Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) is a virus that kills the immune system 's cells, taking to a Immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) , which is when the immune system is weakened to the point where an single gets certain types of life-threatening diseases, infections, and malignant neoplastic diseases. HIV infection is frequently inapparent and can take every bit small as a few hebdomads to look as minor flu-like symptoms and ten old ages for more terrible symptoms, which may include concern, chronic cough, diarrhoea, conceited secretory organs, deficiency of energy, loss of appetency and weight loss, frequent febrilities and workout suits, frequent barm infections, tegument roseolas, pelvic and abdominal spasms, sores on certain parts of your organic structure, and short-run memory loss.
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As people age, some ripening procedures are similar to the consequence of chronic HIV on the organic structure. Apoptosis, the natural mechanism for the organic structure to acquire rid of weak or damaged cells, can take to the break of the immune system, which can besides take to malignant neoplastic diseases ; this is occurs more frequently in older people with HIV. Older grownups with HIV besides experience immunosenescence, besides called immunologic ripening or exhaustion of T-cells, which causes a destructive high T-cell turnover and may be portion of premature ripening of the immune system ( Aging and HIV, 2010 ) . Anyone is at hazard of acquiring HIV/AIDS, which may be due to many different grounds. Peoples can acquire HIV from holding without utilizing rubbers if their sex spouse is HIV positive ; the virus would go through from the spouse to them through the exchange of organic structure fluids, including blood, seeds, vaginal fluid, by any gap such as a tear or cut in the liner of the vagina, vulva, phallus, rectum, or oral cavity. Peoples are besides at hazard if they do non cognize their spouse 's sexual and drug history ; they should inquire themselves if their spouse has been tested for HIV, how many different sex spouses they have had, and if they use any drug injections. Another hazard factor is if a individual injects drugs and portion acerate leafs or panpipes with other people ; this may non merely be applicable to drug users, other people, such as those with diabetes who inject insulin or pull blood to prove for glucose degrees, might portion acerate leafs. In add-on, if a individual has had a blood transfusion between 1978 and 1985 or in a underdeveloped state at any clip, he or she might be besides at hazard of undertaking HIV. However, the virus can non be contracted from insouciant contact, such as agitating custodies or caressing, sharing a drink or being sneezed on by a HIV positive individual, donating blood, and mosquito bites. Using public telephone, imbibing fountain, public public toilets, swimming pool, Jacuzzi, or hot bath besides does non set one at hazard ( HIV, AIDS, and Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Peoples frequently believe that older grownups, 50 and older, are non at hazard for acquiring HIV because they do non hold sex, which besides contributes to the addition rate of among people in this age scope. However, surveies from the early 1990s provided informations that proved there is no alteration in sexual desire after the age of 50 and experts report that more than half of people over 50 are holding sex a couple times each month. However, older grownups know less about safe sex patterns late adolescents and immature grownups in their early mid-twentiess, which explains portion of the growing in the HIV population ( Cichocki, 2007 ) . HIV among grownups over 50 is nil new ; since the early 80 's, HIV in individuals older grownups have accounted for about 10 per centum of all instances. Back in the yearss, HIV was chiefly transmitted by blood among the senior population, but today, heterosexual contact and needle sharing among IV drug users over 50 are the chief causes of HIV among them ( Cichocki, 2007 ) . In add-on to cognize less about safe sex and HIV than the younger crowd, older grownups are less likely to speak about their sex life, are frequently neglected by healthcare workers and pedagogues, in footings of HIV/AIDS instruction and bar, and frequently non asked about their sex life or drug usage by physicians. It is a batch harder for physicians to detect HIV symptoms in an older grownup ( HIV, AIDS, and Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Because older grownups may misidentify HIV/AIDS symptoms for the achings and strivings of normal aging, they are less likely to acquire tested for HIV/AIDS than younger people. In add-on, they may be embarrassed, ashamed, and fearful of being tested for HIV/AIDS, which is frequently considered a disease connected with holding sex and injecting drugs, which besides causes them to populate in isolation and to hold more terrible depression. For this ground, people age 50 and over may hold had HIV for old ages before being tested and by the clip they are diagnosed, the virus may already be in its most advanced phase. Older grownups who HIV most of the clip make non populate every bit long as immature people who have it. Many older people who have HIV/AIDS live in isolation because they are afraid to state household and friends about their unwellness. HIV/AIDS besides affects older grownups in another manner. Young people with HIV/AIDS can normally turn to their parents and grandparents for fiscal support and nursing attention, but many older people have cared for their ain HIV positive kids and so for their orphaned and sometimes HIV positive grandchildren ; this can be mentally, physically, and financially run outing, particularly if the individual is HIV positive because they require more attending and attention ( HIV, AIDS, and Older Adults, n.d. ) .
There may besides be a connexion between HIV and climacteric. Womans who are menopausal are no longer worried about acquiring pregnant and therefore may be less likely to utilize a rubber and pattern safe sex. Some menopausal adult females besides have vaginal waterlessness and cutting, intending they are more likely to hold little cryings and scratchs during sexual intercourse, which can set them at greater hazard for undertaking HIV. In add-on, due to the fact that adult females may populate longer than work forces and the lifting rate of divorce, there is an addition figure of widowed, divorced, or detached adult females get downing to day of the month ; since many of them do non understand how HIV is spread, they are at hazard of HIV transmittal ( HIV, AIDS, and Older Adults, n.d. ) .
For many decennaries bar plans have been largely created for immature people ; merely a smattering has been aimed at older grownups. Simply seting images of old people on a posting or circular stating things such as stop AIDSs, wear a rubber, or pattern safe sex, is non plenty to forestall HIV transmittal among older grownups ; it is of import to understand the issue of aging and get bying with the challenges HIV will give. Harmonizing to Ory, Zablotsky and Crystal ( 1998 ) , in order to place older grownups ' AIDS-related hazards behaviours, and develop educational attacks and preventative schemes for modifying any hazardous behaviour, dedicated attempt is needed ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
There are some challenges to HIV/AIDS bar for older grownups. The first challenge is that older grownups are less likely to follow HIV bar schemes than immature grownups. HIV/AIDS is besides seldom discussed among people of the same community. In add-on, older grownups are non suspected of drug usage, which is a large error because older grownups are merely like everybody else and do the same things as everybody else. Many older grownups frequently show marks of hazardous sexual behaviours, do non utilize protection, usage IV drugs and portion acerate leafs. They besides find themselves dating once more because they might be a window, separated, or divorced, and holding sex without protection. Carolyn is an old adult female who got married three times and contracted HIV, from the drug trader who was populating her, by holding unprotected sex and sharing acerate leaf for drugs injections. She did non cognize about the virus until the drug trader who was live togethering with her got hospitalized and her girl found out from the physician that he was deceasing from HIV and prohibited Carolyn from seeing her grandchildren as a consequence ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Furthermore, there is grounds that some HIV infected older grownups have gotten it through sexual dealingss with the same gender. Pat is a HIV positive older grownup who has ever known he was homosexual since he was immature ; he was given four months to populate when he was diagnosed but has learned to get by with the disease with the support of his household. Older grownups besides do non hold proving and instruction attempts directed to them ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Assorted factors should be considered in bar plans for older grownups. The best plans to work are normally those that are intensive. They should emphasize on alteration motive, attitudes, behavioural accomplishments, self-management schemes, and personal hazard decrease problem-solving. A good plan should besides be carefully made harmonizing to the cultural, lifestyle, relationship and normative beliefs and values of clients.A In add-on, gender, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, and relationship values of clientsA are factors that affect the aims, content, and issues that must be addressed during the HIV bar plan. It is really of import to non presume that patients are non at hazard, to give bar messages to patients ( they should be repeated at regular intervals ) , to learn other professionals to increase consciousness of the hazard factors to older grownups and work with them to inform the older grownup community. HIV infection should besides be tested when there are unexplained symptoms ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
In order to forestall HIV transmittal and inform older grownups, it is besides of import to be cognizant of the job ; older grownups and their health care suppliers are most of the clip non cognizant of the job. In 1997, Skiest and Keiser did a study of primary attention doctors ' beliefs, patterns, and cognition that pointed out many concerns. One of the concerns was that 69.7 % of the doctors said that grownups, 50 old ages and over, seldom or ne'er asked inquiries refering HIV or AIDS. 60.8 % besides said that they seldom or ne'er discussed HIV/AIDS with their patients who are 50 old ages and older, and 67.5 % of them seldom or ne'er discussed hazard factor decrease. Some of them besides said that they are more likely to ne'er inquire their older patients over 50 than their younger 1s under 30 about HIV hazard factors. In add-on, doctors did non rank the most prevailing hazard factors in patients over 50 in the right order, being: ( 1 ) male-male sex, ( 2 ) endovenous drug usage, ( 3 ) blood transfusion, and ( 4 ) heterosexual sex. Physicians 40 and older were more likely to cognize the most prevailing hazard factor of HIV for older grownups. Family practicians were more likely toA seldom or ne'er askA older patients about hazard factors for HIV than other doctors. The study showed that primary attention doctors do non cognize plenty about HIV/AIDS hazard factors in older patients and do non speak enough about HIV and AIDS with older patients ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
It is of import to speak to older grownups about the hazards of HIV/AIDS and educate them on bar. Older people frequently open up and discourse sensitive affairs, including gender, when they feel that it is of import for their wellness or the wellness of their loved ones.A However, some may be embarrassed to uncover that they are still sexually active at their age because society expects them non to be.A Those who do drugs injections may besides experience shame from making something illegal.A Harmonizing to Hendersen et Al, older adult females need instruction on reenforcing the possibility of HIV transmittal by heterosexual intercourse, clear uping misperceptions about transmittal, and stressing the effectivity and usage of rubbers in bar. Older grownups besides should be informed about proving ; they need to cognize when to be tested and that they can be treated. Prevention messages should besides be repeated so that they can be reinforced. Giving messages one time is non plenty ; it may increase older grownups ' cognition about HIV/AIDS but it will non be adequate to alter any hazardous behaviours the some older grownups have. Older grownups should besides be helped in developing the accomplishments to forestall infection.A A They may necessitate to be taught how to decently utilize a rubber and those who use injection drug may non recognize the dangers of needle sharing. Older grownups are more familiar with the usage of rubbers in gestation bar, which is a concern they no longer hold, and do non hold every bit much cognition of HIV bar by the usage of rubbers. Merely 13 % of older adult females inA Henderson et Al ( 2004 ) survey knew the efficiency of rubbers in forestalling HIV transmittal ; non cognizing much about how good condom works in HIV bar may take to less usage of it. In add-on, older work forces may hold erectile troubles worsened by rubber usage, which would do them non utilize condoms.A It is besides of import to speak to HIV positive older grownups because they can distribute the disease ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Furthermore, it is a good thing to acquire in touch with other people who besides work with older grownups and those specialized in HIV/AIDS. It is better to work every bit group because it would increase consciousness, resources, and available information. Working with public wellness pedagogues will besides give more information about community instruction ; older grownups need to be able to reach services that can help them. Older grownups, particularly those who are HIV positive, will most likely need the specialised attention of an infective disease ( ID ) doctor ; A A other wellness attention professionals, such as gerontologists, societal workers, and instance directors most of the clip will besides necessitate to acquire involved as the disease progresses.A As a consequence of these professionals working together, attention will be better coordinated and all other demands of the older grownup patient will be met. However, sometime other professionals may non understand the hazard of HIV infection for older grownups or may believe the myths that older grownups are non involved in drugs or are sexually active. In this instance, one should learn them so that they can be portion of the bar plan ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Dedication is needed to place HIV/AIDS hazard factors and develop a good educational and preventative plan. All messages must be made for the older population ; those made the younger crowd may non make older grownups because they will experience as though it does n't concern them. Older grownups will non utilize rubbers unless there are given a ground to make so. If the plan is made to aim the older population, it is more likely to increase their cognition on HIV/AIDS. It is besides a good thing to hold some plans and messages directed to different groups of older grownups. One chief group is homosexual males ; they are at hazard due to male-to-male sexual dealingss being the taking manner of transmittal of HIV/AIDS in older grownups. Another of import group is heterosexual adult females ; a turning per centum of septic adult females are African American. Womans are a large part of HIV infected aged patients and African American adult females populating in a rural scene are more affected and more likely to be infected. It is disputing to inform them of the hazards because they may non desire to listen, hence integrating the message along with other medical services will assist in making them. In add-on, some messages should be directed to older grownups traveling through different phases of life ; they may be at hazard because of new relationships after separation, divorce, or widowhood. It is besides indispensable to chase away myths about older grownups because even those who work with them could believe in those myths ( HIV/AIDS & A ; Older Adults, n.d. ) .
Overall, older grownups are more at hazard for HIV/AIDS due to the weakening of the immune system as people age. Older grownup besides are at a higher hazard of infection because they tend to hold unprotected sex because they are non any longer concern with gestation and some suffer from erectile disfunction, which might impede them from have oning rubbers. The chief cause of HIV/AIDS transmittal in older grownups is male homosexual dealingss and needle sharing. In order to inform older grownups about the hazards of HIV, it is of import to understand the issue and work as a squad with other professionals who work with them. It is besides of import to educate other professionals about HIV hazard for older grownups and chase away myths such as older grownups are non sexually active and do non hold sex
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