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Life Skills

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------------------------------------------------- Life Skills Development/Module One/Unit 1: Values Education < Life Skills Development | Module One Contents [hide] * 1 Unit 1: VALUES EDUCATION * 2 Introduction and Rationale * 3 Getting to know our values * 3. 1 Classification of Values * 4 Importance of values * 5 Exploring Personal Values * 6 Value Clarification * 7 Prioritizing Your Values * 7. 1 Values for a Sustainable Future * 7. 2 Assessment * 7.  Decision making| ------------------------------------------------- Unit 1: VALUES EDUCATION ------------------------------------------------- Introduction and Rationale Education is a process of initiating the learner to a good life. In order to live this 'good' life, the learner has to acquire, through this education knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and other behaviour patterns. This unit will therfeore address values and the importance of values in one's life. It will incorporate values clarification strategies in one's decision making processes.

This will help the learners to become responsible citizens who will use their values to guide their attitudes and behaviour. Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: 1. define values 2. demonstrate an acknowledgement and acceptance of the realities of diversity(ethicity,culture, sexual-orientation, spirituality/religion) 3. identify and prioritize one's own values 4. develop an understanding of how values influence decision making and behaviour 5. recognize the need to live together in atmosphere of peace and contributing to sustainable development|

Definitions * Values * Core values * Values inculcation: aims for pupils to adopt a pre-determined set of values * Values analysis: pupils investigate and assess evidence which may support value judgements * Values clarification: helps pupils become aware of their own values in relation to those of others * Action learning: focuses on students having a reasoned base for whatever actions they might take in relation to specific social and environmental issues(after Butt 2002; Lambert ; Balderstone 2000)| ------------------------------------------------- Getting to know our values

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What are values? Values have many meanings: * Values are your personal measure of worth shaped by your beliefs, ideas and principles that are important to you. They shape your priorities and guide you in deciding what is right and wrong * Values reflect our attitudes and what we believe about everything. * People's values differ and people and we should all learn to tolerate each others' values. Examples: * A person who values family will care about his/her partner, children and home life. * love for my family is a value I am willing to work hard for and maybe even sacrifice to achieve it. That value reflects the fact that I believe love for family is more important than anything else in my life. This should be reflected in my decisions and actions. If not it is not what the person values. * A person who values being healthy will exercise, eat the right foods,live positively and avoid alcohol and tobacco. Classification of Values Values can be grouped into the following groups: 1. Instrumental values 2. Moral values 3. Intrinsic values 4. Aesthetic values Instrumental values are those dealing with the means of achieving economic gain, like money and status.

Moral values are those dealing with the notions of right and wrong. Intrinsic values are those which are desired for their own sake, like happiness, truth and peace Aesthetic values are those that refer to our standards of judgement of what is beautiful and ugly. ------------------------------------------------- Importance of values * Clarifying values is an integral part of personal growth. * Knowing what's most important to us provides a blueprint and direction in our lives. * Values Clarification is a key area in our self-knowledge because we develop a greater awareness of our core values. Knowing our core values or what is most important to us is extremely relevant to creating goals, setting priorities, and managing our time. * You will have solid ideas about where you will commit blocks of our energy and time. Less important areas can be set aside or dropped from our schedules. * When we have to make choices between activities, we'll have our core values to guide us. * When we clarify our values, we also have the opportunity to strengthen our value system and integrity and to integrate ourselves into wholeness withinternational expectations. ------------------------------------------------ Exploring Personal Values Our life is guided by the values we act upon. Many of us have never taken the time to truly explore and identify our values. Behind our choices and actions are the values that take us into living fully, while other values diminish the quality of our life. You have an opportunity to base your life on the values that are consistent with how you want to live your life. Having fun or taking risks may run counter to being healthy. In order to be healthier, it is important to live out of the values that are consistent with your purpose. ------------------------------------------------ Value Clarification Values change over time in response to changing life experiences. Recognizing these changes and understanding how they affect one's actions and behaviors is the goal of the values clarification process. Values clarification will not tell you what your values should be, it simply provides the means to discover what your values are. Activity Number 1Let’s begin with a small sampling of values. You can add more values and make notations if you like. 1. Circle any value or representation of values you feel strongly about using the table below.

Select one that you have circled and write a paragraph on why this particular value is so important to you. What does this mean in your life? Is this a value you hold important and act on? Why or why not? | ;/DIV; ;/DIV; Honesty| Trustworthiness| Friendship| Relaxation| Recognition| Independence| Wealth| Health| Knowledge| Family| Fun| Risk| Marriage| Control| Tolerance| Peace| Safety| Fame| Nature| Caution| Responsibility| Generosity| Timeliness| Cooperation| Respect| Beauty| Recycling| Preservation| Unity| Caring| Creativity| Closeness|

Adventure| Uniqueness| Conformity| Money| Loyalty| Work Ethic| Talent| Religion| Love| Companionship| Solitude| Humility| Growth| Justice| Freedom| Fixing things| Music| Harmony| Objectivity| Flexibility| Politics| Life| Challenge| Change| Animals| children| Students| Happiness| Reading| Writing| Freedom| Computing| ? From the table above, identify the twelve (12) Universal Core Values. Feedback: Peace, love, unity, simplicity, cooperation, tolerance, happiness, responsibility, freedom, honesty, humility, respect -------------------------------------------------

Prioritizing Your Values Now that you have identified your core values, you understand what is important to you. You can use then refer to your values list whenever you have to make a difficult or important decision. Read some of the questions from the list below. * Should I smoke Marijuana or drink alcohol because my friends are drinking and smoking? * Is it OK to have sex with a few close partners? * What if I decided to have a sexual relationship - should I protect myself from HIV AIDS and other STDs? * Is it "cool" to say "no" to sex? Is sex OK if you are getting something for it: money, cell phone, or clothes? * Is happiness and health important? These are difficult questions with no straightforward answers. When faced with such decisions, you need to refer to your list of values, prioritize them and then make a decision. The prioritization of values allows you to make decisions which would lead to fulfillment of goals without sacrificing your core values. Remember that although this decision may be the correct one for you at this point in life, you might decide differently when faced with the same situation later in life. } Activity Number 2Examine the list you of values you selected in Activity 1 and arrange them in order of importance. | Values for a Sustainable Future In a world of limited resources, conflicting values, and competing individuals and groups, we all need to learn to live together in an atmosphere of peace, respecting ourselves and others and contributing to sustainable development. Values also very much depend on the religion. The values and athics of the religion can help human beings learn to co-operate with each other and the rest of nature for the mutual well-being of all.

A sustainable future depends upon people living according to values and principles of sustainability, including: * Social Equity and Peace: * Appropriate Development * Conservation * Democracy * Practice of religion with in the community In the previous activities you have had the chance to explore your personal values. You will now be required to examine other people’s values as well as your own. You will be using logical thinking skills to analyse different viewpoints about an issue. There are four steps in values analysis: * Analysing the issue Assessing consequences for the different stakeholders (provide a list of stakeholder groups) * Analysing perspectives of all stakeholders * Making a decision Activity Choose a major development having some controversial aspect relating to your country/regionSuggested examples of development: * A textile industry on the coast of an island state * A major tourism development on previous farmland * Construction of a road in a forest area Individually answer the following questions. What are the potential benefits of the proposed development?

Identify some of the groups of people interested in, or affected by, the development? In a class setting you may want to do the following: * Divide the class into groups of major stakeholders * Analyse opinions of the different stakeholders * Summarise the viewpoints of each stakeholder * Finally you have to present the idea to the cabinet of Ministers for approval. As person who has a have a firm committed to the values of sustainability: peace and equity, appropriate development, democracy and conservation. Write the text of your decision stating the advantages and disadvantages of the options you are considering and the key reasons for your decision. | Summary When I have values: * I know what is important to me * I am able to set my priorities right * I am honest * I am systematic when doing things * I decide before I act * I am responsible * I have respect for other people * I am accountable for my actions * I have respect for life * I have commitment in whatever I do * I show kindness * I have self control * Values only have value when they are acted upon.

You have had the chance to explore your personal values and to examine other people’s values in relation to sustainable living by analysing a controversial development through a case study. | ------------------------------------------------- Assessment ------------------------------------------------- Decision making 5 STEP MODEL OF THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS 1st step: Defining the problem Precise definition of a problem is a major step toward its solution. There are also some potential dangers in identifying and defining a problem, such as (e. ) the event which attracts attention may not be the problem, but the symptom of the problem. Such as: A friend not speaking to you is a symptom of a problem, his/her not speaking to you is not the real problem but only the symptom of the problem. The reason for their not speaking is the problem. 2nd Step: Identify the alternative course of action. Once the problem has been already defined the next step is to identify the alternation choices of action on strategies leading to a solution. During the stage of defining the problem various courses of action usually become obvious.

The ideal approach at this stage I for the decision-maker to seek to identify as many potential solutions as possible solutions, and finally the feasible solutions are left. 3rd Step: Evaluating feasible solutions This stage of the process entails calculating the consequences of the feasible solutions in terms of advantages and disadvantages. 4th Step: Choosing a solution: At this stage the decision-maker will choose the strategy which comes closest to the attainment of goals and will be based on criteria such as maximum advantages and minimum disadvantages.

It is at this time that the decision-maker may become acutely aware of the loneliness of decision making. Decisions are made by the person concerned. 5th Step: Checking the results Once the decision has been made and implemented the final stage in the process is obtaining feedback on the results. The objective is to discover:- (i) If the selected solution has achieved the specified objectives and closed the gap between the actual ------------------------------------------------- and the desired performance. iii) If the selected solution failed, completely or partly to achieve the objectives, what were the reasons? This analysis will provide useful information to correct the situation. (iv) How well or badly the decision-maker has performed. 3. APPLYING DECISION MAKING SKILLS A key aspect of maturity is the ability to do things for oneself to make plans and ‘go for them’, showing self-determination and persistence, rather than needing to be pushed to do things by teachers and parents. . Activity 1 Look at the range of decision we make.

Individually, or in small groups, pupils write a list of the decisions they make in a day (for example, yesterday). Then draw a line under this list and add any big decisions they made in the last three or four years or decision they think may have to make in the next few years. Discuss the difference and the relationship between everyday decisions and important ones. Are they reached in similar or different way? Focus on the process of making decisions outlined above. Pupils could test out these steps making an imaginary decision, for example, how to spend a gift of 100 dollars. ------------------------------------------------ Life Skills Development/Module One/Unit 3: Wellness and Health Care < Life Skills Development | Module One ------------------------------------------------- Unit 3: Wellness and Health Care ------------------------------------------------- Introduction/Rationale {{Objectives|After completing this section, you should be able to: ------------------------------------------------- Content Outline This unit is divided into three sections (or sub-units): * * Nutrition * Fitness * Stress -------------------------------------------------

Life Skills Development/Module One/Wellness and Health Care/Nutrition ; Life Skills Development | Module One ------------------------------------------------- Introduction/Rationale This sub-unit addresses ways to develop indivividual capacity to make healthy eating choices that promote wellness and reduce the risk factors associated with the development of lifestyle diseases. One of the biggest health problems in many countries is poor nutrition. This unit will therefore help to develop a better understanding of good nutrition and how beneficial it is in order to have a healthy, happy, productive population. Objectives

After completing this section, you should be able to: * Develop a diet taking into consideration the basic tenets of good nutrition and nutritional considerations for different groups such as gender, age, state of health, pregnancy, vegetarian * Distinguish between healthy and unhealthy food based on the way in which food is prepared; * Identify the benefits of healthy eating as it relates to wellness versus ill-health and lifestyle diseases; * Analyse the influence of socio-cultural and economic factors, religion, personal beliefs, and choices related to eating; * Identify appropriate sources of information for products, services and costs related to eating well; * Identify the role of Vitamins, Supplements and Trace Elements in treating with nutritional deficiencies in the diet. | Definitions

Nutrition is a science that studies the relationship between diet and health. | Unit Content This Unit consists of the following broad areas: Nutrition, Food Groups and Balanced Diet Life Style Diseases Fast Food Syndrome Food Additives Toxins/GMO Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point | Summary Eating the right foods and responding to what our body needs is called having a balanced diet. This healthy diet containing essential nutrients from the different food groups, providing enough energy, growth and repair elements, vitamins and minerals for the body to function at peak efficiency. The tips for food preparation have to be respected in order to ensure that food remains fresh and healthy for consumption. Develop a diet taking into consideration the basic tenets of good nutrition and nutritional considerations for different groups such as gender, age, state of health, pregnancy, vegetarian * Distinguish between healthy and unhealthy food based on the way in which food is prepared; * Identify the benefits of healthy eating as it relates to wellness versus ill-health and lifestyle diseases; * Analyse the influence of socio-cultural and economic factors, religion, personal beliefs, and choices related to eating; * Identify appropriate sources of information for products, services and costs related to eating well; * Identify the role of Vitamins, Supplements and Trace Elements in treating with nutritional deficiencies in the diet. * Develop an understanding of Life Style Diseases and their causes. * Identify selected diseases, their causes and how they could be prevented. | Assessment Checklist of Performance Task (see the table below)| 1.

Plan out a one-day meal plan showing the nutritionally balanced meals that you intend to have (breakfast, lunch and dinner) | RUBRIC of performance criteria| V. Well Done| Well Done| OK| Not Ok- Will redo by …. | 1. | I have included a balanced breakfast in my plan. | | | | | 2. | I have included a balanced lunch in my plan. | | | | | 3. | I have included a balanced dinner in my plan. | | | | | | Oil| Green Leafy vegetable| Legumes| Protein| Sugar| Carbohydrates| Yellow vegetables| I included the following for breakfast/lunch/ dinner. | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------- Nutrition, Food Groups and Balanced Diet

Contents [hide] * 1 Nutrition * 2 Nutrients * 3 Food groups * 4 Fruits and vegetables * 5 Grains, bread, cereal, pasta * 6 Fish, meat, poultry,egss nuts and beans * 7 Milk and other dairy products * 8 Fats and oils * 9 WATER!! * 10 Fibre| Nutrition This is an exciting topic. It covers everything to do with what we eat, when we eat, how much we eat, how meals are prepared and making choices that will help us look good and feel good. Eating the right foods and responding to what our body needs is called having a balanced diet. Balanced diet A healthy diet is a diet that does not contain excessive quantities of fat, sugar or salt, and that has contains essential nutrients.

These nutrients provide enough energy, growth and repair elements, vitamins and minerals for the body to function at peak efficiency. Nutrients There are six main classes of nutrients that the body needs: * carbohydrates * proteins * fats * vitamins * minerals * water It is important to consume these six nutrients on a daily basis to build and maintain healthy bodily function. Poor health can be caused by an imbalance of nutrients, either an excess or deficiency, which, in turn, affects bodily functions. Food groups Foods are classified in groups, some classifications divide them into five or six groups. The main groups are: * Fruits and vegetables Grains, bread, cereals and pasta * Milk, yoghurt and cheese * Fish, poultry, meat, eggs and nuts * Fats and oils Activity Read about the following food groups and in a table as shown below fill in three of your favourite foods for each group. | Food group| My favourite foods| Fruits| * * * | Vegetables| * * * | Grains, cereals, bread, pasta| * * * | Fish, poultry, meat, beans| * * * | Milk, yoghurt and cheese| * * * | Fruits and vegetables The consensus is that you have to eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. A portion is approximately 80g (e. g. 1 medium apple), 1/2 a cup, 150 ml of fruit juice.

Examples of healthy fruit. Fruits Fruits can be enjoyed a number of ways: fresh, canned, frozen, dried, whole, cut-up, or pureed. Go easy on the fruit juices, though; they contain a lot of natural sugars. Besides the standards such as apples, bananas, oranges, peaches, pears and plums, try mangoes, blackberries, papayas, hybrid melons and avocados. How much should you eat? Most of us should EAT MORE FRUITS! Healthy eating tips * Choose fruit as a snack * Add dried or fresh fruit to breakfast cereals * Choose a wide variety of fruits Yummy Veggies Vegetables Go for the brights: the deeper the colour, the greater the concentration of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

Dark green and orange vegetables, from broccoli, watercress to squash and sweet potatoes, are several excellent choices. Dried beans and peas, such as black beans and kidney beans, count in the vegetable category as well as the meat and beans group. 100 percent vegetable juice counts, too. How much should you eat? Most of us should EAT MORE VEGETABLES! Healthy eating tips * Choose chopped vegetables as a snack * Have a salad with sandwiches or with pizza * Add vegetables to casseroles and stews and fruit to desserts * Choose a wide variety of vegetables to eat Crunchy Grain Grains, bread, cereal, pasta * This group should provide 6 ounce-equivalents (1 ounce-equivalent means 1 serving), half of which should be whole grains.

Whole grains include whole wheat, brown rice, oatmeal, whole grain barley, millet, and popcorn. Whole grains are more nutritious than refined grains which include many breads, pastas, breakfast cereals and tortillas. How much should you eat? Most of us should EAT MORE! Base a third of your food intake on foods from this group, aiming to include at least one food from this group at each meal, e. g. potatoes with fish and vegetables, a chicken salad sandwich, stir-fried vegetables with rice, or porridge oats for breakfast. Potatoes, yams, plantains and sweet potato fall into this group, rather than fruit and vegetables, because they contain starchy carbohydrates.

Sugar is a simple form of carbohydrate. It adds flavour and sweetness to foods, but frequent consumption of sugar-containing foods and drinks is associated with an increased tendency towards tooth decay. Healthy eating tips * Base your meals around foods from this group * Eat wholegrain or whole meal breads, pastas and cereals as well as white choices * Choose low fat oven chips rather than fried chips (oven chips fall into this food group but fried chips don’t) * Eating more foods from this group will help to reduce the proportion of fat and increase the amount of fibre in the diet * Avoid frying or adding too much fat to these foods

Wholesome Meats ; Beans Fish, meat, poultry,egss nuts and beans * This group should provide 5. 5 ounce-equivalents or servings. This group includes fish, poultry, eggs, beans, peas, nuts and seeds. Harvard Health suggests avoiding red meats because they contain a lot of saturated fat. How much should you eat? EAT MODERATE AMOUNTS Choose lower fat versions whenever you can. Some meat products, e. g. beef burgers and sausages, can be high in fat. Trim visible fat off meat where possible. It is recommended that you eat two portions of fish each week, one of which should be an oily fish (e. g. salmon, mackerel, trout, sardines or fresh tuna).

Alternatives These include nuts, tofu, mycoprotein, textured vegetable protein (TVP), beans such as kidney beans and canned baked beans, and pulses such as lentils. These foods provide protein, fibre and iron but unlike those listed above are not a rich source of zinc and generally provide no vitamin B12 (unless fortified). Healthy eating tips * Choose lower fat meat products * Choose lean cuts of meat * Cut visible fat including skin from meat and poultry and drain away fat after cooking * Try to grill, roast or microwave meat and fish rather than frying * Eat oily fish once a week Rich and Creamy Dairy Milk and other dairy products * Milk Group should provide 3 cups/servings. As part of a healthy diet, it is recommended that you choose fat-free or low-fat dairy products.

If you're lactose-intolerant, there are lactose-free and lower-lactose products, such as hard cheeses and yogurt. Harvard Health suggests a dairy or calcium supplement as an alternative to milk and cheese, which can contain a lot of saturated fat. How much should you eat? EAT MODERATE AMOUNTS Try to eat 2-3 servings a day. A serving of milk is a 200ml glass, a serving of yogurt is a small pot (150g), a serving of cheese is 30g (matchbox size). Choose lower fat versions whenever you can, such as semi-skimmed milk, low fat yogurt and reduced fat cheese. Healthy eating tips * Choose low fat milk i. e. semi-skimmed or skimmed milk * Choose low fat yogurts and reduced fat cheeses Fats and Oil Fats and oils * Fats and oils should provide 24g or 6 teaspoons.

Oils are a major source of fats in your diet. Common plant and fish oils include: canola oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Most of the fats you eat should be polyunsaturated (PUFA) or monounsaturated (MUFA) fats. How much should you eat? Most people need to EAT LESS! It is essential to have a small amount of fat in the diet, but eat foods containing fat sparingly as they are high in energy. Look out for reduced fat or low fat alternatives (by law any food labelled as low fat must contain no more than 3g of fat per 100g). Fats can be divided into saturate, monounsaturate and polyunsaturate.

Limit consumption of saturates, associated with animal products, cakes, biscuits and pastries, to reduce risk of heart disease. To cut down on saturates, make use of the information on nutrition panels on food products, cut off visible fat from meat and poultry, choose lower fat meat and dairy products, and where fat is needed in cooking use it sparingly. Choose fats and oils containing monounsaturates (e. g. olive and rapeseed oils) and polyunsaturates (e. g. sunflower, corn and rapeseed oils) instead of saturates. In moderation these are not associated with an increased risk of heart disease – but still use them sparingly. Healthy eating tips Eat small quantities of these foods * Choose low fat or reduced sugar foods where possible * Use spreads and oils sparingly – opt for vegetable fats and oils * Try to limit consumption of sugar containing foods and drinks between meals * Try not to add fat to foods when cooking essential fats, which must be supplied by the diet in small amounts: omega-3 fatty acids (e. g. found in oily fish, walnuts, omega-3 enriched eggs, and rapeseed and soya oil) and omega-6 fatty acids (e. g. found in vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soya oil and spreads made from these). Which would you pick? WATER!! DRINK PLENTY OF WATER- 8 GLASSES A DAY Water is the medium for various enzymatic and chemical reactions in the body. It is also the solvent of the body and it regulates all functions, including the activity of everything it dissolves and circulates. * The digestion of solid foods depends on the presence of copious amounts of water. Acids and enzymes in the stomach break the food down into a homogenized fluid state which can pass into the intestine for the next phase of digestion. An “acid stomach” will respond to hydration, whereas constipation is a frequent symptom of dehydration. Increased water along with increased fibre will usually eliminate a problem. Water eliminates toxins and waste from the body. Adults lose nearly 6 pints (12 cups of water everyday. We lose ? cup to 1 cup a day from the soles of our feet. Another 2 to 4 cups is lost from breathing. Perspiration accounts for another 2 cups. Another 3 pints (6 cups) are lost in urine. * Brain tissue is 85% water. Although the brain is only 1/50th of the body weight, it uses 1/20th of the blood supply. With dehydration, the level of energy generation in the brain is decreased. Depression and chronic fatigue syndrome are frequently results of dehydration. Migraine headaches may be an indicator of critical body temperature regulation at times of "heat stress. " Dehydration plays a major role in bringing on migraines.

Dehydration causes stress and stress causes further dehydration. Fibre Fibre is also known s roughage. it is made up of complex carbohydrates and contains no calories, no minerals and is not digested when we eat it. Then, why do we need fibre? Fibre is an important part of our diet. It is essential for * producing the feeling of fullness when we eat * healthy functioning of the bowel; fibre in the intestines absorbs a lot of water, it increases the bulk of waste matter and makes it softer and easier to pass through the bowel. * preventtion of constipation * reducing the risk of cancer of the colon * prevention of haemmorhoids * stabilising blood sugar level

Activity What foods do you think contain fibre? Tick the appropriate boxes. | Fruits| Vegetables| Whole grain| Beans| Oats| Fish| Meat| Milk| | | | | | | | | Feedback: Only plant based foods contain fibre. Activity Plan the menu for one day * breakfast * lunch * Dinner * Healthy snacks| Activity Food hygieneWhich of the following tips are to be used to ensure that food is clean and safe to eat? In the following table, put a tick in the box as appropriate. | Tick here| Tips for food hygiene| | * Wash hands before preparing food| | * Wash all utensils before using| | * Clean all surfaces on which food is to be prepared with detergent| * Use a different surface for cutting meat and vegetables| | * Avoid using chipped and cracked dishes and cups| | * Wear clean, protective clothing, e. g apron| | * Keep hair covered| | * Fingernails should be cut short and kept clean| | * Avoid talking over food being prepared| | * Avoid coughing and sneezing while preparing food| | * Do not taste off stirring spoons and return to the pot| | * Avoid freezing defrosted foods| | * Keep food and drinks covered| Feedback: Congratulations if you have ticked all of the above. ------------------------------------------------- Stress and Stress Management Contents [hide] * 1 What is Stress? 2 Causes of Stress/Potential Factors * 3 Body's Reaction to Stress * 4 Assessing one's mental and emotional health * 5 Prevention Strategies/Coping with Stress * 6 Sources of information/products/services| ------------------------------------------------- What is Stress? Stress or pressure is a normal, necessary part of our daily lives. In order to function in an efficient and effective manner a certain stress level is required. However too much pressure can be a risk to health, can reduce effectiveness, can lead to extreme tiredness and lead to mental breakdown. Different things can cause stress and they are called stressors. Each person reacts differently to same stressors. This depends on the individuals ability to cope. However a person can learn to manage stress to prevent it from becoming harmful. Activity

The objective of this activity is to show that different people react differently to stressors. Individually read the list of stressors below and rank them from 1 as most stressfull to 10 as least stressful. * coming home late * arguing with parents * getting homework done * getting low grades * being told off in front of others * playing for your team * having an exam * doing house hold chores * death of a friend * trouble at school. Compare your ranking with those of other individuals| Feedback: You will notice that the way you have ranked your stressors are not the same as those of others. ------------------------------------------------- Causes of Stress/Potential Factors

As we have seen previously the main cause of stress is our inability to cope with stressors. Stressors are found in our environment, while our ability or inability to cope depends on how we personally react to situations. Here are some examples of some situations that cause stress. Some stressors at school: * Difficulty to read * Unable to finish class work * trouble with the teacher * truancy * Unable to clearly explain situations * being bullied * homework * Poor assessment results * exams * lack of school material changing school Some stressors at home: * housework * parents/siblings who drink * home violence * low income * no place for quiet time or study * illness Other stressors: * caught smoking or drinking preparing for a performance * death of a friend or relative * loosing a job * changing jobs * managing difficult relationships * moving house * losing friends * leaving home * making decisions Reflection Think of one of your close friends or family who you think may be stressed or under a lot of pressure. Using ideas from the list above can you identify what could be causing the problem? | ------------------------------------------------- Body's Reaction to Stress The body reacts to stress in different ways In the short term you can notice some of the following: * mind becomes alert * quick reactions * dry mouth * tension in neck and shoulders faster breathing * faster heart rate * high blood pressure * sweaty palms * diarrhoea * butterflies in the stomach * lump in throat * nervous laughter * bursting into tears * fidgeting * nail biting If the stress continues and you do not do anything to cope with it here are some of the long term effects it can have on the body: * headaches * diziness * ulcers * blurred vision * forgetfulness * indigestion * disturbed sleep * muscle aches * tension * fear * irritability * nervousness * loss of confidence * depression * anxiety * nightmares * drug dependence * excessive drinking * heart trouble * loss of appetite * mental breakdown Activity

Write a short storyFrom your own experience write down a situation where you have felt under a lot of pressure. In your account identify at least three physical and three mental/emotional you were affected affected. Write out what you did to overcome the situation| Feedback: Compare your coping strategies with the list under Coping with Stress ------------------------------------------------- Assessing one's mental and emotional health ------------------------------------------------- Prevention Strategies/Coping with Stress Activity The Carver COPE contains 53 items in which participants are asked to denote how often they usually employ a particular coping style.

The participant responds according to a 5-point ordinal scale format with the following choices: “never,” “rarely,” “sometimes,” “often,” or “always. ” They are then asked to rate which coping strategies “generally” used, which would indicate an overall disposition towards certain coping styles. Use the following scale to determine the coping styles and later categorize these styles into problem-focused, emotional focused or dysfunctional. Please respond to the questions below. Even though the questions are in the Multiple Choice format, there are no right or wrong answers. Instructions Please rate each of the following items from 1 to 5 in the space provided. Indicate how often you engage in these types of activities when you encounter a difficult, stressful or upsetting situation.

NEVER RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN ALWAYS No. | | ___1___| ___2___| ___3___| ___4___| ___5___| 1| I take additional action to try to get rid of the problem| | | | | | 2| I try to come up with a strategy about what to do| | | | | | 3| I put aside other activities in order to concentrate on this| | | | | | 4| I force myself to wait for the right time to do something| | | | | | 5| I ask people who have had similar experiences what they did| | | | | | 6| I talk to someone about how I feel| | | | | | 7| I look for something good in what is happening| | | | | | 8| I learn to live with it| | | | | | 9| I seek god’s help| | | | | | 10| I get upset and let my emotions out| | | | | | 1| I refuse to believe that it has happened| | | | | | 12| I give up the attempt to get what I want| | | | | | 13| I turn to work or other substitute activities to take my mind off things| | | | | | 14| I concentrate my efforts on doing something about it| | | | | | 15| I make a plan of action| | | | | | 16| I focus on dealing with this problem, and if necessary let other things slide a little. | | | | | | 17| I hold off on doing anything about it until the situation permits| | | | | | 18| I try to get advice from someone about what to do| | | | | | 19| I try to get emotional support from friends and relatives| | | | | | 20| I try to see it in a different light, to make it seem more positive| | | | | | 21| I accept that this has happened and it can’t be changed| | | | | | 22| I put my trust in God| | | | | | 23| I let my feelings out| | | | | | 24| I pretend that it hasn’t really happened. | | | | | 25| I just give up trying to reach my goal| | | | | | 26| I go to movies or watch TV to think about it less| | | | | | 27| I learn something from the experience| | | | | | 28| I get used to the idea that it has happened| | | | | | 29| I try to find comfort in religion| | | | | | 30| I talk to someone to find out more about the situation| | | | | | 31| I make sure not to make matters worse by acting too soon| | | | | | 32| I keep myself from getting distracted by other thoughts or activities| | | | | | 33| I think hard about what steps to take| | | | | | 34| I do what has to be done, one step at a time| | | | | | 35| I discuss my feelings with someone| | | | | | 6| I act as though it hasn’t even happened| | | | | | 37| I reduce the amount of effort I’m putting into solving the problem| | | | | | 38| I daydream about things other than this| | | | | | 39| I take direct action to get around the problem| | | | | | 40| I try to grow as a person as a result of the experience| | | | | | 41| I think about how I might best handle the problem| | | | | | 42| I accept the reality of the fact that it has happened| | | | | | 43| I try hard to prevent other things from interfering with my efforts at dealing with this| | | | | | 44| I feel a lot of emotional distress and find myself expressing those feelings a lot| | | | | | 45| I restrain myself from doing anything too quickly| | | | | | 46| I talk to someone who could do something concrete about the problem| | | | | | 47| I sleep more than usual| | | | | | 48| I get sympathy and understanding from someone| | | | | | 49| I drink or take drugs, in order to think about it less| | | | | | 50| I pray more than usual| | | | | | 1| I get upset, and I am really aware of it| | | | | | 52| I say to myself “this isn’t real. ”| | | | | | 53| I admit to myself that I can’t deal with it, and quit trying| | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------- Life Skills Development/Module One/Unit 4: Self Assessment Self Esteem < Life Skills Development | Module One ------------------------------------------------- Unit 4: SELF ASSESSMENT AND SELF ESTEEM ------------------------------------------------- Introduction and Rationale This unit..... ..... self esteem and self worth are important aspects of personal development. It is important to cultivate a high self-esteem and constantly strive for self-development. Objectives

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to: * Analyse perception of self and the factors that contribute to self-image; * Identify and assess feelings, emotions and attitudes towards self and how these affect behaviour; * Identify and assess the impact of emotions, attitudes and motivations on behaviour; * Identify unproductive negative beliefs and replace with ones that work; * Distinguish between positive and negatives attitudes and behaviours; * Distinguish negative feelings and negative behaviours; * Perform a personal SWOT analysis taking Spiritual, Physical, Intellectual, Cultural, Social, Emotional, Ancestral and Social (SPICEAS) spheres into consideration; * Develop a Personal Action Plan; * Identify coping skills to deal with risks to mental and emotional well-being. | Definitions ..... | ------------------------------------------------- Self-esteem What is self-esteem? Self-esteem is how much we value ourselves. We either have high self-esteem or wee have low self-esteem. If we have low self-esteem it is not the end of the world, like everything else we can take charge and learn to appreciate ourselves and improve our self-esteem. Activity Let us start by finding out how much we value ourselfPut a circle around the words which best describes you. | Happy| Often unhappy| Friendly| Does not have friends| Relaxed| anxious| Trustworthy| Does not trust yourself|

Healthy| Often sick| confident| lacks confidence| willing to try harder| gives up easily| Feedback: * If we have high self-esteem we are likely to be happy, healthy, respected by others, confident, disciplined, successful, work at our weaknesses, accept the things we cannot change. * If we have low self-esteem we do not trust ourselves, lack self confidence, we do not take pride in what we do, we do not take care of ourselves, we have negative feelings and we have anti-social behaviour. Activity Setting goals for improving our self-esteem. For each of the suggested ways in which we can improve our self-esteem write out something you can try out.

Choose one or two to work on at first the add others. * Know ourself-List down our qualities, achievements, things we can do and our weaknesses * Respect ourself-What things can we do well? Do not compare yourself with others all the time * Love ourself-What do you do or can do to make ourself happy and healthy? * Affirm ourself-Tell others about something that is really important to us. Trust ourself-What can we rely on ourselves for? What good decisions have we taken before? * Accept ourself-Think of what you can do well. Think of our weaknesses as areas we can improve on. * Show ourself-Let people know you really are? Interact with others. Stretch ourself-Do new things, try new things, challenge yourself * Self-discipline-Set rules and deadlines and follow them * Nourish ourself-Take care of your mind, your body, feelings, have good friends, good food, exercise,read good books, entertain yourself with good experiences, enjoy yourself, be happy. * Be ourself-we are unique, we cannot be replaced and we cannot be somebody else. * Share ourself-get to know others, have friends. * Go beyond ourself-discover new horizons,it is all out there for us| Feedback: Life is a journey and we can go forward by taking small steps, giant leaps, falling back and getting back on track again. Our self-esteem can sometimes be low in some areas. The good news is we can get it high again. Summary This unit covers.... | -------------------------------------------------

Life Skills Development/Module One/Unit 5: Goal Setting and Time Management ; Life Skills Development | Module One ------------------------------------------------- Unit 5: Goal Setting and Time Management ------------------------------------------------- Introduction and Rationale This unit will address the importance of goal setting and time management for living a well-balanced and productive life. It will also categorise goals that are long and short term and outline the steps for achieving them. The acronym SMART will be used to assess them and provide the guidelines for ensuring that the goals that are set are worthwhile and can be achieved.

Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: * Utilize the basic elements of goal setting to define personal, career, financial and other goals; * Identify long and short-term goals that are Specfic, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-bound (SMART); * Outline the steps and benchmarks required for achievement of major goals; * Develop action plans with timelines to accomplish goals; * Identify and use techniques and tools for effective and efficient time management;| Definitions * management * benchmarks * action plan| Reflection Think about the last time you had a lot of things to get done in one day. How many of those things did you actually get done? * How many of those things did you schedule for the next day? Much time is wasted when goals are not considered or prioritised. People need to manage time well so that personal goals can be met and positive habits developed. In this way, when personal goals are aligned with personal and national values and are being achieved,your country will be better able to meet national goals. | ------------------------------------------------- Life Skills Development/Unit One/Goal Setting/Lesson < Life Skills Development | Unit One | Goal Setting Are your days a sure goal or a miss? -------------------------------------------------

What are Goals? An objective or goal is a personal or organizational desired end point in development. It is usually endeavored to be reached in finite time by setting deadlines. ------------------------------------------------- Why is goal setting important? Goal setting is a major component of personal development. It gives us a timeline and a roadmap to help us determine four very important things: 1. What do you want in life? 2. Why do you want it? 3. When do you want it by? 4. What do you choose to do in order to achieve it? Therefore, it is a key aspect to attaining success in life. It is said that if you fail to plan ,then you should plan to fail.

To be an effective planner,you must assess how much control you have over your life. * Do you blame others for your failure? * Do you say,"If only I had done .... "? How you view your control over the events in your life,will suggest the way you plan for success--- the way you set your goals. Activity Make a list of the most important things to you and then indicate what aspects of your life they pertain to, by answering the above questions. List these important things according to the following categories : * Physical * Social * Educational * Financial and Career * Spiritual| The Wheel of Life is a useful assessment for this activity. Self Assessment Question: How do you set goals?

You set goals when you make your goals:SPECIFIC: Clearly state what task (goal) we would like to accomplish. You must answer the six "W" questions: 1. Who: Who is involved? 2. What: What do I want to accomplish? 3. Where: Identify a location. 4. When: Establish a time frame. 5. Which: Identify requirements and constraints. 6. Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal. E. g. A general goal would be, "Get in shape. " But a specific goal would say, "Join a health club and workout 3 days a week. "MEASURABLE: Describe your goal in terms that can clearly be evaluated. Ask questions such as...... How much? How many? How will I know when it is accomplished? E. g.

Work out 1 hour per day, 3 days per week for a month. ATTAINABLE: Figure out ways to accomplish your goal pooling, your own attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to achieve it. Plan your steps wisely and establish a time frame that allows you to carry out those steps. E. g. Do I have the necessary transport to get to gym? Does my budget allow for gym expenses and/or gym equipment? Do I have the endurance and the drive to get thru an hour every day? REALISTIC: A goal you know you are actually capable of obtaining. The necessary resources to attain this goal must be available. A goal must represent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work.

A goal can be both high and realistic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. But be sure that every goal represents substantial progress. A high goal is frequently easier to reach than a low one because a low goal exerts low motivational force. Some of the hardest jobs you ever accomplished actually seem easy simply because they were a labour of love. Your goal is probably realistic if you truly believe that it can be accomplished. Additional ways to know if your goal is realistic is to determine if you have accomplished anything similar in the past or ask yourself what conditions would have to exist to accomplish this goal.

TANGIBLE: A goal is tangible when you can experience it with one of the senses, that is, taste, touch, smell, sight or hearing. When your goal is tangible, or when you tie a tangible goal to an intangible goal, you have a better chance of making it specific and measurable and thus attainable. Intangible goals are your goals for the internal changes required to reach more tangible goals. They are the personality characteristics and the behaviour patterns you must develop to pave the way to success in your career or for reaching some other long-term goal. Since intangible goals are vital for improving your effectiveness, give close attention to tangible ways for measuring them. | Self Assessment How do I ensure that I am effectively setting goals?

The following are components of goal setting that must be covered to ensure effective goal setting:Short term and Long termA long-term goal is an achievement set to be reached over a long period of time. Although most long-term goals tend to be measured in years, it would be appropriate to define a long-term goal for this week, month, year, lifetime, etc. Defining a long term goal involves setting those that are short term to divide the timeline of achieving the long-term goal. A short-term goal is something to be accomplished in a short period of time. Its time frame is related to its context in the overall timeline that it is being applied to. Short-term goals are usually defined in relation to a long-term goal or goals. However, short-term goals are often to relieve short-term pressure.

It is very possible to be constantly driven by these goals, which can turn out to be very unsatisfying in the longer term. Therefore it is important to have long term goals in mind as the end result of accomplishing those that are short term. Short-term and long-term goals are important tools in measuring success. | Activity Now that you have made the SMART choice and have begun goal setting,the task is more manageable. * Using the list compiled previously, divide your goals into categories according to how distant they are in the future. * Examine the possibility of your short term goals assisting you to meet your long term goals. | Reflection

Have you really examined the benefits to be gained from the long and short term goals you have set? The more benefits you can derive from each goal will make goal setting more rewarding and your motivation will be increased. Plan big goals to reap big benefits! | ------------------------------------------------- Life Skills Development/Unit One/Time Management < Life Skills Development | Unit One Contents [hide] * 1 Timeline * 2 Identifying and Eliminating Timewasters * 3 Careful planning * 4 Prioritising and Concentrating on One Thing at a Time * 5 Practice saying “no” * 6 Portfolio Contents * 7 Unit summary * 8 Checklists of Performance Task| ------------------------------------------------ Timeline Figuring out your specific goals is only half of the goal-setting process. The other half requires determining your timeline for reaching these goals. It is near-impossible to come up with a strategy that will successfully fulfill your short-term and long term goals if you don't have a clear line as to when you want to achieve them. Activity Think of your own timeline. What were your goals when you were younger and how were these goals achieved? Now list your future goals and show how you plan to achieve them. Use this framework to focus on your present reality. Use this framework to focus on your present reality. I am able to do……… * I can meet this level of challenge. * I have these resources, support, expertise, time… * I have these goals…. …Reflect on what these mean to you and why. Do a timeline to achieve your career goals. What do you plan to achieve in the next 3-5 years? | Reflection * What barriers have you encountered in your planning and acting out of desired goals personally, at work? * Were you able to turn them into time savers? How so. | ------------------------------------------------- Identifying and Eliminating Timewasters If you were to monitor your time for a day you would be sure to find at least one, or maybe even more, time waster.

A time waster is something that occurs in the day that is not necessary to your day, and if it did not occur, you could have quite possibly gotten something else done in its place. A time waster prevents you from accomplishing some goal. Time wasters need to be recognized and then one needs to figure out why it occurs and if the situation can be remedied i. e. how they can become time savers, making more time available in your day for goal oriented activities. The following is a list of the greatest and most common impediments to goal achievement in addition to a few useful time savers into which time wasters can become. Some of these are critical determinants to goal achievement and effective time management and will be dealt with separately in this section. Time

Wasters| Time Savers| procrastination and excuses| schedule your day| idle chat| relax| running un-necessary errands| understand what must be done| meetings| build the right habit| computer| use idle time to your advantage| rushing| use technology but do not get bogged down with it| indecision| plan to work and work your plan| unclear communication| implement your action plan and prioritize on importance and need| stress, anxiety and fatigue| being aware of your best time of the day to get appropriate things done| inadequate knowledge : acting with out total information| using waiting time constructively| personal disorganization| organise your surroundings| nterruptions: telephone, guests| keep interuptions to a minimum| inability to say no; dealing with other people’s issues or problems| personal crisis : family member is sick or injured| Activity Make a list of see how your own list of time wasters can be turned into time savers. Time wasters/ savers can be selected from the items previously outlined. | ------------------------------------------------- Careful planning Take the time each night to take control of the most precious resource at your command, the next twenty-four hours. Plan your work and then work your plan each day. Write up a To Do list with your entire have to's and want to's for your next day.

Careful daily planning ensures prioritising (what does careful planning consists of). Without a plan for the day, you can easily get distracted, spending your time serving the loudest voice rather than attending to the most important things for your day that will enhance your productivity. An integral part of this process is penning things down either on paper or electronically. Get into the habit of writing things to do down. Your mind is best used for the big picture rather than all the details. Writing things down helps you to more easily remember the important step by step details needed to attain the big picture. -------------------------------------------------

Prioritising and Concentrating on One Thing at a Time Your To Do list will have crucial and not crucial items on it. Despite the fact most people want to be productive, when given the choice between crucial and not crucial items, we will most often end up doing the not crucial items. They are generally easier and quicker than crucial items. Put the #1 next to the most important item on your list. Place the #2 next to the second most important item on your list, etc. Then tackle the items on your list in order of their importance. You may not get everything done on your list, but you will get the most important things done. This is working smarter, not harder, and getting more done in less time.

Typically, after having prioritised, do not attempt to accomplish a fraction of every crucial item in the day. This leads only to half finished projects and no feeling of achievement as all things are done in a hurry and appear rushed to others. Ultimately, this creates more time wasting as such items in the future need to be redone. Give yourself enough time to do things properly. ------------------------------------------------- Practice saying “no” The general rule is: if people can dump their work or problems on to your shoulders they will do it. Some of the most stressed people around lack the skill to 'just say no' for fear of upsetting people. Get over it because these people can do it for you. Activity

Discuss why it is important to be cautious or a risk taker, or persistent in order to achieve one’s goals (bearing in mind that an individual will encounter difficulties in trying to achieve his/her goals). | Reflection * Are you a risk taker or a very cautious person or at what point on the continuum? * What goals a particular would you therefore not consider? * What goals are priority for success and happiness? | Time Manaagement Additional Notes Included in these notes is the SWOT Analysis and an Activity for your enjoyment. Open this attachment with Open Office to get even more information on Time Management. ------------------------------------------------- Portfolio Contents 1.

Your personal/professional timeline of goals for the next 5 years or more. 2. Your five or more steps to attain your major goals. 3. A list of time savers and time wasters. 4. Monthly plan 5. To Do List Reflection * Write a short note on whether your goals are being accomplished within the time frame you were expecting or not, OR whether you need to re-structure your goals. * Have avae I planned sufficient time to achieve my goals? Am I mature enough and I am capable of managing my time efficiently? | ------------------------------------------------- Unit summary In this unit you learned about SWOT Analysis and practised how to restructure your goals to maximise opportunities and reduce threats.

You created a Personal Goal Timeline and identified the Time Wasters and Time Savers that were affecting the achievement of these goals. You are therefore equipped to reduce Time Wasters and engage in better Time Management. ------------------------------------------------- Checklists of Performance Task | RUBRIC of performance criteria| V. Well Done| Well Done| OK| Not Ok- Will redo by …. | 1. | My personal timeline for the next 5 years includes 2 long term goals| | | | | 2. | My personal timeline for the next 5 years includes 4 short term goals that lead to attaining my long term goals| | | | | 3. | My goals are SMART| | | | | 4. | I have included these goals in my Personal Development Plan. | | | | |

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