Last Updated 20 Jun 2022

Factors Affecting Academic Performance

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Problem and Its Setting


Academic performance is measured by the standing of rates of grades of student in every subject. Having a high level of performance on the academic area of a student suggest its competency and high level of confidence on its certain field. Students have their own attitude towards learning and achieving a high level of academic performance. The development of their enthusiasm towards succeeding in their own field varies.

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In order for a student to succeed he needs to be armed with strategies and techniques that will supplement his desire to reach his goals.One way is to have an efficient and adaptive study habit. This phenomenon can be linked to multi factors that affect their study habit. Such factors can be found in their environment, these includes the type of house they live in; the people around them and the level of support they give; the student and his family’s daily routines; the availability of resources for studying; and also his family’s economic status, etcetera. Calbayog City, geographically, is a large city and it is also the focal point of many municipalities in the islands of Samar.That is why apart from the majority of students with families living in the city, it is also common in schools to have students that live in boarding houses since these students live in places far enough from Calbayog City. Christ the King College, specifically the College of Nursing shares this commonality which brings the researchers to wondering whether there are comparisons and differences among BS Nursing students living in their homes and boarding houses in relation to their academic performance.

Statement of the problemThis study aims at finding the factors affecting the level of academic performance among the BS nursing student of Christ the king college. It specifically seeks to answer the following questions:

1. what is the profile of the BSN students in terms of;

1. 1 age;

1. 2 sex;

1. 3 residency;

1. 4 civil status

1. 5 socio-economic status;

1. 6 number of household members;

1. 7 daily allowance;

1. 8 person supporting education;

1. 9 available learning materials;

1. 10 educational attainment;

2. What is the performance rating of BS nursing student in their major subjects? .

3. What are the factors that affect the level of academic performance of BSN students?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the student’s profile and their level of academic performance?

5 What are the implications of the findings of the study which can be utilized as a bases for the factors affecting the level of academic performance? Statement of the purpose This study aims to determine the different factors affecting the level of academic performance among BS nursing students of Christ the king college. It also tries to attain the following objectives; . To determine the profile of the BSN students in terms of;

1. 1 age;

1. 2 sex;

1. 3 residency;

1. 4 civil status

1. 5 socio-economic status;

1. 6 number of household members;

1. 7 daily allowances;

1. 8 person supporting education;

1. 9 available learning materials;

1. 10 educational attainment;

2.To determine the performance rating of BS nursing students in their major subjects.

3. To determine the different factors that affects the level of academic performance of the BS nursing students.

4. To find out the significant relationship between the rofile of the students and their level of academic performance; and

5.To determine the implication of the findings of the study which can be utilized as bases for the factors affecting the level of academic performance of the students. Significance of the study The study attempts to find out the factors affecting the levels of academic performance of the BS nursing students in Christ the king college.

The results of the study will benefit the following persons: The administrators- this study will help the administrators of the school to determine new strategies and policies to mprove the academic performance of the students. The family- this will give awareness on hoe they pose an effect to the student’s realization of a good study habit and on how they can be a good support system. The students- this will present measures of improving in their academic performance Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study will focus on finding out the factors affecting the BS nursing students of Christ the King College living in their homes and boarding houses in relation to their academic performances.The respondents of the study will be the whole 4th year BS Nursing students of Christ the King College, Calbayog City. The researchers aim to use researcher module questionnaires as tools in collecting relevant date and information from the respondents. This will be conducted at Christ the King College, Calbayog City on the second semester of the school year 2010 – 2011. Theoretical Framework A direct offspring or subset of Sigmund Freud’s theory is Martin Ford’s motivational systems theory (MST).

This framework focuses on the individual as the unit of nalysis, but embeds the individual in the biological, social, and environmental contexts that are crucial to development. MST attempts to describe the development of the whole person-in-context, in much the same way a biologist might describe an individual plant and its relation to its immediate ecological niche, as well as the larger ecosystems in which it resides (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Ford proposed a simple mathematical formula that attempts to represent all these factors in one model. The formula for effective person-in-context functioning is:Achievement = (Motivation x Skill ) x Responsive Environment Biological Structure The formula proposes that actual “achievement and competence are the results of a motivated, skillful, and biologically capable person interacting with a responsive environment” (Ford, 1992, p. 70). The motivational systems theory does not attempt to replace or supersede any of the existing theories. Instead, it attempts to organize the various motivational constructs from different theories into one model.

The main constructs are self-efficacy eliefs, the role of expectancy, and goal orientation. The formula suggests that in any behavior episode, there are four major prerequisites for effective functioning:

1. The person must have the motivation needed to initiate and maintain the activity until the goal directing the episode is attained.

2. The person must have the skill necessary to construct and execute a pattern of activity that will produce the desired result.

3. The person’s biological structure and functioning must be able to support the operation of the motivation and skill components.

4.The person must have the cooperation of a responsive environment that will facilitate progress towards the goal (Ford, 1992).

This model attempts to provide a comprehensive theory of motivation and proposes that actual achievement and competence are the results of a motivated, skillful, and biologically capable person interacting within a responsive environment.

Conceptual Framework Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

1: Schematic paradigm of the study showing the factors affecting the BS Nursing students of Christ the King College living in homes and boarding houses in relation to their level of academic performance.As seen in the diagram, the study attempts to evaluate the factors affecting the BS Nursing students of Christ the King College living in homes and boarding houses in relation to their level of academic performance. The point of the arrows indicates the possible relationship of these factors to students’ level of academic performance. Statement of the Null Hypothesis The identifiable factors of the BS Nursing students of Christ the King College living in homes and boarding houses does not influence their academic performance.

Definition of Terms

The following words are defined operationally and conceptually to have a better understanding of the study: Factors. These include all the elements or causes that produce result (warren, 2000). In this study, these include the factors identified as affecting the level of academic performance of 4th year BS Nursing students living in their homes and those living in boarding houses. Student. It is a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution (wikipedia). In this study, these include the entire fourth year nursing student living in their homes and in boarding houses.

Academic performance.

Academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers (wikipedia). In this study, this refers to the achievements of the nursing students in the academic areas of their study.

Chapter Ii Review Of Related Studies And Literature

This chapter contains some studies and literature believed to be related or relevant to present study. Materials used were taken from different publications, books and websites on the internet written by both local and foreign authors. Related studiesUsing a nationally representative sample of the American households, we examine the relation between the parental involvement in schooling and the child’s school performance. With a sample of 179 children, parents, and teachers, we investigate 3 hypotheses:

  1. the higher the educational status of the mother, the greater the degree of parental involvement in school activities;
  2.  the younger the age of the child, the greater the degree of parental involvement; and
  3.  children of parents who are more involved in school activities do better in school than children with parents who are less involved.In an analysis of cross-sectional data, we discover support for the 3 hypotheses.

The educational status of the mother is related to the degree of parental involvement in schooling, so that parents with more education are more involved. Parental involvement is related to the child’s school performance. Also, parents are more involved in school activities of the child is younger. The mother’s educational level and the age of the child are stronger predictors of parental involvement of schooling for boys than for girls. We do not, however, find a direct effect of maternal education status on school performance independent of parental involvement is school activities. We discuss these findings in light of the relation between families and schools. Investigation that adopted refined measures of family influences have tended to show that they are related more strongly to academic outcomes than are more global measures of family background.

Kellaghan and his colleagues (1993) conclude, for example, that family social status or cultural background need not determine a child’s achievement at school. They propose that for academic success, it is what parents do in the home, and not children s family background, that is significant. Similarly, Sam Redding (1999(indicates that in relation to academic outcomes, the potential limitations associated with poor economic circumstances can be overcome by parents who provide stimulating, supportive, and language-rich experiences for their children. It is important, however, to recognize the nature of the interrelationships between family background characteristics and more refined family influences. In the development of a model of human development, for example, Stephen J. Ceci and his colleagues (1997) propose that the efficacy of f family influence for academic success is determined to a large degree by a child s family background. They observe that parent-child interactions are the forces that lead to academic performance.

In addition, they claim that academic success is achieved only if family background resources can be accessed to maximize the association between family influences and outcomes: relationships between family influences and academic achievement need to tale into account the potentially constraining or expanding opportunities provided by children’s family backgrounds. An alternate perspective is the confluence model, which proposes that children’s academic development is affected by the number of children n families, the age spacing among children, and whether children are only, first, or last born in families. The model claims, for example, that with short birth intervals between children, increasing birth order is related to lower academic performance. In contrast, with sufficiently large intervals, the birth-order pattern maybe mitigated or even reversed. Home background according to PISA (programme international student assessment, 2000) influences academic and educational success of students and schoolwork, while socio-economic status reinforces the activities and functioning of the teachers and students. The learning environment that is free of barriers, or obstacles or distractions such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute health hazards, which in turn affect or reduce student’s concentration or perceptual or conceptual focus to learning (Sprinthall, 1987).

All of the research reviews support the hypothesis that student performance depends on different socio-economic, psychological, environmental factors. The findings of research studies focused that student performance is affected by different factors such as learning abilities because new paradigm about learning assumes that all students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not be considered as constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affect student’s performance. (Hansen, Joe B. 2000).Some of the researchers even tried to explain the link between students achievements, economic circumstances and the risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive, explained the effects of age, qualification distance from learning place etc. on student performance. The performance of students on the module is not affected by such factors as age, sex, and place of residence but is associated with qualification in quantitative subjects. It is also found that those who love near the university perform better than other students. Alexander Gur explained that some of the practices adopted by college administration in higher education like residential colleges or organized study groups also help to increase performance.

It also found that parental education and social economic status have an impact on student achievement. Students with parents who were both college-educated tended to achieve at the highest levels. Income and family size were modestly related to achievement (Ferguson, 1991). Peng and Wright’s (1994) analysis of academic achievement, home environment (including family income) and educational activities, concluded that home environment and educational activities explained the greatest amount of variance. www.

Related Literature

Students who are motivated are likely to perform well in their examinations. There are many factors that may contribute towards students’ motivation to achieve high grades in school. This study focuses on one possible factor, that is, the student’s home environment. This study attempted to find out whether the differences in academic achievement motivation among students can be attributed to differences in their home environments. In this study it was assumed that student’s home environments could be a possible determinant of their variations in academic achievement motivation.

The value that different families attach to education could affect the student’s attitude to school and eventually affect his or her motivation for success in schoolwork. Many homes differ on factors such as family size, availability of learning materials, the parents’ level of education, parents’ occupation, income, parental encouragement and involvement. Atkinson and Feather (1966) observed that the achievement motivation of children whose fathers have attained high educational level and are in high income occupations tend to be high. Heckhausen (1967) cites several studies that have shown that achievement motivation increases with socio-economic status. Children with a high family income tend to attain high academic performance in the sense that they are able to buy educational materials that can greatly help them in their studies. The type of environment he or she lives in influences level of academic performance of a student. Students that live in an environment not conducive for learning will technically shows a low academic performance.

In a study by Gottfried and Fleming (1998), home environment was found to have a statistically positive and significant effect on academic intrinsic motivation. Children whose homes had greater emphasis on learning opportunities and activities were more academically intrinsically motivated. Atkinson and Feather (1966) also states that, children from favourable home environments tend to have a high need for achievement as opposed to those from unfavourable home environments. The term “home environment” refers to all the objects, forces and conditions in the home, which influence the child physically, intellectually and emotionally. Different home environments vary in many aspects such as the parents’ level of education, economic status, occupational status, religious background, attitudes, values, interests, parents’ expectation for their children, and family size among others. Children coming from different home environments are affected differently by such variations. Out of the many effects that the home environment may have on the child, academic achievement motivation was singled out for study in this research.

Chapter III Research Methodology

This chapter presents a description of the research methodology used in this study which includes the research design, the respondents, the research locale and time of the studies, sampling technique, instrumentations and the data gathering procedures. Local and time of the study This study will be conducted during the second semester of the school year 2010-2011 at the College of Nursing of Christ the King College, Calbayog City. The Respondents: The respondents in this study are students from 2nd year to 4th year nursing students of the Nursing and IHAP Department of CKC. These nursing students are identified to be living at home with their family and at boarding houses far from their family. These students are officially enrolled in CKC during the first semester of school year 2010 – 2011.

Students living in their homes Students living in boarding houses TOTAL100% Variables of the Study: Dependent Variable: a comparative study of factors affecting the academic performance Independent Variable: BSN students of Christ the King College, Calbayog City, living in boarding houses and their homes.

Research Design

The expost facto-survey method of research will be used to determine factors that will affect the level of academic performance among the 4th year nursing student of CKC living at home and boarding house. Expost facto- a type of research designs, which attempts to understand relationship among phenomena as they naturally occur without any intervention; often referred to as correlation research In the ex-post facto design the researcher does not have direct control over independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they cannot be inherently manipulated. The investigator therefore examined the impact of living in homes and boarding houses (independent variable) on the level of academic performance among 4th year BSN (dependent variable) after the effects have been experienced. Research instrument The main instrument to be used in data gathering is a questionnaire prepared by researchers. Questionnaire will compose of bio-data of the respondents, and the questions to be answered by the respondent provided with the responses for the specific problem of the study.

To be attached in the questionnaire is a letter stating the purpose of the study and the request of the researcher to the respondents to answer the given questionnaire honestly and completely. Sampling technique Stratified random sampling will be used in selecting respondents in the study since students among BSN are divided into 2 groups, 1st group are the students living in their home and the 2nd group are the students living in boarding house. Data gathering procedure The researchers will undergo the following procedures for the conduction of this study .First, a draft of the questionnaire will be submitted to the research instructor for final correction and revision. The approved questionnaire will be reproduced and distributed to our respondents-the BSN 4th year students of Christ the king college listed in the college registrar. The significant information and data that we will obtain will be presented, interpreted, and analyzed. Republic of the Philippines Christ the King College Calbayog City Dear Respondents, Greetings!We, the researchers, are presently conducting a study entitled “Factors Affecting Academic Performance of BSN Students of Christ the King College”, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree in Bachelor of Science in Nursing.

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