Last Updated 24 Mar 2023

Fundamentals of Computer

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What is data processing?

Data processing is a series of actions on input that converts the input into useful output. In data processing, input is data and output is the useful information. In consists of three sub activities: Capturing input data, manipulating it and producing output information. People, procedure and devices are required to produce the output from the input data.

What is a file management system?

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File management system is a set of programs which help the users to organize, create, delete, update and manipulate their files. Its common features are as described below.

  • Transaction file: It stores the input data until the application uses it during next processing cycle.
  • Master file: It contains all current data relevant to an application.
  • Output file: some applications use multiple programs. One program takes the output of another program as input; hence the former program stores the output as an output file.
  • Report file: It is a copy of report, generated by application in computer accessible form.
  • Backup file: It is a copy of file crated by user or system to avoid loss of data due to corruption or deletion of original file.

What is a computer network?

Computer network is a group of computers which are linked to each other via internet. The computers on network can communicate with each other and can share information. Four basic service provided by internet to its users are electronic mail, file transfer protocol, telnet and use net news. The common network types are personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area network (MANs), campus area networks (CANs) and wide area network (WANs).

What is a secondary storage?

The additional memory needed in all computers to overcome the limitations of primary storage (Limited capacity and Volatile) is called secondary storage. t is nonvolatile and has lower cost per bit stored. It operates generally at slower speed than primary storage. Computer system uses it primarily to store large volume of data on permanent basis. Commonly used storage devices are hard disk, CD ROM, DVD, memory card and Pen drive.

How do I know if my computer has been infected?

After you open and run an infected program or attachment on your computer, you might not realize that you've introduced a virus until you notice something isn't quite right. Here are a few indicators that your computer might be infected:

  • Your computer runs more slowly than normal
  • Your computer stops responding or freezes often Your computer crashes and restarts every few minutes
  • Your computer restarts on its own and then fails to run normally
  • Applications on your computer don't work correctly
  • Disks or disk drives are inaccessible
  • You can't print correctly
  • You see unusual error messages.

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