Last Updated 07 Apr 2020

Chapter 13 Guided Reading

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Guided Reading Chapter 13 Terms: 1. Tropics- Areas with high humidity and temperatures 2. Monsoons- an overflow of water from rivers 3. Ecosystems- communities of living things within a certain climare 4. Bilad al-sudan- West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and Portugal. 5. Dhow - any of various types of sailing vessels used by Arabs on the east African, Arabian, and Indian coasts, generally lateen-rigged on two or three masts. 6. Swahili - a member of a Bantu people of Zanzibar and the neighboring coast of Africa.

Also, Kiswahili, ki-Swahili. the Bantu language of the Swahili people, used also as a lingua franca in Tanzania, Kenya, and parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 7. Urdu- an official language of Pakistan, also spoken in India. The script derives primarily from Persia. It belongs to the Indic branch of the Indo-European family of languages, being closely related to Hindi but containing many Arabic and Persian loan words 8. Junks- Chinese Ships that can contain up to 40 tons Places: 9. Niger River - the principal river of western Africa, extending about 4,180 km 10.

Indus River - is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through western Tibet (in China) and Northern India. 11. The Ganges - a trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The 1,569 mi river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. 12. Mekong River- a river in Southeast Asia. is 4,350 km From the Tibetan Plateau this river runs through China's Yunnan province, Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. 13.

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Swahili Coast-The Swahili Coast refers to the coast or coastal area of East Africa inhabited by the Swahili people, mainly Kenya, Tanzania, and north Mozambique. The term may also include the islands such as Zanzibar, Pate or Comoros which lie off the Swahili Coast. 14. Strait of Malacca - is a narrow, 805 km (500 mi) stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1414 and 1511. 15. Mogadishu - the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta's appearance on the Somali coast in 1331, the city was at the zenith of its prosperity.

He described Mogadishu as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, which was famous for its high quality fabric that it exported to Egypt, among other places. He added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan originally from Berbera in northern Somalia who spoke both Somali and Arabic with equal fluency. The Sultan also had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs, and other officials at his beck and call. 16. Kilwa -Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an island off the coast of East Africa, in present day Tanzania. 7. Aden - In 1421, China's Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor ordered principal envoy grand eunuch Li Xing and grand eunuch Zhou Man of Zheng He's fleet to convey an imperial edict with hats and robes to bestow on the king of Aden. The envoys boarded three treasure ships and set sail from Sumatra to the port of Aden. This event was recorded in the book Ying-yai Sheng-lan by Ma Huan who accompanied the imperial envoy 18. Malabar Coast - The Malabar Coast is a long and narrow coastline on the south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.

Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain slopes. The term "Malabar Coast" is also sometimes used in reference to the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Cape Comorin. 19. Malacca - the third smallest Malaysian state after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the south.

Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits. 20. Timbuktu - The first mention is by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta who visited both Timbuktu and Kabara in 1353 when returning from a stay in the capital of the Mali Empire. [25] Timbuktu was still relatively unimportant and Battuta quickly moved on to Gao.

At the time both Timbuktu and Gao formed part of the Mali Empire. A century and a half later, in around 1510, Leo Africanus visited Timbuktu. He gave a description of the town in his Descrittione dell'Africa which was published in 1550. [26] The original Italian was translated into a number of other languages and the book became widely known in Europe. [27] Empires/ Kingdoms: 21. Delhi Sultanate - five short-lived dynasties, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, mostly of Turkic and Pashtun (Afghan) origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty.

The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). 22. Mali Empire - a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 C. E. to c. 1600. C. E. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River.

It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. 23. Kanem- Bornu - existed in modern Chad and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya, eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. The history of the Empire in the longue duree is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth. 4. Gujarat - From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the fourteenth century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim Rajput governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ishaan Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. 25. Bahmani Kingdom - was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India. 6. Vijayanagar Empire - an empire based in South India, in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty and Dhangar / Kuruba Gowda lineage. 27. Great Zimbabwe - Great Zimbabwe acted as a royal palace for the Zimbabwean monarch and would have been used as the seat of their political power. One of its most prominent features were its walls, some of which were over five metres high and which were constructed without mortar. Eventually the city was abandoned and fell into ruin. Individuals / Peoples: 28.

Muhammed ibn Ab-dullah ibn Buttata - a Muslim Moroccan explorer, known for his extensive travels, accounts of which were published in the Rihla (lit. "Journey"). Over a period of thirty years, he visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands; his journeys including trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance surpassing threefold his near-contemporary Marco Polo. Ibn Battuta is considered one of the greatest travellers of all time.

He journeyed more than 75,000 miles (121,000 km), a figure unsurpassed by any individual explorer until the coming of the Steam Age some 450 years later. 29. Sundiata - founder of the Mali Empire 30. Mansa Kankan Musa - the tenth Mansa, which translates as "King of Kings" or "Emperor", of the Malian Empire. At the time of Mansa Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Melle (Mali) and immediate surrounding areas, and Musa held many titles, including: Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wangara, and Conqueror of Ghanata, Futa-Jallon, and at least another dozen states. 1. Mansa Suleiman - mansa of the Mali Empire from 1341 to 1360. The brother of the powerful Kankan Musa I, he succeeded Musa's son Maghan to the throne in 1341. His son Kassa briefly assumed the throne following his death in 1360, but was succeeded the same year by Maghan's son Mari Diata II. 32. Sultan Iltutmish - He was a slave of Qutb-ud-din Aibak and later became his son-in-law and close lieutenant. He was the Governor of Badaun when he deposed Qutub-ud-din's successor Aram Shah and acceeded to the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in 1211.

He shifted Capital from Lahore to Delhi, remained the ruler until his death on May 1, 1236. Iltutmish introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital-the two basic coins of the Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains. He introudced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary. 33. Sultan Raziya – First female Sultan referred to as Razia Sultana was the Sultana of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240. She was of Seljuq slave ancestry and like some other Muslim princesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary.

Razia Sultana, the fifth Mamluk Sultanate was the only woman ruler of both the Sultanate and the Mughal period. Important Events: 34. Mansa Musa’s Pilgrimage - Musa's journey was documented by several eyewitnesses along his route, who were in awe of his wealth and extensive procession, and records exist in a variety of sources, including journals, oral accounts and histories. Musa is known to have visited with the Mamluk sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad of Egypt in July 1324. Questions to Outline: 1.

The ecosystems in Africa are controlled by their location in comparison with the equator and there are many different ecosystems with in a tropical environment which is an area with a high temperature and humidity. 2. It mobilized the labor of ordinary people in order to produce surpluses, helped support powerful states and profitable commercial systems. 3. Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into North India as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 7th century.

Some historians consider parts of the conquest the bloodiest chapter in human history. 4. The Indian Ocean trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean rim were Janus-faced. They looked outward to the sea as much as they looked inward to the hinterland. In the contemporary period, the re-assertion of Asia’s cultural, political, and economic trength has manifested itself in varied events such as the meteoric rise of the Chinese economy and the growing influence of India’s culture industry, and the rise of Dubai as a global financial hub. These processes indicate a gradual movement of the fulcrum of global economic and military exchanges away from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, a shift which is being keenly watched by national elites and global institutions. 5. Their status was determined by males, Tasks were cooking, brewing and farm work, family organization was important in society and some women didn’t adopt veiling. . The spread of Islam, Commercial contacts and the rise of Mali and Ghana. These changed many things with in the people such as what rights they had, the amount of slavery, taxes and trade, economy was based off gold and their religion. 7. They made certain adjustments such as irrigation systems, and adopted different means of surviving such as wild food and fish hunting, herding and grain trade, farming of rice, wheat , sorghum and millet. They also built dams and reservoirs.

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