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# Sage 50 Accounting Software Tutorial

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Sage Tutorial Release 5. 3 The Sage Development Team September 10, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1. 1 Installation 1. 2 Ways to Use Sage . . 1. 3 Longterm Goals for Sage . . 3 4 4 4 7 7 9 10 13 18 21 24 26 29 33 38 39 41 51 51 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 60 61 62 65 65 66 67 68 2 A Guided Tour 2. 1 Assignment, Equality, and Arithmetic 2. Getting Help . 2. 3 Functions, Indentation, and Counting 2. 4 Basic Algebra and Calculus . . 2. 5 Plotting . 2. 6 Some Common Issues with Functions 2. 7 Basic Rings . . 2. 8 Linear Algebra 2. 9 Polynomials . 2. 10 Parents, Conversion and Coercion . . 2. 11 Finite Groups, Abelian Groups . 2. 12 Number Theory . . 2. 13 Some More Advanced Mathematics 3 The Interactive Shell 3. 1 Your Sage Session . . 3. 2 Logging Input and Output . 3. 3 Paste Ignores Prompts 3. 4 Timing Commands . . 3. 5 Other IPython tricks . 3. 6 Errors and Exceptions 3. 7 Reverse Search and Tab Completion . . 3. 8 Integrated Help System . 3. 9 Saving and Loading Individual Objects 3. 10 Saving and Loading Complete Sessions 3. 11 The Notebook Interface . . 4 Interfaces 4. 1 GP/PARI 4. 2 GAP . . 4. 3 Singular . 4. 4 Maxima i 5 Sage, LaTeX and Friends 5. 1 Overview . . 5. 2 Basic Use . . 5. 3 Customizing LaTeX Generation . . 5. 4 Customizing LaTeX Processing . . 5. 5 An Example: Combinatorial Graphs with tkz-graph . 5. 6 A Fully Capable TeX Installation . 5. 7 External Programs . 71 71 72 73 75 76 77 77 79 79 80 81 81 82 84 85 86 86 88 91 93 93 94 95 97 97 99 101 103 105 6 Programming 6. 1 Loading and Attaching Sage ? les 6. 2 Creating Compiled Code . 6. 3 Standalone Python/Sage Scripts . 6. 4 Data Types 6. 5 Lists, Tuples, and Sequences 6. 6 Dictionaries 6. 7 Sets . 6. 8 Iterators . . 6. 9 Loops, Functions, Control Statements, and Comparisons 6. 10 Pro? ling . 7 Using SageTeX 8 . . Afterword 8. 1 Why Python? . . 8. I would like to contribute somehow. How can I? . 8. 3 How do I reference Sage? . 9 Appendix 9. 1 Arithmetical binary operator precedence . . 10 Bibliography 11 Indices and tables Bibliography Index ii Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 Sage is free, open-source math software that supports research and teaching in algebra, geometry, number theory, cryptography, numerical computation, and related areas.

Both the Sage development model and the technology in Sage itself are distinguished by an extremely strong emphasis on openness, community, cooperation, and collaboration: we are building the car, not reinventing the wheel. The overall goal of Sage is to create a viable, free, open-source alternative to Maple, Mathematica, Magma, and MATLAB. This tutorial is the best way to become familiar with Sage in only a few hours. You can read it in HTML or PDF versions, or from the Sage notebook (click Help, then click Tutorial to interactively work through the tutorial from within Sage).

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. 0 License. CONTENTS 1 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 2 CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION This tutorial should take at most 3-4 hours to fully work through. You can read it in HTML or PDF versions, or from the Sage notebook click Help, then click Tutorial to interactively work through the tutorial from within Sage. Though much of Sage is implemented using Python, no Python background is needed to read this tutorial. You will want to learn Python (a very fun language! ) at some point, and there are many excellent free resources for doing so including [PyT] and [Dive].

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If you just want to quickly try out Sage, this tutorial is the place to start. For example: sage: 2 + 2 4 sage: factor(-2007) -1 * 3^2 * 223 sage: A = matrix(4,4, range(16)); A [ 0 1 2 3] [ 4 5 6 7] [ 8 9 10 11] [12 13 14 15] sage: factor(A. charpoly()) x^2 * (x^2 - 30*x - 80) sage: m = matrix(ZZ,2, range(4)) sage: m[0,0] = m[0,0] - 3 sage: m [-3 1] [ 2 3] sage: E = EllipticCurve([1,2,3,4,5]); sage: E Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 5 over Rational Field sage: E. anlist(10) [0, 1, 1, 0, -1, -3, 0, -1, -3, -3, -3] sage: E. ank() 1 sage: k = 1/(sqrt(3)*I + 3/4 + sqrt(73)*5/9); k 1/(I*sqrt(3) + 5/9*sqrt(73) + 3/4) sage: N(k) 0. 165495678130644 - 0. 0521492082074256*I sage: N(k,30) # 30 "bits" 0. 16549568 - 0. 052149208*I sage: latex(k) frac{1}{i , sqrt{3} + frac{5}{9} , sqrt{73} + frac{3}{4}} 3 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 1. 1 Installation If you do not have Sage installed on a computer and just want to try some commands, use online at http://www. sagenb. org. See the Sage Installation Guide in the documentation section of the main Sage webpage [SA] for instructions on installing Sage on your computer.

Chapter 1. Introduction Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 in a paper you publish, you can rest assured that your readers will always have free access to Sage and all its source code, and you are even allowed to archive and re-distribute the version of Sage you used. • Easy to compile: Sage should be easy to compile from source for Linux, OS X and Windows users. This provides more ? exibility for users to modify the system. • Cooperation: Provide robust interfaces to most other computer algebra systems, including PARI, GAP, Singular, Maxima, KASH, Magma, Maple, and Mathematica.

Sage is meant to unify and extend existing math software. • Well documented: Tutorial, programming guide, reference manual, and how-to, with numerous examples and discussion of background mathematics. • Extensible: Be able to de? ne new data types or derive from built-in types, and use code written in a range of languages. • User friendly: It should be easy to understand what functionality is provided for a given object and to view documentation and source code. Also attain a high level of user support. 1. 3. Longterm Goals for Sage 5

Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 6 Chapter 1. Introduction CHAPTER TWO A GUIDED TOUR This section is a guided tour of some of what is available in Sage. For many more examples, see “Sage Constructions”, which is intended to answer the general question “How do I construct ? ”. See also the “Sage Reference Manual”, which has thousands more examples. Also note that you can interactively work through this tour in the Sage notebook by clicking the Help link. (If you are viewing the tutorial in the Sage notebook, press shift-enter to evaluate any input cell.

You can even edit the input before pressing shift-enter. On some Macs you might have to press shift-return rather than shift-enter. ) 2. 1 Assignment, Equality, and Arithmetic With some minor exceptions, Sage uses the Python programming language, so most introductory books on Python will help you to learn Sage. Sage uses = for assignment. It uses ==, =, < and > for comparison: sage: sage: 5 sage: True sage: False sage: True sage: True a = 5 a 2 == 2 2 == 3 2 < 3 a == 5 Sage provides all of the basic mathematical operations: age: 8 sage: 8 sage: 1 sage: 5/2 sage: 2 sage: True 2**3 2^3 10 % 3 10/4 10//4 # for integer arguments, // returns the integer quotient # # # ** means exponent ^ is a synonym for ** (unlike in Python) for integer arguments, % means mod, i. e. , remainder 4 * (10 // 4) + 10 % 4 == 10 7 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: 3^2*4 + 2%5 38 The computation of an expression like 3^2*4 + 2%5 depends on the order in which the operations are applied; this is speci? ed in the “operator precedence table” in Arithmetical binary operator precedence. Sage also provides many familiar mathematical functions; here are just a few examples: sage: sqrt(3. ) 1. 84390889145858 sage: sin(5. 135) -0. 912021158525540 sage: sin(pi/3) 1/2*sqrt(3) As the last example shows, some mathematical expressions return ‘exact’ values, rather than numerical approximations. To get a numerical approximation, use either the function n or the method n (and both of these have a longer name, numerical_approx, and the function N is the same as n)). These take optional arguments prec, which is the requested number of bits of precision, and digits, which is the requested number of decimal digits of precision; the default is 53 bits of precision. sage: exp(2) e^2 sage: n(exp(2)) 7. 8905609893065 sage: sqrt(pi). numerical_approx() 1. 77245385090552 sage: sin(10). n(digits=5) -0. 54402 sage: N(sin(10),digits=10) -0. 5440211109 sage: numerical_approx(pi, prec=200) 3. 1415926535897932384626433832795028841971693993751058209749 Python is dynamically typed, so the value referred to by each variable has a type associated with it, but a given variable may hold values of any Python type within a given scope: sage: sage: The C programming language, which is statically typed, is much different; a variable declared to hold an int can only hold an int in its scope.

A potential source of confusion in Python is that an integer literal that begins with a zero is treated as an octal number, i. e. , a number in base 8. sage: 9 sage: 9 sage: sage: ’11’ 011 8 + 1 n = 011 n. str(8) # string representation of n in base 8 8 Chapter 2. A Guided Tour Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 This is consistent with the C programming language. 2. 2 Getting Help Sage has extensive built-in documentation, accessible by typing the name of a function or a constant (for example), followed by a question mark: sage: tan?

Type: Definition: Docstring: tan( [noargspec] ) The tangent function EXAMPLES: sage: tan(pi) 0 sage: tan(3. 1415) -0. 0000926535900581913 sage: tan(3. 1415/4) 0. 999953674278156 sage: tan(pi/4) 1 sage: tan(1/2) tan(1/2) sage: RR(tan(1/2)) 0. 546302489843790 sage: log2? Type: Definition: log2( [noargspec] ) Docstring: The natural logarithm of the real number 2. EXAMPLES: sage: log2 log2 sage: float(log2) 0. 69314718055994529 sage: RR(log2) 0. 693147180559945 sage: R = RealField(200); R Real Field with 200 bits of precision sage: R(log2) 0. 9314718055994530941723212145817656807550013436025525412068 sage: l = (1-log2)/(1+log2); l (1 - log(2))/(log(2) + 1) sage: R(l) 0. 18123221829928249948761381864650311423330609774776013488056 sage: maxima(log2) log(2) sage: maxima(log2). float() . 6931471805599453 sage: gp(log2) 0. 6931471805599453094172321215 # 32-bit 0. 69314718055994530941723212145817656807 # 64-bit sage: sudoku? 2. 2. Getting Help 9 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 File: Type: Definition: Docstring: sage/local/lib/python2. 5/site-packages/sage/games/sudoku. py sudoku(A) Solve the 9x9 Sudoku puzzle defined by the matrix A.

EXAMPLE: sage: A = matrix(ZZ,9,[5,0,0, 0,8,0, 0,4,9, 0,0,0, 5,0,0, 0,3,0, 0,6,7, 3,0,0, 0,0,1, 1,5,0, 0,0,0, 0,0,0, 0,0,0, 2,0,8, 0,0,0, 0,0,0, 0,0,0, 0,1,8, 7,0,0, 0,0,4, 1,5,0, 0,3,0, 0,0,2, 0,0,0, 4,9,0, 0,5,0, 0,0,3]) sage: A [5 0 0 0 8 0 0 4 9] [0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0] [0 6 7 3 0 0 0 0 1] [1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0] [0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0] [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8] [7 0 0 0 0 4 1 5 0] [0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0] [4 9 0 0 5 0 0 0 3] sage: sudoku(A) [5 1 3 6 8 7 2 4 9] [8 4 9 5 2 1 6 3 7] [2 6 7 3 4 9 5 8 1] [1 5 8 4 6 3 9 7 2] [9 7 4 2 1 8 3 6 5] [3 2 6 7 9 5 4 1 8] [7 8 2 9 3 4 1 5 6] [6 3 5 1 7 2 8 9 4] [4 9 1 8 5 6 7 2 3]

Sage also provides ‘Tab completion’: type the ? rst few letters of a function and then hit the tab key. For example, if you type ta followed by TAB, Sage will print tachyon, tan, tanh, taylor. This provides a good way to ? nd the names of functions and other structures in Sage. 2. 3 Functions, Indentation, and Counting To de? ne a new function in Sage, use the def command and a colon after the list of variable names. For example: sage: def is_even(n): return n%2 == 0 sage: is_even(2) True sage: is_even(3) False Note: Depending on which version of the tutorial you are viewing, you may see three dots n the second line of this example. Do not type them; they are just to emphasize that the code is indented. Whenever this is the case, press [Return/Enter] once at the end of the block to insert a blank line and conclude the function de? nition. You do not specify the types of any of the input arguments. You can specify multiple inputs, each of which may have an optional default value. For example, the function below defaults to divisor=2 if divisor is not speci? ed. 10 Chapter 2. A Guided Tour Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: sage: True sage: True sage: False ef is_divisible_by(number, divisor=2): return number%divisor == 0 is_divisible_by(6,2) is_divisible_by(6) is_divisible_by(6, 5) You can also explicitly specify one or either of the inputs when calling the function; if you specify the inputs explicitly, you can give them in any order: sage: is_divisible_by(6, divisor=5) False sage: is_divisible_by(divisor=2, number=6) True In Python, blocks of code are not indicated by curly braces or begin and end blocks as in many other languages. Instead, blocks of code are indicated by indentation, which must match up exactly.

For example, the following is a syntax error because the return statement is not indented the same amount as the other lines above it. sage: def even(n): v = [] for i in range(3,n): if i % 2 == 0: v. append(i) return v Syntax Error: return v If you ? x the indentation, the function works: sage: def even(n): v = [] for i in range(3,n): if i % 2 == 0: v. append(i) return v sage: even(10) [4, 6, 8] Semicolons are not needed at the ends of lines; a line is in most cases ended by a newline. However, you can put multiple statements on one line, separated by semicolons: sage: a = 5; b = a + 3; c = b^2; c 64

If you would like a single line of code to p multiple lines, use a terminating backslash: sage: 2 + 3 5 In Sage, you count by iterating over a range of integers. For example, the ? rst line below is exactly like for(i=0; i x^2 sage: g(3) 9 sage: Dg = g. derivative(); Dg x |--> 2*x sage: Dg(3) 6 sage: type(g) sage: plot(g, 0, 2) Note that while g is a callable symbolic expression, g(x) is a related, but different sort of object, which can also be plotted, differentated, etc. , albeit with some issues: see item 5 below for an illustration. sage: x^2 sage: g(x). derivative() plot(g(x), 0, 2) 3. Use a pre-de? ed Sage ‘calculus function’. These can be plotted, and with a little help, differentiated, and integrated. sage: type(sin) sage: plot(sin, 0, 2) sage: type(sin(x)) sage: plot(sin(x), 0, 2) By itself, sin cannot be differentiated, at least not to produce cos. sage: f = sin sage: f. derivative() Traceback (most recent call last): AttributeError: Using f = sin(x) instead of sin works, but it is probably even better to use f(x) = sin(x) to de? ne a callable symbolic expression. sage: S(x) = sin(x) sage: S. derivative() x |--> cos(x) Here are some common problems, with explanations: 4. Accidental evaluation. sage: def h(x): f x 1 to 0. sage: G = DirichletGroup(12) sage: G. list() [Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 1 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 4 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 3 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> -1, Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 12 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> -1] sage: G. gens() (Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 4 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 3 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> -1) sage: len(G) 4 Having created the group, we next create an element and compute with it. age: G = DirichletGroup(21) sage: chi = G. 1; chi Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> zeta6 sage: chi. values() [0, 1, zeta6 - 1, 0, -zeta6, -zeta6 + 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, zeta6, -zeta6, 0, -1, 0, 0, zeta6 - 1, zeta6, 0, -zeta6 + 1, -1] sage: chi. conductor() 7 sage: chi. modulus() 21 sage: chi. order() 6 sage: chi(19) -zeta6 + 1 sage: chi(40) -zeta6 + 1 It is also possible to compute the action of the Galois group Gal(Q(? N )/Q) on these characters, as well as the direct product decomposition corresponding to the factorization of the modulus. sage: chi. alois_orbit() [Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> zeta6, 2. 13. Some More Advanced Mathematics 45 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> -zeta6 + 1] sage: go = G. galois_orbits() sage: [len(orbit) for orbit in go] [1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1] sage: [ Group 6 and Group 6 and ] G. decomposition() of Dirichlet characters of modulus 3 over Cyclotomic Field of order degree 2, of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Cyclotomic Field of order degree 2 Next, we construct the group of Dirichlet characters mod 20, but with values n Q(i): sage: sage: sage: Group K. = NumberField(x^2+1) G = DirichletGroup(20,K) G of Dirichlet characters of modulus 20 over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1 We next compute several invariants of G: sage: G. gens() (Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> i) sage: G. unit_gens() [11, 17] sage: G. zeta() i sage: G. zeta_order() 4 In this example we create a Dirichlet character with values in a number ? eld. We explicitly specify the choice of root of unity by the third argument to DirichletGroup below. age: x = polygen(QQ, ’x’) sage: K = NumberField(x^4 + 1, ’a’); a = K. 0 sage: b = K. gen(); a == b True sage: K Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^4 + 1 sage: G = DirichletGroup(5, K, a); G Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^4 + 1 sage: chi = G. 0; chi Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> a^2 sage: [(chi^i)(2) for i in range(4)] [1, a^2, -1, -a^2] Here NumberField(x^4 + 1, ’a’) tells Sage to use the symbol “a” in printing what K is (a Number Field in a with de? ning polynomial x4 + 1). The name “a” is undeclared at this point.

Once a = K. 0 (or equivalently a = K. gen()) is evaluated, the symbol “a” represents a root of the generating polynomial x4 + 1. 46 Chapter 2. A Guided Tour Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 2. 13. 4 Modular Forms Sage can do some computations related to modular forms, including dimensions, computing spaces of modular symbols, Hecke operators, and decompositions. There are several functions available for computing dimensions of spaces of modular forms. For example, sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma0(11),2) 1 sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma0(1),12) 1 sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma1(389),2) 6112

Next we illustrate computation of Hecke operators on a space of modular symbols of level 1 and weight 12. sage: M = ModularSymbols(1,12) sage: M. basis() ([X^8*Y^2,(0,0)], [X^9*Y,(0,0)], [X^10,(0,0)]) sage: t2 = M. T(2) sage: t2 Hecke operator T_2 on Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(1) of weight 12 with sign 0 over Rational Field sage: t2. matrix() [ -24 0 0] [ 0 -24 0] [4860 0 2049] sage: f = t2. charpoly(’x’); f x^3 - 2001*x^2 - 97776*x - 1180224 sage: factor(f) (x - 2049) * (x + 24)^2 sage: M. T(11). charpoly(’x’). factor() (x - 285311670612) * (x - 534612)^2

We can also create spaces for ? 0 (N ) and ? 1 (N ). sage: ModularSymbols(11,2) Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(11) of weight 2 with sign 0 over Rational Field sage: ModularSymbols(Gamma1(11),2) Modular Symbols space of dimension 11 for Gamma_1(11) of weight 2 with sign 0 and over Rational Field Let’s compute some characteristic polynomials and q-expansions. sage: M = ModularSymbols(Gamma1(11),2) sage: M. T(2). charpoly(’x’) x^11 - 8*x^10 + 20*x^9 + 10*x^8 - 145*x^7 + 229*x^6 + 58*x^5 - 360*x^4 + 70*x^3 - 515*x^2 + 1804*x - 1452 sage: M. T(2). charpoly(’x’). actor() (x - 3) * (x + 2)^2 * (x^4 - 7*x^3 + 19*x^2 - 23*x + 11) * (x^4 - 2*x^3 + 4*x^2 + 2*x + 11) sage: S = M. cuspidal_submodule() sage: S. T(2). matrix() [-2 0] [ 0 -2] sage: S. q_expansion_basis(10) [ q - 2*q^2 - q^3 + 2*q^4 + q^5 + 2*q^6 - 2*q^7 - 2*q^9 + O(q^10) ] 2. 13. Some More Advanced Mathematics 47 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 We can even compute spaces of modular symbols with character. sage: G = DirichletGroup(13) sage: e = G. 0^2 sage: M = ModularSymbols(e,2); M Modular Symbols space of dimension 4 and level 13, weight 2, character [zeta6], sign 0, over Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2 sage: M.

T(2). charpoly(’x’). factor() (x - 2*zeta6 - 1) * (x - zeta6 - 2) * (x + zeta6 + 1)^2 sage: S = M. cuspidal_submodule(); S Modular Symbols subspace of dimension 2 of Modular Symbols space of dimension 4 and level 13, weight 2, character [zeta6], sign 0, over Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2 sage: S. T(2). charpoly(’x’). factor() (x + zeta6 + 1)^2 sage: S. q_expansion_basis(10) [ q + (-zeta6 - 1)*q^2 + (2*zeta6 - 2)*q^3 + zeta6*q^4 + (-2*zeta6 + 1)*q^5 + (-2*zeta6 + 4)*q^6 + (2*zeta6 - 1)*q^8 - zeta6*q^9 + O(q^10) ]

Here is another example of how Sage can compute the action of Hecke operators on a space of modular forms. sage: T = ModularForms(Gamma0(11),2) sage: T Modular Forms space of dimension 2 for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of weight 2 over Rational Field sage: T. degree() 2 sage: T. level() 11 sage: T. group() Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) sage: T. dimension() 2 sage: T. cuspidal_subspace() Cuspidal subspace of dimension 1 of Modular Forms space of dimension 2 for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of weight 2 over Rational Field sage: T. isenstein_subspace() Eisenstein subspace of dimension 1 of Modular Forms space of dimension 2 for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of weight 2 over Rational Field sage: M = ModularSymbols(11); M Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(11) of weight 2 with sign 0 over Rational Field sage: M. weight() 2 sage: M. basis() ((1,0), (1,8), (1,9)) sage: M. sign() 0 Let Tp denote the usual Hecke operators (p prime). How do the Hecke operators T2 , T3 , T5 act on the space of modular symbols? sage: M. T(2). matrix() [ 3 0 -1] [ 0 -2 0] [ 0 0 -2] sage: M. T(3). matrix() [ 4 0 -1] 8 Chapter 2. A Guided Tour Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 [ 0 -1 0] [ 0 0 -1] sage: M. T(5). matrix() [ 6 0 -1] [ 0 1 0] [ 0 0 1] 2. 13. Some More Advanced Mathematics 49 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 50 Chapter 2. A Guided Tour CHAPTER THREE THE INTERACTIVE SHELL In most of this tutorial, we assume you start the Sage interpreter using the sage command. This starts a customized version of the IPython shell, and imports many functions and classes, so they are ready to use from the command prompt. Further customization is possible by editing the \$SAGE_ROOT/ipythonrc ? le.

Upon starting Sage, you get output similar to the following: ---------------------------------------------------------------------| SAGE Version 3. 1. 1, Release Date: 2008-05-24 | | Type notebook() for the GUI, and license() for information. | ---------------------------------------------------------------------- sage: To quit Sage either press Ctrl-D or type quit or exit. sage: quit Exiting SAGE (CPU time 0m0. 00s, Wall time 0m0. 89s) The wall time is the time that elapsed on the clock hanging from your wall. This is relevant, since CPU time does not track time used by subprocesses like GAP or Singular. Avoid killing a Sage process with kill -9 from a terminal, since Sage might not kill child processes, e. g. , Maple processes, or cleanup temporary ? les from \$HOME/. sage/tmp. ) 3. 1 Your Sage Session The session is the sequence of input and output from when you start Sage until you quit. Sage logs all Sage input, via IPython. In fact, if you’re using the interactive shell (not the notebook interface), then at any point you may type %history (or %hist) to get a listing of all input lines typed so far. You can type ? at the Sage prompt to ? nd out more about IPython, e. g. “IPython offers numbered prompts with input and output caching. All input is saved and can be retrieved as variables (besides the usual arrow key recall). The following GLOBAL variables always exist (so don’t overwrite them! )”: _: previous input (interactive shell and notebook) __: next previous input (interactive shell only) _oh : list of all inputs (interactive shell only) Here is an example: sage: factor(100) _1 = 2^2 * 5^2 sage: kronecker_symbol(3,5) 51 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 _2 = -1 sage: %hist #This only works from the interactive shell, not the notebook. : factor(100) 2: kronecker_symbol(3,5) 3: %hist sage: _oh _4 = {1: 2^2 * 5^2, 2: -1} sage: _i1 _5 = ’factor(ZZ(100))
’ sage: eval(_i1) _6 = 2^2 * 5^2 sage: %hist 1: factor(100) 2: kronecker_symbol(3,5) 3: %hist 4: _oh 5: _i1 6: eval(_i1) 7: %hist We omit the output numbering in the rest of this tutorial and the other Sage documentation. You can also store a list of input from session in a macro for that session. sage: E = EllipticCurve([1,2,3,4,5]) sage: M = ModularSymbols(37) sage: %hist 1: E = EllipticCurve([1,2,3,4,5]) 2: M = ModularSymbols(37) 3: %hist sage: %macro em 1-2 Macro ‘em‘ created.

To execute, type its name (without quotes). sage: E Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 5 over Rational Field sage: E = 5 sage: M = None sage: em Executing Macro sage: E Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 5 over Rational Field When using the interactive shell, any UNIX shell command can be executed from Sage by prefacing it by an exclamation point !. For example, sage: ! ls auto example. sage glossary. tex t tmp tut. log tut. tex returns the listing of the current directory. The PATH has the Sage bin directory at the front, so if you run gp, gap, singular, maxima, etc. you get the versions included with Sage. sage: ! gp Reading GPRC: /etc/gprc Done. GP/PARI CALCULATOR Version 2. 2. 11 (alpha) i686 running linux (ix86/GMP-4. 1. 4 kernel) 32-bit version 52 Chapter 3. The Interactive Shell Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: ! singular SINGULAR A Computer Algebra System for Polynomial Computations 0< by: G. -M. Greuel, G. Pfister, H. Schoenemann FB Mathematik der Universitaet, D-67653 Kaiserslautern October 2005 / / Development version 3-0-1 3. 2 Logging Input and Output Logging your Sage session is not the same as saving it (see Saving and Loading Complete Sessions for that).

To log input (and optionally output) use the logstart command. Type logstart? for more details. You can use this command to log all input you type, all output, and even play back that input in a future session (by simply reloading the log ? le). was@form:~\$ sage ---------------------------------------------------------------------| SAGE Version 3. 0. 2, Release Date: 2008-05-24 | | Type notebook() for the GUI, and license() for information. | ---------------------------------------------------------------------sage: logstart setup Activating auto-logging. Current session state plus future input saved.

Filename : setup Mode : backup Output logging : False Timestamping : False State : active sage: E = EllipticCurve([1,2,3,4,5]). minimal_model() sage: F = QQ^3 sage: x,y = QQ[’x,y’]. gens() sage: G = E. gens() sage: Exiting SAGE (CPU time 0m0. 61s, Wall time 0m50. 39s). was@form:~\$ sage ---------------------------------------------------------------------| SAGE Version 3. 0. 2, Release Date: 2008-05-24 | | Type notebook() for the GUI, and license() for information. | ---------------------------------------------------------------------sage: load "setup" Loading log file one line at a time

Finished replaying log file sage: E Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 - x^2 + 4*x + 3 over Rational Field sage: x*y x*y sage: G [(2 : 3 : 1)] If you use Sage in the Linux KDE terminal konsole then you can save your session as follows: after starting Sage in konsole, select “settings”, then “history ”, then “set unlimited”. When you are ready to save your session, select “edit” then “save history as ” and type in a name to save the text of your session to your computer. After saving this ? le, you could then load it into an editor, such as xemacs, and print it. 3. 2. Logging Input and Output 53 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 3. Paste Ignores Prompts Suppose you are reading a session of Sage or Python computations and want to copy them into Sage. But there are annoying >>> or sage: prompts to worry about. In fact, you can copy and paste an example, including the prompts if you want, into Sage. In other words, by default the Sage parser strips any leading >>> or sage: prompt before passing it to Python. For example, sage: 2^10 1024 sage: sage: sage: 2^10 1024 sage: >>> 2^10 1024 3. 4 Timing Commands If you place the %time command at the beginning of an input line, the time the command takes to run will be displayed after the output.

For example, we can compare the running time for a certain exponentiation operation in several ways. The timings below will probably be much different on your computer, or even between different versions of Sage. First, native Python: sage: %time a = int(1938)^int(99484) CPU times: user 0. 66 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: 0. 66 s Wall time: 0. 66 This means that 0. 66 seconds total were taken, and the “Wall time”, i. e. , the amount of time that elapsed on your wall clock, is also 0. 66 seconds. If your computer is heavily loaded with other programs, the wall time may be much larger than the CPU time.

Next we time exponentiation using the native Sage Integer type, which is implemented (in Cython) using the GMP library: sage: %time a = 1938^99484 CPU times: user 0. 04 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: 0. 04 s Wall time: 0. 04 Using the PARI C-library interface: sage: %time a = pari(1938)^pari(99484) CPU times: user 0. 05 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: 0. 05 s Wall time: 0. 05 GMP is better, but only slightly (as expected, since the version of PARI built for Sage uses GMP for integer arithmetic). You can also time a block of commands using the cputime command, as illustrated below: sage: sage: sage: sage: sage: 0. 4 t = cputime() a = int(1938)^int(99484) b = 1938^99484 c = pari(1938)^pari(99484) cputime(t) # somewhat random output sage: cputime? Return the time in CPU second since SAGE started, or with optional argument t, return the time since time t. 54 Chapter 3. The Interactive Shell Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 INPUT: t -- (optional) float, time in CPU seconds OUTPUT: float -- time in CPU seconds The walltime command behaves just like the cputime command, except that it measures wall time. We can also compute the above power in some of the computer algebra systems that Sage includes.

In each case we execute a trivial command in the system, in order to start up the server for that program. The most relevant time is the wall time. However, if there is a signi? cant difference between the wall time and the CPU time then this may indicate a performance issue worth looking into. sage: time 1938^99484; CPU times: user 0. 01 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 01 sage: gp(0) 0 sage: time g = gp(’1938^99484’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 04 sage: maxima(0) 0 sage: time g = maxima(’1938^99484’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 0 sage: kash(0) 0 sage: time g = kash(’1938^99484’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 04 sage: mathematica(0) 0 sage: time g = mathematica(’1938^99484’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 03 sage: maple(0) 0 sage: time g = maple(’1938^99484’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 0. 11 sage: gap(0) 0 sage: time g = gap. eval(’1938^99484;;’) CPU times: user 0. 00 s, sys: 0. 00 s, total: Wall time: 1. 02 0. 01 s 0. 00 s 0. 00 s 0. 00 s 0. 00 s 0. 00 s 0. 00 s Note that GAP and Maxima are the slowest in this test (this was run on the machine sage. ath. washington. edu). Because of the pexpect interface overhead, it is perhaps unfair to compare these to Sage, which is the fastest. 3. 5 Other IPython tricks As noted above, Sage uses IPython as its front end, and so you can use any of IPython’s commands and features. You can read the full IPython documentation. Meanwhile, here are some fun tricks – these are called “Magic commands” in IPython: • You can use %bg to run a command in the background, and then use jobs to access the results, as follows. 3. 5. Other IPython tricks 55 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 The comments not tested are here because the %bg syntax doesn’t work well with Sage’s automatic testing facility. If you type this in yourself, it should work as written. This is of course most useful with commands which take a while to complete. ) sage: def quick(m): return 2*m sage: %bg quick(20) # not tested Starting job # 0 in a separate thread. sage: jobs. status() # not tested Completed jobs: 0 : quick(20) sage: jobs. result # the actual answer, not tested 40 Note that jobs run in the background don’t use the Sage preparser – see The Pre-Parser: Differences between Sage and Python for more information.

One (perhaps awkward) way to get around this would be to run sage: %bg eval(preparse(’quick(20)’)) # not tested It is safer and easier, though, to just use %bg on commands which don’t require the preparser. • You can use %edit (or %ed or ed) to open an editor, if you want to type in some complex code. Before you start Sage, make sure that the EDITOR environment variable is set to your favorite editor (by putting export EDITOR=/usr/bin/emacs or export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim or something similar in the appropriate place, like a . profile ? le). From the Sage prompt, executing %edit will open up the named editor. Then within the editor you can de? e a function: def some_function(n): return n**2 + 3*n + 2 Save and quit from the editor. For the rest of your Sage session, you can then use some_function. If you want to modify it, type %edit some_function from the Sage prompt. • If you have a computation and you want to modify its output for another use, perform the computation and type %rep: this will place the output from the previous command at the Sage prompt, ready for you to edit it. sage: f(x) = cos(x) sage: f(x). derivative(x) -sin(x) At this point, if you type %rep at the Sage prompt, you will get a new Sage prompt, followed by -sin(x), with the cursor at the end of the line.

For more, type %quickref to get a quick reference guide to IPython. As of this writing (April 2011), Sage uses version 0. 9. 1 of IPython, and the documentation for its magic commands is available online. 3. 6 Errors and Exceptions When something goes wrong, you will usually see a Python “exception”. Python even tries to suggest what raised the exception. Often you see the name of the exception, e. g. , NameError or ValueError (see the Python Reference Manual [Py] for a complete list of exceptions). For example, sage: 3_2 -----------------------------------------------------------File "", line 1 ZZ(3)_2 ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax 6 Chapter 3. The Interactive Shell Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: EllipticCurve([0,infinity]) -----------------------------------------------------------Traceback (most recent call last): TypeError: Unable to coerce Infinity () to Rational The interactive debugger is sometimes useful for understanding what went wrong. You can toggle it on or off using %pdb (the default is off). The prompt ipdb> appears if an exception is raised and the debugger is on. From within the debugger, you can print the state of any local variable, and move up and down the execution stack.

For example, sage: %pdb Automatic pdb calling has been turned ON sage: EllipticCurve([1,infinity]) -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Traceback (most recent call last) ipdb> For a list of commands in the debugger, type ? at the ipdb> prompt: ipdb> ? Documented commands (type help ): ======================================== EOF break commands debug h a bt condition disable help alias c cont down ignore args cl continue enable j b clear d exit jump whatis where Miscellaneous help topics: ========================== exec pdb Undocumented commands: ====================== retval rv list n next p pdef pdoc pinfo pp q quit r return s step tbreak u unalias up w Type Ctrl-D or quit to return to Sage. 3. 7 Reverse Search and Tab Completion Reverse search: Type the beginning of a command, then Ctrl-p (or just hit the up arrow key) to go back to each line you have entered that begins in that way. This works even if you completely exit Sage and restart later. You can also do a reverse search through the history using Ctrl-r. All these features use the readline package, which is available on most ? avors of Linux. To illustrate tab completion, ? st create the three dimensional vector space V = Q3 as follows: sage: V = VectorSpace(QQ,3) sage: V Vector space of dimension 3 over Rational Field You can also use the following more concise notation: 3. 7. Reverse Search and Tab Completion 57 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: V = QQ^3 Then it is easy to list all member functions for V using tab completion. Just type V. , then type the [tab key] key on your keyboard: sage: V. [tab key] V. _VectorSpace_generic__base_field V. ambient_space V. base_field V. base_ring V. basis V. coordinates V. zero_vector If you type the ? st few letters of a function, then [tab key], you get only functions that begin as indicated. sage: V. i[tab key] V. is_ambient V. is_dense V. is_full V. is_sparse If you wonder what a particular function does, e. g. , the coordinates function, type V. coordinates? for help or V. coordinates?? for the source code, as explained in the next section. 3. 8 Integrated Help System Sage features an integrated help facility. Type a function name followed by ? for the documentation for that function. sage: V = QQ^3 sage: V. coordinates? Type: instancemethod Base Class: String Form: Namespace: Interactive File: /home/was/s/local/lib/python2. /site-packages/sage/modules/f ree_module. py Definition: V. coordinates(self, v) Docstring: Write v in terms of the basis for self. Returns a list c such that if B is the basis for self, then sum c_i B_i = v. If v is not in self, raises an ArithmeticError exception. EXAMPLES: sage: M = FreeModule(IntegerRing(), 2); M0,M1=M. gens() sage: W = M. submodule([M0 + M1, M0 - 2*M1]) sage: W. coordinates(2*M0-M1) [2, -1] As shown above, the output tells you the type of the object, the ? le in which it is de? ned, and a useful description of the function with examples that you can paste into your current session.

Almost all of these examples are regularly automatically tested to make sure they work and behave exactly as claimed. 58 Chapter 3. The Interactive Shell Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 Another feature that is very much in the spirit of the open source nature of Sage is that if f is a Python function, then typing f?? displays the source code that de? nes f. For example, sage: V = QQ^3 sage: V. coordinates?? Type: instancemethod Source: def coordinates(self, v): """ Write \$v\$ in terms of the basis for self. """ return self. coordinate_vector(v). list()

This tells us that all the coordinates function does is call the coordinate_vector function and change the result into a list. What does the coordinate_vector function do? sage: V = QQ^3 sage: V. coordinate_vector?? def coordinate_vector(self, v): return self. ambient_vector_space()(v) The coordinate_vector function coerces its input into the ambient space, which has the effect of computing the vector of coef? cients of v in terms of V . The space V is already ambient since it’s just Q3 . There is also a coordinate_vector function for subspaces, and it’s different.

Eval: Make it easy to evaluate arbitrary code in the interpreter (e. g. , Singular, PARI). Because Sage uses Python, it takes a different approach, which is that every object can be serialized, i. e. , turned into a string from which that object can be recovered. This is in spirit similar to the uni? ed I/O approach of PARI, except it doesn’t have the drawback that objects print to screen in too complicated of a way. Also, support for saving and loading is (in most cases) completely automatic, requiring no extra programming; it’s simply a feature of Python that was designed into the language from the ground up.

Saved objects can be re-loaded later on computers with different architectures or operating systems, e. g. , you could save a huge matrix on 32-bit OS X and reload it on 64-bit Linux, ? nd the echelon form, then move it back. Also, in many cases you can even load objects into versions of Sage that are different than the versions they were saved in, as long as the code for that object isn’t too different. All the attributes of the objects are saved, along with the class (but not source code) that de? nes the object. If that class no longer exists in a new version of Sage, then the object can’t be reloaded in that newer version.

For help on a Sage command, cmd, in the notebook browser box, type cmd? ). and now hit (not For help on the keyboard shortcuts available in the notebook interface, click on the Help link. 3. 11. The Notebook Interface 63 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 64 Chapter 3. The Interactive Shell CHAPTER FOUR INTERFACES A central facet of Sage is that it supports computation with objects in many different computer algebra systems “under one roof” using a common interface and clean programming language. The console and interact methods of an interface do very different things. For example, using GAP as an example: 1. gap. onsole(): This opens the GAP console - it transfers control to GAP. Here Sage is serving as nothing more than a convenient program launcher, similar to the Linux bash shell. 2. gap. interact(): This is a convenient way to interact with a running GAP instance that may be “full of” Sage objects. You can import Sage objects into this GAP session (even from the interactive interface), etc. 4. 1 GP/PARI PARI is a compact, very mature, highly optimized C program whose primary focus is number theory. There are two very distinct interfaces that you can use in Sage: • gp - the “G o P ARI” interpreter, and • pari - the PARI C libraxry.

For example, the following are two ways of doing the same thing. They look identical, but the output is actually different, and what happens behind the scenes is drastically different. sage: gp(’znprimroot(10007)’) Mod(5, 10007) sage: pari(’znprimroot(10007)’) Mod(5, 10007) In the ? rst case, a separate copy of the GP interpreter is started as a server, and the string ’znprimroot(10007)’ is sent to it, evaluated by GP, and the result is assigned to a variable in GP (which takes up space in the child GP processes memory that won’t be freed). Then the value of that variable is displayed.

In the second case, no separate program is started, and the string ’znprimroot(10007)’ is evaluated by a certain PARI C library function. The result is stored in a piece of memory on the Python heap, which is freed when the variable is no longer referenced. The objects have different types: sage: type(gp(’znprimroot(10007)’)) sage: type(pari(’znprimroot(10007)’)) So which should you use? It depends on what you’re doing. The GP interface can do absolutely anything you could do in the usual GP/PARI command line program, since it is running that program. In particular, you can load complicated PARI programs and run them.

In contrast, the PARI interface (via the C library) is much more restrictive. First, not all 65 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 member functions have been implemented. Second, a lot of code, e. g. , involving numerical integration, won’t work via the PARI interface. That said, the PARI interface can be signi? cantly faster and more robust than the GP one. (If the GP interface runs out of memory evaluating a given input line, it will silently and automatically double the stack size and retry that input line. Thus your computation won’t crash if you didn’t correctly anticipate the amount of memory that would be needed.

This is a nice trick the usual GP interpreter doesn’t seem to provide. Regarding the PARI C library interface, it immediately copies each created object off of the PARI stack, hence the stack never grows. However, each object must not exceed 100MB in size, or the stack will over? ow when the object is being created. This extra copying does impose a slight performance penalty. ) In summary, Sage uses the PARI C library to provide functionality similar to that provided by the GP/PARI interpreter, except with different sophisticated memory management and the Python programming language. First we create a PARI list from a Python list. age: v = pari([1,2,3,4,5]) sage: v [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] sage: type(v) Every PARI object is of type py_pari. gen. The PARI type of the underlying object can be obtained using the type member function. sage: v. type() ’t_VEC’ In PARI, to create an elliptic curve we enter ellinit([1,2,3,4,5]). Sage is similar, except that ellinit is a method that can be called on any PARI object, e. g. , our t_VEC v. sage: e = v. ellinit() sage: e. type() ’t_VEC’ sage: pari(e)[:13] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 29, 35, -183, -3429, -10351, 6128487/10351] Now that we have an elliptic curve object, we can compute some things about it. age: e. elltors() [1, [], []] sage: e. ellglobalred() [10351, [1, -1, 0, -1], 1] sage: f = e. ellchangecurve([1,-1,0,-1]) sage: f[:5] [1, -1, 0, 4, 3] 4. 2 GAP Sage comes with GAP 4. 4. 10 for computational discrete mathematics, especially group theory. Here’s an example of GAP’s IdGroup function, which uses the optional small groups database that has to be installed separately, as explained below. sage: G = gap(’Group((1,2,3)(4,5), (3,4))’) sage: G Group( [ (1,2,3)(4,5), (3,4) ] ) sage: G. Center() Group( () ) 66 Chapter 4. Interfaces Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: G.

IdGroup() [ 120, 34 ] sage: G. Order() 120 # requires optional database_gap package We can do the same computation in Sage without explicitly invoking the GAP interface as follows: sage: G = PermutationGroup([[(1,2,3),(4,5)],[(3,4)]]) sage: G. center() Subgroup of (Permutation Group with generators [(3,4), (1,2,3)(4,5)]) generated by [()] sage: G. group_id() # requires optional database_gap package [120, 34] sage: n = G. order(); n 120 (For some GAP functionality, you should install two optional Sage packages. Type sage -optional for a list and choose the one that looks like gap_packages-x. . z, then type sage -i gap_packages-x. y. z. Do the same for database_gap-x. y. z. Some non-GPL’d GAP packages may be installed by downloading them from the GAP web site [GAPkg], and unpacking them in \$SAGE_ROOT/local/lib/gap-4. 4. 10/pkg. ) 4. 3 Singular Singular provides a massive and mature library for Grobner bases, multivariate polynomial gcds, bases of RiemannRoch spaces of a plane curve, and factorizations, among other things. We illustrate multivariate polynomial factorization using the Sage interface to Singular (do not type the ): sage: R1 = singular. ing(0, ’(x,y)’, ’dp’) sage: R1 // characteristic : 0 // number of vars : 2 // block 1 : ordering dp // : names x y // block 2 : ordering C sage: f = singular(’9*y^8 - 9*x^2*y^7 - 18*x^3*y^6 - 18*x^5*y^6 + 9*x^6*y^4 + 18*x^7*y^5 + 36*x^8*y^4 + 9*x^10*y^4 - 18*x^11*y^2 - 9*x^12*y^3 - 18*x^13*y^2 + 9*x^16’) Now that we have de? ned f , we print it and factor. sage: f 9*x^16-18*x^13*y^2-9*x^12*y^3+9*x^10*y^4-18*x^11*y^2+36*x^8*y^4+18*x^7*y^5-18*x^5*y^6+9*x^6*y^4-18*x^ sage: f. parent() Singular sage: F = f. factorize(); F : _=9 _=x^6-2*x^3*y^2-x^2*y^3+y^4 _=-x^5+y^2 : 1,1,2 sage: F x^6-2*x^3*y^2-x^2*y^3+y^4

As with the GAP example in GAP, we can compute the above factorization without explicitly using the Singular interface (however, behind the scenes Sage uses the Singular interface for the actual computation). Do not type the : 4. 3. Singular 67 Sage Tutorial, Release 5. 3 sage: sage: sage: (9) * x, y = QQ[’x, y’]. gens() f = 9*y^8 - 9*x^2*y^7 - 18*x^3*y^6 - 18*x^5*y^6 + 9*x^6*y^4 + 18*x^7*y^5 + 36*x^8*y^4 + 9*x^10*y^4 - 18*x^11*y^2 - 9*x^12*y^3 - 18*x^13*y^2 + 9*x^16 factor(f) (-x^5 + y^2)^2 * (x^6 - 2*x^3*y^2 - x^2*y^3 + y^4) 4. 4 Maxima Maxima is included with Sage, as well as a Lisp implementation.

The gnuplot package (which Maxima uses by default for plotting) is distributed as a Sage optional package. Among other things, Maxima does symbolic manipulation. Maxima can integrate and differentiate functions symbolically, solve 1st order ODEs, most linear 2nd order ODEs, and has implemented the Laplace tr

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