Critical Evaluation of Assessment Practice in Enterprise Education

Last Updated: 04 Jul 2021
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Table of contents

In this twenty-four hours and age, there is a demand for pupils to derive entrepreneurial accomplishments which may assist them run into work force and economic demands. This demand has been documented by several research workers. The function of the pupil has changed over the old ages from independency and ego sufficiency to interdependence. This alteration is seting larning establishments under force per unit area to bring forth alumnuss who have non merely the cognition, but besides the accomplishments needed in designation of chances, understanding market forces, commercializing new merchandises and recommending for them. This means that there is a turning demand for establishments to make assessment patterns that will assist their pupils be successful in this extremely competitory universe. This critical paper focuses on appraisal pattern in endeavor instruction.

Many bookmans have written articles and documents about the demand to hold deeper appraisal pattern research to assistance in the creative activity of appraisal schemes that are pupil oriented and which are up to the needed criterions. The paper entitled ''Assessment Practice in Enterprise Education '' is authored by Dr. Luke Pittaway. It analyses the present arguments about assessment pattern in Higher Education. The paper gives some in depth information about educational research on appraisal in instruction and to what extent this research impacts on entrepreneurship instruction.

The attack of the article is based on researching several results and foregrounding the functions they play in assisting in the comprehension for the assorted grounds why people engage in endeavor instruction. Thereafter, the paper applies the different results to assessment pattern. This application of results is done by describing a figure of focal point groups. The terminal consequences based on different focal point groups are presented harmonizing to results in different possible entrepreneurships and little concerns. The followers is a critical rating of the paper.

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Article summary

Pittaway identified different research subjects in the country of endeavor instruction. The writer looked at systematic literature reappraisal to place these subjects. Some of the subjects that the writer found to rule this country are:

  • Factors impacting the leaning of pupils to go enterprisers
  • Changes in pupil efficaciousness brought approximately by instruction
  • Institutional policies and
  • Teaching method

The writer criticized the systematic literature reappraisal of non giving much attending to the issue of assessment pattern in endeavor instruction. Harmonizing to him, '' coded commendation informations developed inductively from abstracts did non foreground the topic as of major concern to the research community '' . He goes on to state that the research done on endeavor instruction focuses excessively much on the design and execution of plans instead than assessment pattern efficaciousness.

However, every bit much as the writer recognizes the restrictions of these research outcomes, he besides admits that there is barely any research that has been done on the country of assessment pattern in assorted entrepreneurship diaries. Harmonizing to him, this could be the ground why current research on appraisal standards on endeavor instruction has really small to offer. Pittaway argues that this inadvertence is unfortunate since he sees assessment as being really of import in academic pattern. He says that appraisal determines the quality of higher instruction instruction and acquisition. He agrees with those who say that decently designed appraisal tools make aid do clear outlooks. He besides says that they are of import in the constitution of sensible work load and creative activity of chances for pupils to supervise themselves, pattern, rehearse and acquire feedback.

Harmonizing to Pittaway, the UK authorities bureaus such as the Quality confidence Agency and the Higher Education Academy, that are responsible for guaranting that instruction quality is maintained, usually put a batch of accent of assessment pattern. They usually focus on appraisal pattern so as to guarantee that rating is effectual. Concentrating on appraisal pattern besides enables the bureaus to protect educational criterions. They besides use it as a agency of larning every bit good as pupil feedback.

Pittaway observes that although appraisal pattern is enormously of import, it has been abandoned in many learning establishments and it is taught as a topic in endeavor instruction. He addresses this inadvertence by measuring assorted statements and positions given in research on several assessment patterns. He besides gives some of the established entrepreneurial results in endeavor related instruction. The results that he focuses on are those that have been developed by the UK National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship. At the terminal of the paper, Pittaway draws together some of the classs of appraisal and explains how they can be used to better endeavor instruction.

Cardinal Subjects: Arguments and Discussions

Pittaway states that as a topic, appraisal is rather wide and it includes several signifiers of assessment pattern in higher instruction. He lists these assessment pattern signifiers as:

  • Institutional appraisal
  • Teacher appraisal
  • Student appraisal

He focuses on pupil appraisal, which he says has elicited concern chiefly due to increasing force per unit area from academic bureaus and authorities organic structures which are looking to act upon, enhance and step public presentation of establishments. However, he considers assessment pattern as a really of import facet of educational pattern for its built-in function in measuring the nexus between the existent accomplishment of pupils and the desired or expected educational results. He goes on to state that the nexus between appraisal and educational results is really near. He says that the system of appraisal used has the possible to drive pupil behaviour and in the long tally, affect their learning experience.

Pittaway focuses on arguments and statements which revolve around political and educational concerns. One of these educational concerns is based on how assessment patterns impact on the acquisition procedure. This concern seeks to understand how and to what extent appraisal can be able to assist larning to happen. Many establishments in the state have put in topographic point appraisal methods that have a clear alliance with expected larning results every bit good as the cognition and accomplishments that pupils are taught.

Pittaway sees the deficiency of a clear alliance between larning results, larning chances and appropriate appraisal patterns as a major job ( Pittaway, 7 ) . He says that this alliance has non been every bit good thought through as it should be. Another job that Pittaway points out in the bing appraisal undertakings is the deficiency of a deep procedure. He says that the bing appraisal patterns encourage surface acquisition at the disbursal of deep acquisition which usually has the possible to enable a pupil addition entrepreneurial accomplishments that he can utilize subsequently in life. He says that ''many of our appraisal processes encourage surface larning directing pupils to play the system instead than promoting deep acquisition '' .

Principles for Effective Assessment Practice:

  • Pittaway gives the undermentioned rules for efficient appraisal pattern in enterprise instruction:
  • The appraisal pattern should be dependable, valid and consistent
  • The sum of appraisal should be appropriate
  • The intent or ground for appraisal should be clearly defined
  • the standards used in appraisal should be expressed, apprehensible and transparent
  • all signifiers of appraisal tools need to be based on proper apprehension of pupil acquisition procedures
  • appraisal must suit the differences exhibited by single pupils
  • appraisal patterns should give room for pupils to have feedback
  • appraisal must enable pupil and instructors to reflect on their acquisition and patterneventually, the appraisal method used in an establishment needs to be an built-in portion of class design

Reliability, value and consistency are some of the qualities that any academic appraisal plan should hold. The assessment pattern should be dependable in that it should be applicable to broad scope of class countries. A valuable appraisal pattern means that it is able to heighten the entrepreneurial capablenesss of scholars. The assessment undertaking demands to be appropriate to a scholar 's environment. The endeavor appraisal should be related to what the pupil has learnt in his entrepreneurial instruction and it should besides reflect the sort of entrepreneurial patterns that are used in a certain part.

Many pedagogues do non clearly specify their appraisal intents. This is what leads to equivocal appraisals which end up non assisting the pupils at all. To avoid such a state of affairs, there is demand to clearly specify larning results in entrepreneurship assessment patterns. Educators need to believe profoundly about the appraisal tools to utilize in endeavor instruction. This will do apprehension of assessment standards really easy and apprehensible. When pedagogues understand the pupil 's acquisition procedures, so it is besides easy to make assessment patterns that are value added.

In planing efficient appraisal patterns, there is need to understand a pupil 's alone demands. There is no point in planing appraisal plans which do non reflect the demands of each and every pupil. When the single demands of scholars are considered in the design of appraisal in entrepreneurial instruction and appraisal, so assessment efficiency is possible. An efficient appraisal pattern should give a pupil the chance to have feedback. Feedback is of import as it enables the pupil to personally estimate how good he understands constructs and how efficaciously he can use the accomplishments that he has been taught. Feedback should be given in a manner that encourages betterment in larning results.

Contemplation is an of import facet of effectual acquisition. In planing entrepreneurial appraisal patterns and schemes, pedagogues need to believe about making them in away that will advance contemplation. When pupils and their instructors reflect on their acquisition patterns, they are likely to appreciate their acquisition results and better their entrepreneurial accomplishments. Including practical and good thought out assessment scheme in the overall class design is really of import. It ensures that the appraisal method and standards used is in line with the needed acquisition criterions.

The thought that assessment patterns need to be wholesome is a welcome one. It is high clip that pedagogues recognized the importance of effectual appraisal in making a coevals of entrepreneurial persons. They should therefore think truly carefully about the appraisal patterns that will convey out the best int inheritor pupils in footings of entrepreneurial capablenesss. Teachers and other instruction policy shapers should non work in isolation with pupils and other stakeholders when planing appraisal schemes that are applicable to a broad scope of classs.

Pittaway says that given the diverseness and possible complexness of endeavor instruction appraisal pattern, there is demand for more consideration for the topic from a pattern and research position. He goes on to state that pedagogues need to believe more carefully about the jobs and issues that are usually associated with appraisal. These issues include the intended acquisition results in entrepreneurial surveies every bit good as how this can be linked together in planing effectual educational designs  .

This is a strong point that Pittaway makes. Educators need to germinate from theory appraisal to skill based appraisal in entrepreneurial appraisals. They should believe deeply about the consequences they intend to see after learning entrepreneurial accomplishments to their pupils before they create any assessment tools. When they are certain about the intended acquisition results, they can so plan effectual appraisal undertakings that are pupil oriented. Although this is the ideal appraisal pattern, it is non as easy to accomplish as Pittaway points out ( p. 18 ) .

The writer says that diverseness in itself has brought many other appraisal jobs, particularly those that are associated with effectual appraisal pattern. He says that the topic has non been dwelt with earnestly and in adequate deepness by research workers, and hence, pedagogues can non accomplish what they want. Pittaway besides observes that although there is a high rate of deficiency of advanced appraisal, the deficiency of advanced bringing is really minimum.

Pittaway besides focuses on the philosophical diverseness sing the function of assessment pattern in endeavor instruction. This he says is demonstrated in literature and endeavor pedagogues ' end product. He says that there are considerations in the presentation of endeavor instruction appraisal patterns. He says that formative appraisal enables pupils to place their countries of failing and helps in bettering acquisition. Summational appraisal is usually used to measure where or how far the pupils have come in footings of their public presentation.

Pittaway observes that there exists some sort of tenseness between these two sorts of assessment positions. He points out that research workers usually place more with summational methods of appraisal. These methods are usually entrenched in many educational establishments where external accreditation systems and diagnostic signifiers are common. However, he says that although these tensenesss are a world, they can be resolved by uniting elements of the two positions of endeavor appraisal patterns  .

He goes farther to indicate out another signifier of tenseness in educational doctrine circles: cold perceiver vs. societal perceiver appraisal. In the past few old ages, ego and peer appraisal in higher instruction has grown in popularity ( 19 ) . This makes it possible for those people who are themselves prosecuting in larning to measure the sort of acquisition that has already occurred. However, Pittaway argues that the difference in the cold perceiver and societal perceiver appraisal methods is really minimum and it should non impact really much on larning results.

Pittaway besides addresses the issue of entrepreneurial larning results in footings of how pedagogues understand the relevancy of endeavor instruction and appraisal. He says that pedagogues need to understand how enterprising people and entreprenuers learn so as to be able to do appropirate determinations sing the `` signifiers of instruction activity that can advance such acquisition '' ( p.9 ) . He besides looks at how entrepreneurial acquisition research can offer insight on how best to travel about the creative activity of effectual appraisal schemes. He says that research based on endeavor larning gives pedagogues a opportunity to place those larning results that are desired in educational activities. He lists a figure of characteristics of entrepreneurial acquisition that he gets from assorted research workers ' work:

  • the acquisition should be action oriented
  • enterprisers learn through experience
  • enterprisers learn through contemplation and making
  • they usually learn through experimenting, copying, chance pickings, doing errors and job resolution.

Pittaway besides highlights the different countries which pedagogues can utilize to make enterprise instruction and appraisal that impacts on larning. He goes on to state that these countries have the ability to impact alterations in empathy, behaviour, motives, values, competences, ability to pull off relationships and venture creative activity cognition ( p.10 ) . By foregrounding these eight countries of alteration, Pittaway shows the complexness that comes with enter instruction appraisal.

Supporting theories

Although there has been a spurred addition in the development of entrepreneurship instruction, there has been minimum research done to analyze pupil larning results and their impact on scholars ' attitudes, calling ends and professional competences. Duval-Coutil, Reed-Rhoads and Haghighi ( 2010 ) portion Pittaway 's sentiments when they province that enterprice appraisal has been enormously ignored as a topic. Another research worker, Shartrand ( 2008 ) says that entrepreneurial appraisal plans are:

''Case surveies turn toing the procedure of deriving administrative blessing and pupil involvement, depicting content cognition that is covered, pedagogical attacks utilised, challenges of execution, and, in some instances, appraisal programs '' ( p.8 )

Many grounds have been given for the deficiency of valid appraisal instrument certifications and informations. The chief ground is that the call to include entrepreneurship into mainstream academic plans is comparatively new in many learning establishments ( Shartrand and Weilerstein, 2008 ) . There are barriers that may do execution of assessment pattern in endeavor instruction excessively hard. One of these obstructions is based on the world that there may be need for interdisciplinary coaction, a move that may non be excessively popular among faculty members ( Yorke, 1998 ) . Another obstruction has to make with deficiency of consistence in assorted academic plans ( Duval-Couetil, Reed-Rhoads and Haghighi, 2010 ) . This makes it difficult to make assessment schemes that are valid for a broad scope of academic contexts.

Several surveies assess the complexness of assessment pattern in endeavor instruction. Falkang and Alberti ( 2000 ) looked at the different accents that has been put on entreneurship classs. They grouped the classs into two different classs:

Those that focus on the account of entrepreneurship and its function in the economic system.

Those that have an experiential disposition in developing pupils in accomplishments needed in entrepreneurship concerns

In the first class of classs, pupils are far removed form the topic under treatment. However in the 2nd class, the classs usually highlight the different methods that are required in measuring acquisition in different environments. It can be said so that the first class of appraisal measures how effectual certain classs are in footings of satisfaction, pupil involvement, pedagogical attacks and cognition acquisition. The 2nd attack can be said to be more practical when viewed from an entrepreneurship appraisal point as it considers the development of new ventures, impact on economic system and professional results.

Like Pittaway, research workers Duval-Coutil, Reed-Rhoads and Haghighi have besides categorized appraisal in entrepreneurship instruction. Their classs are ; class degree ratings, focused instrumental ratings and broader plan ratings. Course flat ratings are those that measure the pupil 's reaction to a specific class. Focused instruments are those that seek to estimate certain facets related to entrepreneurship. Broader plan ratings are designed in a manner that they can measure a broad country of results such as economic impact, cognition, satisfaction and calling pick.

To a great extent, Duval-Coutil, Reed-Rhoads and Haghighi ( 2010 ) are on understanding with Pittaway on the complexness of developing assessment patterns in entrepreneurial results. The research workers argue that the being of barriers in the bing academic system have made it about impossible for establishments to make assessment patterns that reflect the aims of multiple classs.

Harmonizing to Shartrand and Weilerstein ( 2008 ) the appraisal aims for endeavor instruction should steer and promote affectional attacks to larning. The assessment pattern should besides mensurate the expected results in a dependable and valid manner. Entrepreneurial appraisal patterns should besides specify and protect academic criterions ( Palomba and Banta, 1999 ) . When the appraisal is seen to protect academic criterions, so it will non be met with every bit much contention at it soon attracts.

Gibbs ( 2002 ) says that some of the jobs encountered in endeavor appraisal are ambiguity in the appraisal and several dissensions centered around the coveted acquisition results. Pittaway besides has a similar observation and he says that the pedagogues in endeavor demand to happen appropriate ways to heighten clear larning results, particularly at the phase of enterprise class development ( Pittaway, 8 ) .

There are some assessment methods used soon in schools are usually student and accomplishment based. These sorts of appraisal schemes are suited for enterprise instruction as they are able to run into the demands of academic asperity ( Shartrand and Weilerstein, 2008 ) . It is true that the relationship between different appraisal patterns and acquisition and instruction quality has non been looked at really earnestly. However, stakeholders in establishments of higher larning need to recognize that appraisal demands and standards play a large function in finding pupil larning effectivity ( Falkang and Alberti, 2000 ) .

There is demand to carefully design appraisal patterns in a manner that it impacts strongly on the quality of their instruction ( Heywood, 2009 ) . More research is needed in the country of appraisal patterns in endeavor instruction so as to make advanced appraisal schemes that are up to the needed criterions ( Palomba and Banta, 1999 ) . These advanced appraisal schemes for enterprise instruction should besides heighten pupil acquisition, which should be reflected in assessment results.

When this topic is given the needed attending by research workers, it will be easy for pupils and instructors likewise to understand its importance in today 's extremely progressively entrepreneurial universe ( Falkang and Alberti, 2000 ) . Students and staff will be able to handle it as an built-in constituent of the larning procedure as opposed to handling it as a concluding adjunct to larning. This will enable the pedagogues to acknowledge and do usage of multiple appraisal tools which must be designed to heighten survey wonts that will finally add value to the pupil 's life ( Shartrand and Weilerstein, 2008 ) .

The appraisal patterns that an establishment decides to utilize should offer a clear coherence between expected acquisition results, the cognition and accomplishments that are being assessed and what the pupils are really taught ( what they learn ) ( Duval-Couetil, Reed-Rhoads and Haghighi, 2010 ) . These assessment undertakings should non merely measure the capableness of scholars to remember some information that they were late taught, they should besides be designed in a manner that they can efficaciously measure the capacity of pupils to synthesise and analyse new constructs and information.


Pittaway 's article has focused much on the appraisal patterns used in enterprise instruction plans and how this country has been researched. Although appraisal is a really of import portion of endeavor instruction, there are really few establishments that have given much attending to the topic, as Pittaway points out. There seems to be deficiency of experience of making or acquiring alternate or different signifiers of appraisal to suit into a certain academic country. There is demand for more research into the country of appraisal patterns in endeavor instruction. This will assist in the coevals of advanced thoughts on how pedagogues in entrepreneurship can come up with assessment patterns that can supply a nexus between pupil accomplishment and general academic demands.

Pittaway does depict the complexness and diverseness of assessment pattern tools and schemes that have been identified by some endeavor pedagogues. He concludes by stating that there should be more accent from a research and pattern position. This is the lone manner that he says establishments will be able to make assessment patterns that are relevant in this twenty-four hours and age. Good appraisal schemes are priceless to establishments and to pupils as good. For one, when a acquisition establishment has good established appraisal patterns, there is no danger of traveling off the grade when it comes to educational quality. Educators are able to keep the set criterions for educational quality while at the same clip developing entrepreneurial capacities in their pupils. This means that when a pupil learns in an establishment that has developed its appraisal patterns, there is a high likeliness that he will be a better enterpriser than a pupil who has non gone through the system.

Pittaway has written down some of the rules that he says should be followed when making appraisal plans for enterprise instruction. He has given these rules as dependability, value, consistence, appropriateness transparence and clearly defined appraisal patterns. He goes on to indicate out that although these are the ideal rules for appraisal tools in endeavor instruction, non all pedagogues apply them all. There exists some conventional mean of appraisal that are non every bit effectual as they are supposed to be in this extremely entrepreneurial universe. Educators must see coming up with appropriate appraisal patterns that reflect the demands success in the universe today.

The thought that assessment patterns need to be wholesome is a welcome one. It is high clip that pedagogues recognized the importance of effectual appraisal in making a coevals of entrepreneurial persons. They should therefore think truly carefully about the appraisal patterns that will convey out the best int inheritor pupils in footings of entrepreneurial capablenesss. Teachers and other instruction policy shapers should non work in isolation with pupils and other stakeholders when planing appraisal schemes that are applicable to a broad scope of classs.

Given the diverseness and possible complexness of endeavor instruction appraisal pattern, there is demand for more consideration for the topic from a pattern and research position. This position is supported by both Pittaway and other educational research workers. Educators need to believe more carefully about the jobs and issues that are usually associated with assessment patterns in larning establishments. These issues include the intended acquisition results in entrepreneurial surveies every bit good as how this can be linked together in planing effectual educational designs. When these issues are resolved, assessment patterns will eventually give the consequences that are required in this twenty-four hours and age.

Enterprise pedagogues need to be extremely advanced in the manner they design their appraisal tools so as to heighten acquisition and accomplishment deriving in their pupils. If the appraisal patterns that are used in most establishments of higher instruction are disused, so there is need to revise the system to guarantee that appraisal standard is in line with entrepreneurial demands. Educational research workers all agree on the fact that there is demand to aline larning results, assessment undertakings and larning chances to do endeavor instruction and appraisal every bit effectual as possible.

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Critical Evaluation of Assessment Practice in Enterprise Education. (2018, Sep 10). Retrieved from

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