Last Updated 26 Jan 2021

Assignment – Drinks: Evidence-Based Claims

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Drinks are an important and yet relatively under-researched area of children's nutrition. The purpose of this report is to research on what the latest peer-reviewed evidence states about the health benefits of products such as Nutrient water, and to then compare this literature to the health benefits of cow’s milk. By examining a range of recently published peer-reviewed journal articles on the topic of advantages and disadvantages of drinks which are evidence-based claims, this report is an examination and comparison between nutrient water type drinks and cow’s milk. The report then concludes with a recommendation on how to make a good nutritional choice in which is best for children to consume.


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Consumers today want more from their beverages than merely good taste. In addition to nutrient water type drinks, energy drinks such as red bull have continued to gain popularity among teenagers. Studies have shown that energy drinks provide the consumer with increased energy as shown in advertisements with the aid of caffeine by providing the desirable effects of increased alertness, improved memory, and enhanced mood. States that through research, energy drink consumption is common among college students, particularly due to insufficient sleep, needing more energy in general, while studying for exams or working on major course projects and while driving an automobile for a prolonged period. Guarana is an ingredient found in energy drinks, its functional claim is to increase energy, enhances physical performance, and promote weight loss. There is scientific evidence to support this claim, a major component of guarana is caffeine and caffeine consumption has been associated with increased energy, enhancement of physical performance, and suppressed appetite


Caffeine has been found to have detrimental health consequences. At moderate intakes, caffeine can enhance endurance performance and concentration in adults, but when consumed in larger doses, caffeine can cause anxiety, agitation, sleeplessness, gastrointestinal problems, and arrhythmias. Further, acute caffeine consumption reduces insulin sensitivity and increases mean arterial blood pressure. The central nervous system, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal dysfunction have been associated with chronic caffeine ingestion. According to Clauson et al. research has also shown that the high glucose content of energy drinks and other flavored enhanced beverages plays a considerable role in weight gain, which can lead to serious health consequences such as diabetes. In addition, Clauson et al. explain that deaths, new-onset seizures, manic episodes have been linked to the ingestion of large amounts of energy drinks. Based on findings, consumption of energy drinks nor nutrient enhanced drinks by children is not recommended.


According to Popkin et al. many beneficial, and some detrimental, health effects have been attributed to the consumption of cow’s milk. Furthermore, Popkin et al. state that for children and adolescents, milk is the current key source of vitamin D and calcium and is an excellent source of high-quality protein. Cow’s milk consumption has several benefits. Watt, Dykes, and Sheiham explains that an adequate intake of calcium is needed to ensure the development and maintenance of skeletal strength. Bone disorders such as osteoporosis are an increasing health problem that can be prevented with a daily intake of ample quantity of milk. A recent study demonstrated that the intake of milk in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased bone mass and density in adulthood. Pfeuffer and Schrezenmeir state that recent observational studies confirm that the consumption of milk products can actually lower cholesterol levels, have reduced risk of protein malnutrition, fewer dental cavities, increased mineral content in children's bones, and fewer bone fractures.


According to Bell, Grochowski & Clarke up until recently, the only reputed downside to consuming bovine milk and other dairy products was intolerances to lactose and allergies to milk protein. Furthermore, Bell, Grochowski & Clarke explains that despite its health bene? ts, the consumption of cow’s milk has come under scrutiny for its reported links to the risk of chronic diseases. According to Haug, Hostmark, and Harstad, several studies have suggested that there is an association between milk consumption and blood pressure; as hypertension is inversely related to milk consumption in some epidemiological- and intervention studies. It has been suggested that some milk peptides have antihypertensive effects, both by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme, having opioid-like activities, antithrombotic properties and by binding minerals. Experiments demonstrate that high calcium content of milk can interfere with a child’s absorption of iron, another mineral that is crucial for development. To ensure a child is not iron deficient, it’s a good idea to avoid serving milk products and iron-rich foods in the same meal.


Drinks are an important and yet relatively under-researched area of children's nutrition. This report has identified the advantages and disadvantages of children who are of 9 to 12 years of age regularly consuming “nutrient water-type drinks and cow’s milk. The impact of regularly consuming cow’s milk as opposed to energy drinks in addition to “nutrient water-type drinks” is expected to have positive health benefits such as the prevention of osteoporosis, increased bone mass and density, lower cholesterol levels, reduced risk of protein malnutrition, fewer dental cavities, increased mineral content in children bones and fewer bone fractures.


From the above-mentioned peer-reviewed evidence-based discussion, we recommend that children and adolescents of 9 years of age and the older group should consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products instead of as compared with the nutrient enhanced water in addition to energy drinks. Based on findings, consumption of energy drinks nor nutrient enhanced drinks by children is not recommended as the ingredient found in those drinks might lead to adverse effects and possibly death in case of overconsumption. Patients with clinically relevant underlying medical conditions, including heart disease, should consult their physician before drinking energy drinks. The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, and switching from whole milk to low-fat or fat-free milk has been suggested as one way to reduce children’s intake of excess fat and calories. Diets rich in milk products can reduce the risk of low bone mass throughout the life cycle. The consumption of milk products is especially essential for children and adolescents who are building their peak bone mass and developing lifelong habits. Although each of these food groups may have a different relationship with disease outcomes, the adequate consumption of all food groups contributes to overall health.


  1. Bell, S Grochowski, G Clarke, 2006,’Health implications of milk containing beta-casein with the A2 genetic variant’, Critical Reviews In Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 93-100, retrieved 4 September 2011, MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
  2. Bellisle, F Thornton, SN Hebel, P Denizeau, M Tahiri, M 2010, ‘A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of health French children, adolescents and adults’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 4, pp, 350-335.
  4. Binns, C Graham, K Scott, J & Oddy, W 2007, ‘Infants who drink cow milk: A cohort study’, Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 607-610, retrieved 21 August 2011, . Black, R Williams, S Jones, I & Goulding, 2002.
  5. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health’, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 675-680, retrieved 4 September 2011.
  6. MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost. Cecil, J Palmer, C Wieden, W Murrie, I Bolton-Smith, C Watt, P Wallis, D & Hetherington, M 2005, ‘Energy intakes of children after preloads: adjustment, not Compensation 1-3’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 302-308, retrieved 19 August 2011.
  7. Clauson, K Shields, K McQueen, C & Persad, N 2008,’Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks’, Journal Of The American Pharmacists Association: Japha, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 55, retrieved 5 September 2011.
  9. Pfeuffer, M Schrezenmeir, J 2007,’Milk, and the metabolic syndrome’, Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal Of The International Association For The Study Of Obesity, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 109-118, retrieved 4 September 2011, MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost. Popkin, B Armstrong, L Bray, G Caballero, B Frei, B & Willett, W 2006.
  10. Weaver, C 2009, ’Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Point’, The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1634S-1637S, retrieved 5 September 2011.
  11. MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost. Williamson, C 2009.
  12. sid=d08a7352-0a80-4eb7-a906-eef22e10525e%40sessionmgr112&vid=5&hid=106>.

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