Last Updated 05 Aug 2021

Motivation and Prentice Hall

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Table of contents

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Describe the three key elements of motivation.
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  3. Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.
  4. Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and selfefficacy theory.
  5. Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
  6. Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
  7. Explain to what degree motivation theories are culture bound.

What Is Motivation?

The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a organizational goal

  • Intensity – the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal
  • Direction – efforts are channeled toward organizational goals
  • Persistence – how long the effort is maintained

Theories of Motivation

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
  • McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

  • Self-Actualization
  • Upper Esteem
  • Social Safety

Douglas McGregor’s X & Y Theory

  • Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it
  • Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment
  • View work as being as natural as rest or play
  • Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

  • Not Dissatisfied
  • Satisfied
  • Motivation Factors
  • Quality of supervision
  • Pay
  • Company policies
  • Physical working conditions
  • Relationships
  • Job security
  • Hygiene Factors
  • Promotional opportunities
  • Opportunities for personal growth
  • Recognition
  • Responsibility
  • Achievement Dissatisfied

McClelland's Theory of Needs

  • Need for Achievement (nAch)
  • The drive to excel
  • Need for Power (nPow)
  • The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise
  • Need for Affiliation (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

McClelland's High Achievers

  • High achievers prefer jobs with:
  • Personal responsibility
  • Feedback
  • Intermediate degree of risk (50/50)
  • High achievers are not necessarily good managers
  • High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success

Contemporary Theories of Motivation

  • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
  • Goal-Setting Theory

Management by Objectives

  • Self-Efficacy Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Goal-Setting Theory

Goals increase performance when the goals are:

  • Specific
  • Difficult, but accepted by employees
  • Accompanied by feedback (especially selfgenerated feedback)

Contingencies in goal-setting theory:

  • Goal Commitment – public goals better
  • Task Characteristics – simple & familiar better
  • National Culture – Western culture suits best

Management by Objectives (MBO)

Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals

Common ingredients:

  • Goal specificity
  • Explicit time period
  • Performance feedback
  • Participation in decision making

Self-Efficacy or Social Learning Theory

  • Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Self-efficacy increased by:
  • Enactive mastery – gain experience
  • Vicarious modeling – see someone else do the task
  • Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills
  • Arousal – get energized

Equity Theory

  • Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome).
  • They compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others.

Summary

  1. Described the three key elements of motivation.
  2. Identified four early theories of motivation and evaluated their applicability today.
  3. Compared and contrasted goal-setting theory and self-efficacy theory.
  4. Demonstrated how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
  5. Applied the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
  6. Explained to what degree motivation theories are culture bound.

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