After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the three key elements of motivation.
- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.
- Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and selfefficacy theory.
- Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
- Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
- Explain to what degree motivation theories are culture bound.
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What Is Motivation?
The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a organizational goal
- Intensity – the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal
- Direction – efforts are channeled toward organizational goals
- Persistence – how long the effort is maintained
Theories of Motivation
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
- Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
- McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- Upper Esteem
- Social Safety
Douglas McGregor’s X & Y Theory
- Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it
- Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment
- View work as being as natural as rest or play
- Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
- Not Dissatisfied
- Motivation Factors
- Quality of supervision
- Company policies
- Physical working conditions
- Job security
- Hygiene Factors
- Promotional opportunities
- Opportunities for personal growth
- Achievement Dissatisfied
McClelland's Theory of Needs
- Need for Achievement (nAch)
- The drive to excel
- Need for Power (nPow)
- The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise
- Need for Affiliation (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
McClelland's High Achievers
- High achievers prefer jobs with:
- Personal responsibility
- Intermediate degree of risk (50/50)
- High achievers are not necessarily good managers
- High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
- Cognitive Evaluation Theory
- Goal-Setting Theory
Management by Objectives
- Self-Efficacy Theory
- Equity Theory
- Expectancy Theory
- Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Goals increase performance when the goals are:
- Difficult, but accepted by employees
- Accompanied by feedback (especially selfgenerated feedback)
Contingencies in goal-setting theory:
- Goal Commitment – public goals better
- Task Characteristics – simple & familiar better
- National Culture – Western culture suits best
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals
- Goal specificity
- Explicit time period
- Performance feedback
- Participation in decision making
Self-Efficacy or Social Learning Theory
- Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Self-efficacy increased by:
- Enactive mastery – gain experience
- Vicarious modeling – see someone else do the task
- Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills
- Arousal – get energized
- Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome).
- They compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others.
- Described the three key elements of motivation.
- Identified four early theories of motivation and evaluated their applicability today.
- Compared and contrasted goal-setting theory and self-efficacy theory.
- Demonstrated how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
- Applied the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
- Explained to what degree motivation theories are culture bound.
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