Last Updated 28 Jul 2020

Motivation and Prentice Hall

Category Motivation
Essay type Research
Words 1172 (4 pages)
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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 5 Motivation Concepts Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-1 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the three key elements of motivation. 2. Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today. 3. Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and selfefficacy theory. 4. Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory. 5. Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees. . Explain to what degree motivation theories are culture bound. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-2 What Is Motivation? The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a organizational goal ? Intensity – the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal ? Direction – efforts are channeled toward organizational goals ? Persistence – how long the effort is maintained Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-3 Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory • McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory) Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self-Actualization Upper Esteem Social Safety Psychological 5-5 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Lower Douglas McGregor’s X & Y Theory X Theory Y • Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it • Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment View work as being as natural as rest or play • Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives 5-6 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Not Dissatisfied Satisfied Motivation Factors • Quality of supervision • Pay • Company policies • Physical working conditions • Relationships • Job security Hygiene Factors • Promotional opportunities • Opportunities for personal growth • Recognition • Responsibility • Achievement Dissatisfied Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Not Satisfied 5-7 McClelland's Theory of Needs • Need for Achievement (nAch) The drive to excel • Need for Power (nPow) The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise • Need for Affiliation (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-8 McClelland's High Achievers • High achievers prefer jobs with: ? Personal responsibility ? Feedback ? Intermediate degree of risk (50/50) • High achievers are not necessarily good managers High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-9 Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Goal-Setting Theory ? Management by Objectives • Self-Efficacy Theory • Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-10 Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work (pay) that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, while tangible rewards undermine it Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-11 Goal-Setting Theory • Goals increase performance when the goals are: ? Specific ? Difficult, but accepted by employees ? Accompanied by feedback (especially selfgenerated feedback) • Contingencies in goal-setting theory: ? Goal Commitment – public goals better! ? Task Characteristics – simple & familiar better! ? National Culture – Western culture suits best! Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-12 Management by Objectives (MBO) • Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals • Common ingredients: ? ? ? ? Goal specificity Explicit time period Performance feedback Participation in decision making 5-13 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Self-Efficacy or Social Learning Theory Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Self-efficacy increased by: ? Enactive mastery – gain experience ? Vicarious modeling – see someone else do the task ?

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Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills ? Arousal – get energized Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-14 Equity Theory • Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome). • They compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others. My Output My Input Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Your Output Your Input 5-15 Equity Theory and Reactions to Inequitable Pay Employee reactions in comparison to equitably-paid employees Employees are:

Paid by: Piece Time Will produce more Produce less output or output of poorer quality 5-16 Will produce Over-Rewarded fewer, but higherquality units Produce large Undernumber of low Rewarded quality units Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Equity Theory: Forms of Justice Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-17 Expectancy Theory Three key relationships: 1. Effort-Performance: perceived probability that exerting effort leads to successful performance 2. Performance-Reward: the belief that successful performance leads to desired outcome 3.

Rewards-Personal Goals: the attractiveness of organizational outcome (reward) to the individual Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-18 Global Implications Are motivation theories culture-bound? ? ? ? ? Most were developed for and by the United States Goal-setting and expectancy theories emphasize goal accomplishment and rational individual thought Maslow’s Hierarchy may change order McClelland's nAch presupposes acceptance of a moderate degree of risk concern for performance Equity theory closely tied to American pay practices Hertzberg’s two-factor theory does seem to work across cultures 5-19 ? Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Implications for Managers • • • • Look beyond need theories Goal setting leads to higher productivity Organizational justice has support Expectancy theory is a powerful tool, but may not very realistic in some cases • Goal-setting, organizational justice, and expectancy theories all provide practical suggestions for motivation Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-20 Keep in Mind… • Make goals specific and difficult • Motivation can be increased by raising mployee confidence in their own abilities (self-efficacy) decisions, especially when the outcome is likely to be viewed negatively 5-21 • Openly share information on allocation Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1. Described the three key elements of motivation. 2. Identified four early theories of motivation and evaluated their applicability today. 3. Compared and contrasted goal-setting theory and self-efficacy theory. 4. Demonstrated how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory. 5.

Applied the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees. 6. Explained to what degree motivation theories are culture bound. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-22 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-23

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Motivation and Prentice Hall. (2018, Jan 17). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/motivation-and-prentice-hall/

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