PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT –Early foundations are critical. –Role of maturation and learning. –Follows definite and predictable pattern. –All individuals are different. –Each phase has characteristic behaviour. –Each phase of development has hazards. –Development is aided by simulation. –devt: is affected by cultural changes. –Social expectations in every stage. –Traditional beliefs about people of all ages. ?STAGES IN LIFE SPAN 1. PRE-NATAL PERIOD – CONCEPTION - BIRTH 2. INFANCY -Birth- end of 2w 3. BABYHOOD - 2w- 2y 4. EARLY CHILDHOOD -2-6 5.
LATE CHILDHOOD -6-12 6. PUBERTY -10/11 -13/14 7. ADOLESCENCE -13/14 - 18 8. EARLY ADULTHOOD -18-40 9. MIDDLE AGE -40-50 MA / 50-60 LA 10. OLD AGE -60 -Death ?Pre-natal 270-280 days. 10 lunar months Basic body structure and organs form Rapid physical growth Vulnerability to environmental influence is great 1. Heredity endowment 2. Heredity potentials influenced strongly by envt. 3. Fixing up of sex 4. High rate of growth(1cell to 20 inches length) 5. Period of hazards 6. Attitude of significant people ?Pre-natal Hazards Period of Zygote ?starvation, Lack of Uterine preparation ? implanting wrongly, Period of Embryo ?miscarriage, ?
Developmental irregularities Period of Foetus ?miscarriage, ?Pre-maturity, ?delivery complications, ?developmental Irregularities, ?Factors influence development –Age of mother, –Illness and infections –Blood RH factor –Birth complications –Drugs, x-rays, envtl. Hazards, –Paternal factors-smok,alcohol, radiations , pesticide –Maternal emotions –Diet and physical condition of the mother –Hormones ?Infancy- neonate. ?Extreme helplessness ?Shortest period ?Radical adjustment ?Loss of weight Disorganized behaviour ?High mortality ?Physical devt. ?Increase height& weight, muscles ?Bones and skeleton transformed ?Brain cells grows ?Breast feeding starts ?Reflex of new born ?Sex determination ?Nature –Nurture influence *physical- obesity,aging *cognitive-IQ *psycho-social- Personality-reacting to situations, extrovert, depression, leadership,nail biting,sleepwalking,other emotions & disorders like schizophrenia, infantile autism, alcoholism. ?
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Sensory capacity increases ?Touch is the earliest sense ?Smell- can distinguish different odour ?Taste sense well developed Hearing is least developed ?Vision- half of the adult- color vision is absent or minimal ? SIDS-sudden infant death syndrome-crib death Motor development ?Head control ?Hand control ?Locomotion ?Grasping ?Rolling over ?Sitting up ?Crawling ?Standing Common problems Unfavorable parental environment Multiple birth Complicated birth Post maturity- pre-maturity Infant mortality Psychological –traditional beliefs Helplessness , developmental lag, plateau, lack of stimulation, new parent blue, unfavorable attitude,.. ?Babyhood ?1. True foundation,- 2. ,Age of rapid growth & devt. 3Decreasing dependency 4 Increased individuality 5 Beginning of socialization 6. Sex role typing
7. Appealing age 8,Age of creativity ? Hazardous-----(Ph)mortality, crib death, illness, accidents, malnutrition, foundation of obesity, habits, (Psy)-delayed motor devt. , delayed speech, emotional,play,social, family, // ? Rolling over , Sitting up, Crawling , Standing ?Play years 2-6 ?Physical growth ,Language devt. - chatter box , Socialisation , Peer influence, Negativism, self-centered, increased independence . Trust-vs-mistrust ,Personality-emotional, temperamental, cognitive ctivity level- regularity & predictability approach/withdrwal- initial response ?Age of troublesome, pre-school, pre-gang age ?Child abuse & neglect ?Causes__ characteristics of abuser ?90% at home, 90% not psychotic, unrealistic expectations ? Victim ?Families ?Communities ?Cultures ?Parent – child relationship ?Attachment behaviour ?Sibling relation- regress to earlier behaviour, suck thir thumb, wet their parent, use baby talk etc ? Father to take care- interaction-play style ?Playmates ?Stranger anxiety & separation anxiety-starts 6months,active father care reduces St.
A. sep. ax. related to attachment Behaviour ? Institutionalization- not harmful, if attachment and opportunities available- eg-MR ? Sociability-1-2 less, 2-increase interest in peers, imitation vocally . ?School years 6-12 ?Learning physical skills ?Learning to get along with agemate ?Appropriate sex roles ?Develop fundamental skills- reading,writing,calculating ? Develop concepts of everyday life ?Develop conscience, morality, values ?Develop social attitudes ?Phisical devt. -Height,weight,body proportion,body build, 1-2 Teeth-permanent teeth ?
Emotional and social devt. ?Personality devt. -family-ordinal position-decipline, school-techers adjestment, society-socioeconomic status, culture-social pestige. ?Adolescence11-18 ?puberty ?State of growth ?State of maturation ?Concerns about physical changes, egocentrism ?Psychological- good look & grooming ?Social changes- peer influence ?Social groupings- close, crowds, organised, gangs ?Family relationship- generation gap, cultural gap, identity crisis, frictional, ? Personality changes-pleasing, ideal,maturity individuality, ? Social changes
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