugs, intoxicant, or both ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) .

The major differences found between males and females were in `` suicide efforts, physical and/or sexual maltreatment and household drug history with female rates significantly higher so male rates '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . The female substance maltreater may be `` confronted with psychological, household, and cultural barriers in recovery non found by males '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . Recovery is a long and difficult procedure and may be more hard for a female because resources available to females `` lack sensitiveness to a figure of issues she may be confronting such as stigmatisation and sexual victimization '' ( Toray, et Al, 1991 ) . It is critical that a female receive the appropriate support both during and after intervention.


Peoples have many grounds for remaining addicted to substances. They might believe `` ingestion of the habit-forming good is non every bit harmful, that persons possess subjective beliefs refering this injury, and that beliefs are optimally updated information gained through ingestion '' ( Orphanides and Zervos, 1995 ) . Parents, guidance, and equals can assist a individual get through this tough stage of their life. There is intervention out at that place where the dependence can be controlled and non take over person 's life.

Peoples 's dependences are non merely to substances but to other things such as work, eating, and faith. Rational Choice Theory can explicate a assortment of habit-forming behaviours. The theory `` derives conditions that determine whether steady province ingestion degrees are unstable or stable. Unstable steady provinces are important to the apprehension of rational dependence '' ( Becker and Murphy, 1988 ) . The variables determine whether a individual can go addicted to a certain good and the effects that it causes. Consumption of a substance will demo how a individual responds to alterations sing the substance. It besides shows how a individual responds to stressful things that are go oning in their life and if it increases the demand for the substance ( Becker and Murphy, 1988 ) .

`` The Rational Choice Theory implies that `` traveling cold Meleagris gallopavo is used to stop strong dependences, that nuts frequently go on orgies, that addicts respond more to permanent than to impermanent alterations in monetary values of habit-forming goods, and that anxiousness and tensenesss can precipitate and dependence ( Becker and Murphy, 1988 ) . A individual decides to stop his dependence if `` events lower either his demand for the habit-forming good sufficiently or his stock of ingestion capital sufficiently '' ( Becker and Murphy, 1988 ) . There needs to be an interaction between the individual and the good in order for the individual to halt the dependence. Rational individuals end stronger dependences more quickly than weaker 1s can.

Media, Parents, and Peers

The United States Office of National Drug Control Policy late `` launched a media run intended to cut down illegal drug usage by the immature Americans '' ( Lu, Zanutto, Hornik and Rosenbaum, 2001 ) . This survey was done with 521 teens and it compared teens that had been exposed to the media run and those that were non. The research was done based on three inquiries: `` ( 1 ) In recent months, how frequently have you seen anti-drug commercials on telecasting or heard them on the wireless? ( 2 ) In recent months, how frequently have you seen anti-drug ads in newspapers or magazines? ( 3 ) In recent months, how frequently have you seen anti-drug ads in film theatres or on pictures? '' ( Lu, et Al, 2001 ) . Older kids reported `` less exposure to the media run than the younger kids, but gender and race showed small or no relationship to exposure '' ( Lu, et Al, 2001 ) .

Social larning theory sing emphasis and header were integrated to organize a ground for adolescent drug usage from informations obtained from 343 young persons. Parental rejection, aberrant equals, and low self-pride increased the stripling 's chance of drug usage. Findingss suggest that intervention should include single guidance and household therapy with an accent on rearing patterns ( Simons and Robertson, 1989 ) . This survey was done in a Midwestern metropolis with a population of 250,000. The stripling 's interviewed were between the ages of 13 to 17 old ages. They completed a two-hour interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on demographic information, household state of affairs, peer relationships, psychological wellbeing, delinquent behaviour, and drug/alcohol usage ( Simon and Robertson, 1989 ) . 189 were male and 154 were female. They came from all different walks of life.

Consequences found that substance maltreatment among young persons was `` associated with weak bonds to household and strong bonds to a aberrant equal group '' ( Simons and Robertson, 1989 ) . Parental rejection increased the usage of substance maltreatment amongst young person. Rejected kids tended to `` mistrust and impute malevolent motivations to others, with the consequence being a defensive, if non aggressive, attack to equals interactions '' ( Simons and Robertson, 1989 ) . Parental rejection is `` positively related and self-esteem negatively related to avoidant get bying. There was no important coefficient between either parent 's imbibing form and avoidant header and parental rejection and aggressiveness are positively associated with engagement in a aberrant equal group '' ( Simons and Robertson, 1989 ) .

Prevention and Treatment

Geting the message out sing substance maltreatment and dependence being harmful demands to get down at an early age. Most people become addicted can non halt without aid. In the addicted encephalon, `` the control circuit becomes impaired because of drug usage and loses much of its repressive power over the circuits that drive responses to stimuli deemed salient '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . Substance maltreatment intervention needs to handle the whole individual non merely the substance job. Behavior therapy can modify a individual 's attitude and behaviour as it relates to the substance maltreatment. There are medicines that a individual can take to handle the symptoms. Peoples that want to halt pickings can take a medical specialty that will assist control their desire to towards their dependence.

Since substance maltreatment is really complex, there are many different types of intervention. Substance maltreatment intervention includes `` detoxification, direction of drug dependance, and bar of backsliding '' ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1996 ) . Treatment plans are varied and multifaceted. Treatment falls into two classs: `` drugs that affect physiological procedures and therapies that aim to modify behaviour '' ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1996 ) . Prescription medicines can supply a utility drug for the existent drug and barricade the physiological effects of the abused drug. They can besides assist the effects of backdown. Therapy and guidance can assist to alter a individual 's behaviour. `` Peer support self-help groups modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, behavioural conditioning to change one 's response to drug stimulations, accomplishment development, or long term intervention in a closed residential scene stressing substance abstention and acquisition of new attitudes and behaviour '' ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1996 ) , are all apart of acquiring effectual intervention. A `` loving, fostering relationship with household has shown to be an of import portion though which a individual can larn to care, to give, and to compromise in relationships with others '' ( Simons and Robertson, 1989 ) .


Peoples do non acquire cured when they go through intervention. Peoples become clean and sober. Substance maltreatment requires womb-to-tomb intervention. Peoples need to be able to acquire where they can `` pull off their recovery and recover their lives '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) . If a individual relapses, it needs to function as a trigger that a different intervention or intercession demands to be used. The added support of a group, reding, household, and friends can assist a individual get through intervention. `` The odds of staying abstentious rise if a patient has been abstinent for one to three old ages. After three old ages, the recovery odds remain high and stable. Addiction requires an on-going and active disease direction scheme '' ( The National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2009 ) .

Backsliding is common and frequently repeated interventions are required. Successful intervention relies in portion on how much clip is spent in a intervention plan. Those who remain in a plan for at least a twelvemonth are less likely to return to their substance maltreatment or dependence ( The National Institute on Drug Addiction, 1996 ) . Opportunities of backsliding are influenced by the same biological, psychological, behavioural, societal, and environmental factors that they originally faced. The longer person abstains from substance maltreatment, the better the opportunity of them remaining clean and sober in the hereafter ( The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1996 ) .


This paper covers substance maltreatment and dependence and its affects. The research was based on intercession and bar and the influences around a individual including the media, parents, and equals. This subject was chosen because of the turning job with substance maltreatment and dependence in the United States. Merely in my town entirely, there are changeless reminders everyday of the job and how it affects the town, the schools, and the individual 's household. The paper was developed around why and how a individual abuses or becomes dependence to a substance. The paper besides discusses the different research done sing substance maltreatment and dependence particularly refering striplings. The paper besides discusses the bar of substance maltreatment and dependence and those around them that can assist such as household, friends, and support groups.

Even though there are drugs which can assist a individual, there still is the job of going addicted. Because so many people have a substance maltreatment and dependence, dependence still remains a job in the United States. Reasons for dependence and maltreatment are eternal. Without the aid and support of household, friends, and intervention, the dependence will go on. Even with support, people may decline it. The addicted individual demands to desire to halt their dependence.

Annotated Bibliography

Becker, G.S. , and Murphy, K.M. ( 1988 ) . A theory of rational dependence. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 96, No. 4, pp. 675-700. The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses how a individual rationalizes their substance maltreatment or dependence and what they future may keep for them.

Bernheim, B.D. , and Rangel, A. ( 2004 ) . Addiction and cue-triggered determination procedures. The American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 5 pp. 1558-1590. American Economic Association. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses why users find themselves prosecuting in usage even if they might desire to halt. The user knows the effects of what they are making and might desire to halt but can non. It besides discusses the money that is spent on substance maltreatment in the United States. It besides talks about forms of habit-forming behaviour.

Lu, B. , Zanutto, E. , Homik, R. , and Rosenbaum, P.R. ( 2001 ) . Matching with doses in an experimental survey of a media run against drug maltreatment. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 96, No. 456 pp. 1245- 1253. American Statistical Association. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses how the media might act upon habit-forming behaviour and how the media could be used in a positive manner.

MedicineNet, Inc. ( 2008 ) . Drug maltreatment and dependence. Retrieved on January 8, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: // articlekey=25825

This article discusses what drug dependence is and why some people might go addicted and some do non. Factors include biological science, environment, and development.

Orphanides, A. , and Zervos, D. ( 1995 ) . Rational dependence with acquisition and sorrow. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 103, No. 4 pp. 739-758. The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses how people did non believe that they could go addicted and how they regret their past determinations.

Saisan, J. , Segal, J. , and Cutter, D. , ( 2009 ) . Drug maltreatment and dependence. Signs, symptoms, and assist for drug jobs. Retrieved on January 8, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses what to look for in a individual that you might believe has a substance maltreatment or dependence job. It discusses the causes of the maltreatment and the different types of maltreatment.

St. simons, R.L. , and Robertson, J.F. ( 1989 ) . The impact of rearing factors, aberrant equals, and get bying manner upon adolescent drug usage. Family Relations, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 273-281. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article deals with research on stripling substance usage and maltreatment. This information was obtained from research done on 343 young persons. The research dealt with parental interaction, their equals, and how the young persons felt about themselves.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse ( 1996 ) . Drug usage. Retrieved on January 8, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses the difference between drug usage, maltreatment, and dependance. It talks about drug dangers and their badness. It besides discusses the drug maltreatment intervention.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse, ( 2008 ) . NIDA for teens: Facts on drugs - Anabolic steroids. Retrieved on January 8, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article talks about steroid usage among jocks, how they are used, and the effects of the drug. It besides discusses the range of usage among teens.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse, ( 2009 ) . Addiction scientific discipline: From molecules to pull off attention. National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on January 8, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This is a series of articles that discusses everything from wellness effects to the money spent of drugs. It touches on HIV/AIDS. It discusses what happens to the encephalon when a individual is on drugs. It talks about how and why people become addicted to drugs. It discusses what factors affect the interaction of drugs and how the environment affects the use. It besides touches on intervention and what can be done in the instance of a backsliding.

Toray, T. , Coughlin, C. , Vuchinich, S. , and Patricelli, P. ( 1991 ) . Gender differences associated with adolescent substance maltreatment: Comparisions and deductions for intervention. Family Relations, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 338-344. National Council of Family Relations. Retrieved on January 9, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

This was research done on a group of 930 striplings, both male and female, who were in intervention for drug maltreatment. This research shows how substance maltreatment and dependence affects the male and female otherwise. It takes into affect the history of physical and or sexual maltreatment and household history of substance maltreatment.

I. Introduction

a. Substance maltreatment and dependence

B. Problem today among people

c. Reason of dependence

II. Statement of Problem

a. Relevant - large job in today 's society

B. Way to understand job

c. What causes people to go addicted?

d. Why does it impact some and non others?

e. Are at that place underlying jobs to the maltreatment?

f. Are at that place underlying jobs to the dependence?

g. How does it impact those around them?

III. Discussion

a. Substance maltreatment

B. Substance dependence

c. Social deductions

d. Parental engagement

e. Peer engagement

IV. Causes

a. What causes the maltreatment and dependence

B. Statisticss

c. Family history

d. Peer force per unit area

V. Rational behind abuse/addiction

a. It 's all right, I can discontinue anytime

b. I am non aching anyone

c. It does non be that much

VI. Media influence

Exposure to anti drug messages

Helping the cause

VII. Prevention

a. Parents

B. Peers

c. Programs

d. Rehabilitation

VIII.. Relapse

a. Reason

b. Abstinence

VIIII. Decision

a. Reason for dependence and/or maltreatment

B. Affects of intervention

c. Problem today in the United States

Brooding Narrative

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