Two hypotheses, stimulus-response and stimulus-stimulus theories, explain the working of classical conditioning.Stimulus-response holds that a link to unconditioned stimuli is created with conditioned stimulus in the brain however, conscious consideration is not involved.Secondly, stimulus-stimulus has to do with mental activity, whereby conditioned stimuli are linked to the unconditioned stimuli notion.
Stimulus-response (S-R) theory involves a behavioral psychology hypothetical structure which argues that man plus other creatures may be taught to link a novel stimulus (conditioned stimulus- CS)with some pre-existing stimulus (unconditioned stimulus- US), and may feel, respond, or feel the CS as though it were really the US.
It argues that animals may be taught to link some SR, like a bell, to upcoming entrance of foodstuffs, leading to some apparent behavior, like salivating (http://psychology.
about. com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond. htm). Stimulus-stimulus (S-S) theory argues that some cognitive element is required to comprehend classical conditioning. It argues that animals may salivate after the bell since it is linked to th3e food concept. Operant Conditioning Theory Operant conditioning involves using effects to alter the type and happening of conduct. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that the former tackles alteration of intentional (operant) conduct.
Operant behavior functions within the environment; it is controlled by its effects. On the other hand, classical conditioning tackles the habituation of respondent conducts that are drawn out by precursor situations. Conducts conditioned through classical conditioning process are not controlled by effects. Punishment and reinforcement may be negative (removed after a reaction) or positive (given after a reaction), thus creating 4 basic effects, the fifth being extinction (no consequence alteration after a reaction).
Reinforcement consequence increases the frequency of occurrence of behavior. Punishment consequence decreases the frequency of occurrence of behavior. Extinction signifies absence of effects. If behavior proves inconsequential, having neither unfavorable nor favorable effects, it occurrence becomes less frequent. If previously strengthened conduct ceases to be strengthened negatively or positively, the reaction reduces. Positive reinforcement happens when a constructive stimulus follows a conduct, thus increasing the frequency of the conduct.
Negative reinforcement happens when the withdrawal of aversive stimuli follows a conduct, thus increasing the frequency of the conduct. Positive punishment (punishment through conditional stimulation) happens when a negative stimulus follows a conduct. Negative punishment (punishment through conditional withdrawal) happens when the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus follows a reaction or behavior. Social cognitive theory It suggests that parts of a persons knowledge gaining may be directly linked to watching other persons through social contact, experiences, plus external media pressures.
It remains a knowledge hypothesis that argues that persons learn through observing the activities of others plus that individual though procedures are vital in comprehending personality. Despite the fact that the learned conduct obtained from the surroundings persons grow up in significantly influences development, cognition equally influence ethical development. Persons learn though watching others as mediated by the surroundings, cognition, and behavior. Social cognitive theory stresses a huge disparity between a person’s capacity to exhibit moral competence and performance.
Moral competence refers to possession of the capacity to depict ethical behavior. Moral performance refers to adhering to individual moral behavior ideas in particular circumstances. The theory emphasizes learning or knowledge gaining though watching models. Observers do not anticipate punishments or rewards; rather, they anticipate similar results to their imitated conduct. Within education, instructors act as models in children’s knowledge acquisition. Learning most probably happens when an observer-model intimate identification occurs and when observers have adequate self-efficacy beliefs.
Such beliefs act as vital proximal factors for human effect, action, and motivation, which control action by cognitive, effective, and motivational intervening procedures. Identification permits observers to sense a one-on-one linkage with the model. Observer are thus more probable to attain such replications if they feel they have the capacity to adhere to the imitate actions. Considering many factors (cognitive, social, and environmental) is the simplest way of displaying ethical development. The inter-linkage of such factors offers additional insight regarding morality.
Behavior Therapy Techniques Key interventions to behavioral therapy were developed from functional analysis which tackles issues like couple relationships’ intimacy, couples’ forgiveness, continual pain, persistent distress, depression, substance misuse, obesity, and anxiety. Even issues commonly encountered by therapists, like client struggle, involuntary clients, and busy clients, have been tackled through functional analysis. Third Generation Behavior Therapy entails a group endorsing radical behaviorism and functional analysis and opposing cognitivisim.
It involves: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Behavioral Activation (BA); Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; Functional Analytic Psychotherapy; Dialectical behavior therapy; and Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is founded on Relational Frame Theory. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is founded upon functional analyses of therapeutic relationships. It focuses on therapeutic contexts and reverts to using in-session reinforcement.
Behavioral Activation came from a constituent scrutiny of cognitive behavior therapy. It is founded upon a corresponding reinforcement model. Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy analyses the discrepancies between rule-governed and contingency-shaped behaviors. Such analysis is merged with a comprehensive evaluation of couples’ association. References Wagner, K. V. (2009). Introduction to classical conditioning. Retrieved July 6th 2009 from, http://psychology. about. com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond. htm