Last Updated 20 Apr 2022

Archival Research Paper – Philippine Typhoons

Category Philippines, Weather
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Degree of Loss and Destruction: A Look into the Impact of Typhoons that Hit the Philippines from 2008 - 2011 December 2012 Table of Contents Title  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This chapter contains all the information regarding the Background of the Study, Statement of the Problem, Significance of the Study, and the Scope and Limitations of the study. Background of the Study A typhoon is a hurricane occurring especially in the region of the Philippines or the China Sea.

It could destroy lots of areas wherein many Filipinos suffer- people starve, becomes homeless, and lose their loved ones. Philippines is often visited by a lot of typhoons is because of the mere fact that it is the first massive land next to the Pacific Ocean. Trade winds gather near the equator and combines with several equatorial winds. These winds are sometimes merged by warm bodies of ocean water which makes them stronger and more indestructible. Recently, a typhoon named Pablo visited the Philippines. A typhoon is a hurricane that when occurs in a certain area, urban or rural, can make a disaster.

Pablo made a devastating impact on the Philippines. It made a very big effect in the Mindanao particularly on Compostella Valley, Cateel, and New Bataan. The river transformed into a body of water full of mud. The place was full of broken tree parts, structure debris and bodies of dead people. Also, outside the Philippines, a hurricane named Sandy visited New York City this year. Hurricane Sandy left New York with homeless families, destroyed places and flooded streets. Due to these tragic events, our group has decided to conduct this study. Filipinos were emotional because of those calamities happened from the past.

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They felt so down seeing their properties and areas damaged by these typhoons and felt so hopeless knowing that everything seems to be devastated or gone and they could no longer live the life like before these incidents happened. Although a lot of things are going through their minds, they still have to face the fact that life must go on. Despite all of these calamities happening, they’re still very fortunate to have a lot of people from all around the country giving help and donations to them. Also with the aid of the government organization and other countries, they have survived and started again to live on their own.

Statement of the Problem 1. To what extent or impact did the typhoons bring to the Philippines from the year 2008 up to 2012 in terms of: a. Loss of lives (death tolls) b. Damage to properties, infrastructures, and the places affected (amount) c. Destruction of nature Significance of the Study The group has conducted this research to have benefits in these certain sectors: GOVERNMENT AGENCIES/INSTITUTIONS - This research will aid in future researches as well as in making plans, programs and projects to help victims of storms and to be well prepared if the Philippines will experience future storms.

ACADEME - This research will help schools in making their students better prepared for storms in teaching them and informing them the impact made by storms based on the data collected. It can also help the schools when they will make try to help the victims of storms. The school will know what should be their proper action to help the victims. COMMUNITY - This research will let the community be aware on the effects storms have in the Philippines. The community will know what the proper course of action will be to be safe from the storms.

PSYCHOLOGISTS/SOCIAL WORKERS - This research will give knowledge to them of what to expect from the victims of the storm. So that they will be able to help properly and deal with the victims who just came from these tragic events. Scope and Limitations The study was conducted here in Davao City. The researchers used the Archival technique to look for different source documents from archives, the internet, and other reference materials related to further support the study.

It focuses on the different impacts of the typhoons that have struck the Philippines starting from the year 2008 to 2012 especially its effects to the people, the properties and surroundings, and the whole nation itself. It seeks to only answer the questions given from the Statement of the Problem and not from others which are not directly related to the study. The Archival research method was decided by the researchers to be used in this study therefore no other methods shall be used. The resources were also carefully chosen which suited the theme of the investigation.

CHAPTER 2: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter includes the Objectives of the Study, Hypotheses, and Conceptual Framework. The Conceptual Framework presents the concepts that are placed within a logical and sequential design which clarifies concepts and propose relationships among notions in the study. Objectives of the Study This study is intended to strengthen people’s awareness about the destruction brought by the typhoons going in and out the country from 2008 to 2012 and how the victims of these timely calamities recovered from such impact made by storms.

From these researches, people will have knowledge about how severe the damages a typhoon can bring to an affected area and its people. It would take the victims weeks or even longer to recover not just financially but in every aspect that defines their being such as how to handle the emotional distress from the sudden tragedies they experience. Hence, they will need the help of those who are fortunate enough to be spared from such catastrophes. Hypotheses Alternative Hypothesis:

From 2008 to 2011, Philippines has been highly devastated by a lot of typhoons that made big impacts on the properties and lives of Filipinos and places affected, as well as to the nature. Null hypothesis: A lot of typhoons have visited Philippines from 2008-2011, but there were little impact happened on the properties and lives of Filipinos and places affected, as well as to the nature. Conceptual Framework Dependent Variables: Death Toll Properties/Infrastructures destroyed Destruction in nature Independent Variables: All typhoons and related calamities that have hit the Philippines starting from 2008 up to 2011 Degree of Damage:

Not that Destructive and Costly (high casualties and damage (among the four)) Destructive and Costly (higher casualties and damage (among the four)) Very Destructive and Costly (highest casualties and damage (among the four)) Way/source of recovery from calamities: Government Fundings for losses/damages incurred Assistance from other countries and international groups Donations from all over the country Psycho-social effects The diagram presented The diagram presented above includes the independent variables which are the different typhoons and related calamities that have struck the country in a p of four years.

This then leads to the dependent variables being measured which includes death tolls, infrastructures/properties destroyed, and the destruction they have brought to nature. With these, we can now identify the level of damage incurred to the country, as seen on the next box. And finally, the last box contains ways on how the affected citizens have recovered after these tragic events happened, based on the level of damage. CHAPTER 3: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the literature and related studies which have direct bearing on this study. It also discusses the deadly storms in the Philippines as well as its impacts.

Our study will be helpful to our society by means of increasing their knowledge about typhoons and their impacts to their livelihood. Typhoon According to Webster (2007), a typhoon is a violent tropical cyclone originating in the western Pacific. Typhoons feature heavy rains and winds that maintain speeds equal to or greater than 74 miles (119 kilometers) per hour. Similar storms that occur in other parts of the world are called tropical cyclones or hurricanes. The word typhoon comes from the Chinese term tai-fung, meaning great wind. A typhoon is also a natural disaster.

The heavy rains and strong winds of a typhoon can cause great loss of life and billions of dollars in property damage. As a typhoon approaches lands, its winds produce a rush of seawater called a storm surge that can devastate coastal areas. Philippine Topography, Weather and Climate Philippines is located in Southeast Asia and goes by many names such as "The Pearl of the Orient Seas". It is composed of 7107 islands. These islands are scattered all throughout the country's geographical location which is why you can never really tell the exact shape of the Philippines even in a map.

It is surrounded by warm bodies of ocean water that's why it is always visited by typhoons. But mostly, in the east part of the Philippines is always visited because it is facing in the Pacific Ocean. The Philippines is hot year-round but sea breezes can add freshness during the winter (November to February). The typhoon season lasts from around July to October, although in recent years it seems to have been starting and finishing later – in 2010 for example there was severe flooding in North Luzon as late as November. Rainfall patterns vary across the country. In Manila, Palawan and Coron, for example, most rain occurs in the yphoon season. Other areas (including much of the Bicol region) have no distinct dry season, with the most rain from December to February. The Visayas have only a short dry season from November to January, while in Leyte and Bohol, rainfall levels don’t change much throughout the year. Travelers should therefore check the local climate before making plans. Most tourists visit from January to May (and particularly the first half of that period) when most of the country is undergoing its best climatic conditions. Surfers, on the other hand, are attracted to the islands during the typhoon season as it brings the biggest waves. Columbus, 2012) Philippine Storm Warning Signals (PSWS) The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) releases tropical cyclone warnings in the form of Public Storm Warning Signals (PSWS). An area having a storm signal may be under: (DOST, 2007) * PSWS #1 - Tropical cyclone winds of 30-60 km/h are expected within the next 36 hours. Unless this warning signal is upgraded during the entire existence of the tropical cyclone, only very light or no damage at all may be sustained by the exposed communities. Rice crop, however, may suffer significant damage when it is in its flowering stage. PSWS #2 - Tropical cyclone winds of 60-100 km/h are expected within the next 24 hours. In general, the winds may bring light to moderate damage to the exposed communities. * PSWS #3 - Tropical cyclone winds of 100-185 km/h are expected within the next 18 hours. In general, moderate to heavy damage may be experienced, particularly in the agricultural and industrial sectors. * PSWS #4 - Tropical cyclone winds of greater than 185 km/h are expected within 12 hours. In the overall, damage to affected communities can be very heavy. Philippine Ecosystem

Philippines’ ecosystems provide the essentials of life to millions of people – from seafood and game animals, to fodder, fuel wood, timber, and pharmaceuticals products. They play a major role in economies and are an important social safety net for the rural poor. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, environmentalists believe that the rate of endemism for the Philippines is likely to rise. However, conservationists fear that, without immediate intervention, the Philippines hotspot is on the brink of an extinction crisis.

In fact, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has identified the Philippines as “one of the most endangered of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. ”  “Widespread destruction and conversion of natural habitats, overexploitation, and pollution have led to rapid biodiversity loss,” said a World Bank report. (Tacio, 2009) Recent Philippine Typhoons In 2009, the Phillippines was visited by a typhoon named Ondoy. Ondoy was considered a weak typhoon but it brought record rainfall and flooding in September. A state of calamity was declared in Metro Manila as well as 25 provinces.

Marikina and Rizal province were the hardest hit areas. According to PAGASA, Ondoy dumped 455 millimeters of rain in Quezon City alone within 24 hours. As per the National Disaster Coordinating Council’s last report, Ondoy left 337 people dead, 308 injured, and 37 missing. Estimated cost of damages amount to almost Php 10. 5 billion in infrastructure and agriculture. (Typhoon Watch 2009) In 2010, Typhoon Basyang at 80 mph is the most destructive typhoon in the Philippines. It affected the provinces of Quezon and Bataan and also hit the islands of Calaguas and Balesin. It incurred 8. million USD in damages and claimed the lives of 37 casualties, most of whom are fishermen. Manila and Northern Luzon were not spared as well. Major power lines were knocked down leaving 40 million citizens in the dark. This damage to power has caused fury among citizens over PAGASA's failure to predict the storm's path. (WikiPilipinas. org, 2010) In 2011, Sendong entered the Philippines leaving cities devastated. (Sendong - International Code/Name: Washi). If we’re keeping tab of the most destructive typhoon of the year, then 2011 saved the “best” for last. On 15 December 2011 (11:00 a. m. , PAGASA issued its first severe weather bulletin for Sendong, announcing that this Tropical Depression east of Mindanao has entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR), with estimated maximum winds of 55 kph near the center. By 5:00 p. m. , Public Storm Warning Signal No. 1 was raised in 11 provinces in Visayas and Mindanao, raised to Signal No. 2 by 11:00 p. m. While Sendong did not exceed Signal No. 2, the heavy rains it brought caused massive flooding, loss of life and property, in various places Mindanao including Cagayan de Oro and Iligan. At 10:30 p. m. of 18 December 2011, PAGASA announced that Sendong has left the PAR.

As of 28 December 2011, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) readjusted the death toll caused by storm “Sendong” from 1,453 to 1,249 after basing it on existing “body counts. ” This figure does not include those who are missing or injured, or the number of houses and establishments destroyed by Sendong. (Typhoon Watch, 2011) Global Issues All the spare parts appear to be coming together to create what forecasters are calling "Frankenstorm," a monster combination of high wind, heavy rain, extreme tides and maybe snow that could cause havoc along the East Coast just before Halloween next week.

Hurricane Sandy, having blown through Haiti and Cuba on Thursday, continues to barrel north. A wintry storm is chugging across from the West. And frigid air is streaming south from Canada. And if they meet Tuesday morning around New York or New Jersey, as forecasters predict, they could create a big wet mess that settles over the nation's most heavily populated corridor and reaches as far inland as Ohio. With experts expecting at least $1 billion in damage, the people who will have to clean it up aren't waiting. Utilities are lining up out-of-state work crews and canceling employees' days off to deal with the power outages.

From county disaster chiefs to the federal government, emergency officials are warning the public to be prepared. (Borentsein, 2012)  Still fresh in the memories of American's, especially those from New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina was the costliest hurricane in US history as well as one of the 5 most deadliest ever recorded. Knocking out levies in Louisiana Katrina caused over 80% of New Orleans to flood before moving into the northeastern United States dumping rain all across the area. By far the largest natural disaster to ever hit the US Hurricane Katrina is $80 billion (2008 USD) in damages and killed 1,836 people with 705 still missing.

One thing that stands out about the Katrina disaster is the utter failure of FEMA or any other government agency to provide support and rescue services to the areas. Lawlessness was rampant with police shooting innocent civilians and going door to door confiscating guns from American citizens in dry areas just trying to defend their homes. The remnants of Hurricane Katrina are still evident in New Orleans even as efforts to rebuild the city are still under way. (Ranker, 2012) Late in the night on October 10, violent storms swept in from the Bay of Bengal and lashed the coastal districts of south east Bangladesh.

At least 31 people were killed in Noakhali, Bhola and Chitagong, while a further 1,500 fishermen along with 200 fishing boats in the Meghna River, remain missing. The storms damaged hundreds of thatched houses, cut off villages and left many without electricity. Displaced people in the affected districts are residing on road sides, raised ground, schools and colleges, and are in need of shelter, basic food and non-food items. Livelihoods dependent on agriculture and livestock are at risk due to losses from the wind damage and tidal surge that accompanied the storm.

The IFRC has allocated 266,000 Swiss francs (284,903 US dollars) from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to support more than 25,000 people over the next four months. The main focus will be on providing affected families with a package of food and non-food relief items including emergency shelter materials, water jerry cans and dry food. (Ahmed, 2012) Violent storms in southern China have killed at least 18 people and injured more than 150, state media report. Gale-force winds, heavy rains and hailstones battered Guangdong province at the weekend, forcing hundreds of people to evacuate their homes.

The authorities say those who died where struck by falling objects or collapsing walls. The extreme weather has caused millions of dollars of damage to buildings as well as farmland, officials said. The storms, packing winds of up to 164 km/h swept through the provincial capital, Guangzhou, and the nearby cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Zhaoqing. The storms have affected more than 3,200 people, and at least 45 houses have been destroyed, a spokesman from the province's flood control headquarters was cited by Xinhua as saying. The civil affairs ministry put the cost of the damage at 96m yuan ($14. m). About 2,500 acres (1,000 hectares) of crops were damaged, state media reported. (BBC News, 2011) CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHOD This chapter describes the research method used by the researchers in studying the case presented. Archival Research Type Archival research is a method in which the sources of data are various types of documentations. It includes any project in which existing documents or data are the units of observation. These may include music, novels, movies, diaries, and other reports, as well as raw, aggregate, or statistical data collected by others.

Traditional archives include library records, courthouse records, and business records. Archives are usually printed or handwritten, they are called paper archives. With the advent of computers and the Internet, many archives now exist only in electronic form; they are called electronic archives. Most archives are valuable so pains are taken to keep them safe. Natural disasters and wars can destroy archives and cause the loss of priceless information. Archival data are collected for a variety of reasons. The Archival research type is the best method to be used because the study focuses on the past.

And the best possible way to look at the past is searching through the history. This history refers to archives and other source documents that were recorded, listed, written, or printed from time to time. Through these resources, the group can now carefully collect and select data from the past which would help them to carry on further with their study. CHAPTER 5: DATA GATHERING AND PROCEDURES This chapter includes the methods on how and where the data were gathered, what are the instruments used for the collection of information and the different steps that the researchers have carefully followed for the success of this study.

Research Locale The researchers conducted the study at the Ateneo de Davao University, E. Jacinto Street, Davao city. This school was established at the year 1948 and founded by the Philippine province of the Society of Jesus, the Ateneo de Davao aims to develop students through academic excellence, spiritual growth and social involvement. Source Documents were collected from the different resources available from the web and more importantly at University Library which is one of the best libraries in the country – with a wide array of resources, always accessible to all students and within the vicinity of the school campus.

Research Instruments Since the archival technique was used for the study, archives and documents from different sources were gathered to support the study. These references include: written or published documents like book and newspaper articles, theses, and statistics to name a few; photographs; news reports; videos; and information from the internet. The researchers made sure that the instruments gathered are helpful and directly related to the study. Also, all of the resources were carefully chosen from the years 2008 until 2011, for a p of four years.

Data Collection Procedure The data gathering procedure covered a period of one week, beginning on the 8th to the 16th of December 2012. The group properly observed the following steps while conducting the study: 1. The group used archival research method and chose to conduct a research topic with the agreement of all its members. 2. The group went to the school library to look for available collections of books, records, documents, and/or other print or nonprint materials as a source of data that can help them gather information for their research. . In gathering the information, the group asked for assistance of the librarian to locate the resources needed. 4. The group carefully examined the references they have gathered and made sure that it is related to their study. The examination lasted for several days. 5. The group examined their gathered data, and then developed them for better purposes in the research. Records on the topic were identified, categorized, and converted into data that are then analyzed with quantitative or qualitative methods. 6. The group made their research paper.

They became cautious of understanding and interpreting the data collected. After that, they organized them and made different ways of presenting their finding. 7. Since this is a descriptive method of research, specifically the archival type, the researchers finally made conclusions out of the information gathered to answer the problem stated. For the data presentation, the types of materials the group used to report the findings from their research were photographs, videos, newspaper and online articles, statistics, books, and the internet.

All these steps helped the group in conducting their study. CHAPTER 6: PRESENTATION OF DATA This chapter presents all of the data found and gathered by researchers for the study. The data are presented through tables, photographs, and notes from books, online and newspaper articles which were collected for the research. A. 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2008 (Philippines) (Sources: NDRRMC, DPWH, and Wikipedia) Typhoon name| Casualties| Damage| Cosme| 51| $100,000,000| Frank| 1371| $380,000,000| Helen| 24| $232,800,000| Igme| 23| $441,000,000| Julian| 204| $200,000,000|

Marce| 12| $100,000,000| Nina| 67| $300,000,000| Ofel| 6| $240,400,000| Pablo| Not Stated| $6,500,000| Quinta-Siony| 30| Not Stated| Total(as per data gathered)| 1788 deaths| $ 44 700 000 billion(est. Php 18 327 700 000 billion)| Photographs (from Google Images and Wordpress) Uprooted trees by Bagyong “Igme” A woman crying for the loss of her In Metro Manila. husband during Typhoon Ofel. A lot of homes were destroyed Search and Rescue operation during the onslaught of Bagyong Nina during Tyhpoon Helen.

These people became homeless due Houses were greatly affected by the to the destruction caused by “Cosme”. flood brought by “Ofel”. Newspaper/Online Articles (for Typhoons “Frank”, Ofel”, and “Nina”) “Nearly two years after typhoon “Frank” ravaged Western Visayas, the national government finally released P600 million as part of the P4-billion fund intended to rehabilitate damaged areas and infrastructure. ” “The P4 billion is part of the P12-billion supplemental fund approved in December 2009 for rehabilitation of areas damaged by typhoons Pepeng and Ondoy in Luzon in 2009 and Frank for Western Visayas in 2008. “Typhoon “Frank,” which struck on June 21, 2008, triggered the worst flooding in Western Visayas and left at least 531 persons dead in the region including 226 who remain missing and presumed dead. At least 2,555 others were injured. The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) earlier said that 11 bridges in Antique and 16 bridges in Iloilo were destroyed or damaged by flood waters that submerged many areas in Panay. ” * Excerpt from Inquirer Visayas. “Gov’t releases P600M for typhoon Frank rehabilitation” by Burgos, Nestor, Jr. May 20, 2010) “At least 598 people have been killed by the typhoon as it dropped torrential rain that caused flooding and mudslides in the Philippines, which means that it could be one of the top ten deadliest tropical cyclones in the Philippines. In Iloilo province, 59 are reported killed and 40 missing. In Iloilo City, 30,000 people were forced onto rooftops when a nearby reservoir burst. In the Bicol Region, more than 200,000 people sought temporary shelter from the typhoon. Meanwhile, as the storm passed through Metro Manila and its nearby provinces, it caused widespread power outages which lasted for hours.

Typhoon Fengshen could be one of the deadliest typhoons to hit the Philippines, killing over 1,300 people here, mostly from the sinking of the Princess of the Stars ferry during the storm. The Philippine National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) on June 23, 2008, reported that: 98 people died, 115 were missing, 66 were hurt, 99,687 families were affected, 155,564 houses were damaged, 53,706 were totally wrecked, and 109,837 were partially destroyed, in 10 regions, due to typhoon "Frank" as of Monday noon (excluding the MV Princess of the Stars incident). The Philippine National Red Cross placed the death toll at 229.

Frank destroyed P 500 million crops amid its P 1. 7 billion damage to property in Iloilo. The US responded by donating P 4 million and sent USNS Stockham and US Navy P-3 maritime surveillance aircraft ship, for rescue. AFP reported 224 dead and 374 missing (598) as of Monday. The Philippines National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) reported that "Frank" damaged a total of P 3. 2 billion worth of agricultural and fish products and more than 300 schools nationwide (P 212 million). Additional damages to infrastructure were pegged at P 750 million, and fishing boats at P110 million, or a total of P 4. 27 billion pesos.

According to the latest NDCC Situation Report on Typhoon Frank (Fengshen), 557 were dead (excluding the deaths in the MV Princess of the Stars), 87 were missing and 826 wounded. Frank affected 4,784,634 persons in 6,377 barangays in 419 municipalities in 58 provinces all over the Philippines. Damages in agriculture amounted to almost PHP 7. 542 billion while infrastructural losses made it to around PHP 5. 983 billion, which, all in all, totaled to slightly more than PHP 13. 525 billion. The most affected areas were Iloilo, Capiz, Aklan and Antique in Panay Island as well as Leyte and Eastern Samar in Region VIII. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. rg. “Typhoon Fengshen 2008” “Not just rain, but quarrying in a mountain site contributed to the landslide thatkilled a man who went to fetch water at a spring in barangay Jaclupan, Talisay city on Thursday during typhoon Ofel. Talisay City Entineer Audie Bacasmas, who sent staff to inspect the site, said they found that continuous extraction of soil in sitio Tabok Sapa was a factor in the mishap. He left a wife and three children, who are seeking assistance after losing the the family’s breadwinner. His daughter-in-law Michelle Arat said continuous rains in the past days may have softened the soil near the well and triggered the landslide. * Excerpt from Inquirer. net – “Rain, quarrying behind landslides” by Gabriel C. Bonjoc. (October 27, 2012) “Eight people were dead and 15 others went missing as typhoon Nina (international codename Hagupit) left the Philippines Tuesday, the government's disaster coordinating agency reported. The National Disaster Coordinating Council's (NDCC) late Tuesday report said the eight fatalities died in landslides, of drowning and electrocution. A total of 14 miners remained trapped at a mine site in Itogon town in Benguet province.

One more missing person identified as Nilia Alejo, 58, of Barangay Bugnay, Valderama, Antique was also reported missing. The miners were last reported 700 feet below ground. The governor said the rescuers have not seen signs of life. Mud washed down by typhoon-induced rain had blocked the entrance of the tunnel, preventing rescuers from reaching the miners, authorities said. Rescuers pumped water out of the tunnel so the mud can be cleared out. The typhoon left the Philippines area of responsibility Tuesday and was forecast to move to Hongkong on Wednesday morning. ” * Taken from abs-cbnNEWS. om – “Typhoon Nina leaves 8 dead, 15 missing” (September 24, 2008) Online Blog An excerpt from “My Experience on Typhoon Frank” by “Bevs” from Wordpress. (posted June 23, 2008) “June 21, 2008 is a memorable day not only for me but for my fellow Ilonggos. I went out of the office 6:00 AM and was shocked to see the flood just outside the building. Me and my officemates were stranded. We only had two choices, to cross the flood and go the other way or to wait for a jeepney to pass us by. We were stranded. I already felt that the rain won’t stop anymore and the wind is getting stronger.

We waited for 15 minutes, when a jeepney passed us. When I arrived home, the wind got stronger. Since my dog stayed outside our house, I was so worried when I saw him wet and shaking and without food. I brought him inside my room and let him stay there (until now). But because I was so tired and sleepy (from work) I managed to sleep. It’s just 3 hours when I laid on my bed when I heard the strong wind clashing outside with rain pouring, so strong that I couldn’t sleep at all. So I went out side. To my surprise I saw the water getting higher. I felt so scared that it would get higher and higher.

So I started picking up all the things to the higher grounds of our house to safety. I could hear the clashing of the waves few meters away from the house. Almost all of our neighbors houses were filled with water mostly knee-level. Luckily, ours had not. I guess it’s because our house is located on the higher part. The typhoon slowed down by 2pm. Right then the flood begun to get low. But we’ll still scared of what will happen on the few hours. But then luckily, everything’s been ok. Although there’s no electricity still, what is important is that we are safe, have enough water to drink and food, and shelter.

My concern is to those who are on the areas where flash floods occurred. Typhoon Frank hits the City early in the morning and killed more than a hundred people and hundreds more missing. I can’t really say that I’m happy because me and my family were safe, but I thought of the people who were on their rooftops waiting to be rescued and others who were drowned. ” * Taken from http://sveb. wordpress. com/2008/06/23/my-experience-on-typhoon-frank/ B. 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2009 (Philippines) (Sources: NDRRMC and DPWH) Name of Typhoon| Casualties| Damage|

Ondoy (Ketsana)| 337 dead, 308 injured,And 37 missing| Php 10. 5 billion| Pepeng (Parma)| 375 dead, 175 injured,And 48 missing| Php 8. 142 billion| Emong (Chan-hom)| 60 dead, 53 injured,And 13 missing| Php 1. 2 billion| Santi (Mirinae)| 34 dead, 20 injured,And 15 missing | Php 704. 97 million| Dante (Kujira)| 27 dead, 5 injured,And 7 missing| Php 553 737 631 million| Kiko (Morakot)| 20 dead and 13000People were homeless| NotStated| Jolina (Goni)| 12 dead, 10 injured,And 2 missing| NotStated| Feria (Nangka)| 8 dead| Not Stated| Urduja| 3 dead| Not Stated| Maring (Mujigae)| Not Stated| Php 25 million|

Total(as per data gathered)| 876 dead, 571 injured,And 122 missing| Php 21 125 707 631Billion (est. )| Photographs (Google Images, Reuters, and Wordpress) These men are trying to stay above A man tries to help these 2 ladies to the water during Typhoon “Emong”. have transportation during “Ondoy”. The man seems problematic because Cars are seen damaged on the streets of the flood made by Typhoon “Pepeng” after the visit by Typhoon “Ondoy”. This coastline devastation happened The spirit of bayanihan is seen as in a province outside Metro Manila. hese men carry a victim during “Ondoy”. Newspaper/online Articles (for Typhoons “Ondoy”, “Pepeng”, and “Santi”) “The damage to property was estimated to be P6 billion, including P4. 1 billion in damage to infrastructure, P1. 9 billion in damage to schools, and P882. 525 million in damage to agriculture. According to the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics of the Philippines Department of Agriculture, an estimated 126,721 hectares of rice-farming land were destroyed, which would affect almost 3% of the country's annual expected rice production. Added to this, Ketsana devastated some 1,374 hectares of corn plantations.

Some 48 hours after Ketsana struck Metro Manila, the Philippine government appealed to the international community and the United Nations for help. Various United Nations agencies, the United States, the People's Republic of China, and Japan provided emergency assistance to the victims of the typhoon in the Philippines. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. org. “Typhoon Ketsana” “At least 73 persons were killed and nearly 70,000 families were displaced by massive flooding after tropical storm Ondoy (international name: Ketsana) dumped the heaviest rainfall on Metro Manila in more than four decades, officials said Sunday.

As of 6p. m. Sunday, the National Disaster Coordinating Council also reported 69,513 families displaced and 337, 216 persons affected in Metro Manila and nearby provinces. In the province of Rizal, 23 persons were reported dead in Tanay; 10 in Angono, five in Baras and three from Montana. Nine people were reported killed in Bulacan and seven more in Metro Manila, according to the NDCC. The provinces of Pampanga, Apayao, Batangas, Quezon, and Teresa town in Rizal also reported casualties. ” * Excerpt from Inquirer. net – “ONDOY TOLL: 73 dead, more than 300,000 displaced by Ondoy” by Evangelista, Katherine. September 27, 2009) “Typhoon Santi (international code name: Mirinae), the fourth superstorm to hit the Philippines in a month, lashed through the Southern Tagalog region Friday night, leaving at least 10 people dead and four missing, and a trail of damage in several provinces south of Manila. The reports of Santi’s destruction have started to trickle in. According to the relief agency Southern Tagalog People’s Response Center, Santi damaged 170 houses in Siniguelasan, Bacoor, Cavite. The STPRC also reported that at least 280 families in Lipa and Laurel towns in Batangas province are now calling for relief aid.

Another 284 houses were badly affected in Laguna, citing initial data from the Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council. These reports are actually no surprise because the eye of typhoon Santi passed through the very region that covers these three provinces. Manila suffered minimal damages and residents of the nation’s capital only had to endure the sheer terror of Santi’s howling winds in the wee hours of Saturday. Huge swaths of Metro Manila and Southern Tagalog also lost electric power as the combination of strong winds attacked power transformers. * Excerpt from Asian Correspondent – “Typhoon Santi lashes through the Philippines, underscores need for serious disaster mitigation plans” by Cruz, Tonyo. (November 1, 2009) “Even though Parma was still too far to make its landfall in northern Philippines, various transportation was suspended before the super typhoon draw near. In Catanduanes, where the first signal warning no. 3 was raised, the province's power and communications were cut. Fallen trees were already in the main roads. About 30,000 families were evacuated. In addition also to the Bicol region, more than 2,000 passengers were stranded in ferry stations. 9 provinces including Metro Manila were put to signal warnings, with each place experienced massive rainfall with strong winds. Parma made its landfall at Northeastern Cagayan at 3:00pm PST. In Cagayan, at least 6,036 people in 39 barangays (villages) were affected, while P20. 33 million worth of agricultural produce were destroyed. Also, in the Chico River was swelled due to the typhoon, making the Maguilling Overflow Bridge along the Cagayan-Apayao Road impassable. The Maharlika Highway in Ilagan, Isabela to Cagayan became hardly passable due to the trees and electric posts that fell when Pepeng battered the area.

Total power interruption also crippled the provinces of Kalinga, Apayao, and the northern towns of Isabela. In Kalinga, landslides were reported on roads linking the provincial capital, Tabuk, to upland towns. In Zambales, at least 2,100 families were evacuated as Pepeng brought heavy rains causing the Bucao River to swell. The Carael section of the Zambales highway became impassable due to rising floodwaters. Due to heavy downpour, the San Roque Dam in Eastern Pangasinan and Pantabangan Dam in Nueva Ecija was forced to release huge amount of water. It caused flooding in Eastern and Central Pangasinan as well as Nueva Ecija.

In Metro Manila the area is still experienced torrential rains and strong winds. Floodwaters continue to rise in some areas in Metro Manila and Calabarzon. In Pateros, Muntinlupa, and Taguig, in Taytay town in Rizal province, and in the towns of Binan and San Pedro in Laguna province, the flood is not subsiding. The Laguna de Bay is breaking a 90-year record in meters of water, which threatens to submerge more areas in Metro Manila. In Benguet, a landslide killed at least 200 as Tropical Depression Parma continues to bring rain across northern Luzon. Due to severe flooding, Leptospirosis became a problem that affected many.

In Pasig City General Hospital alone, 30 people have been taken in for diagnosis. The Department of Health announced that there is a Leptospirosis outbreak in Marikina. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. org – “Typhoon Parma” Online Journal/Diary An excerpt from “My Typhoon Ondoy Experience” by Rose Paterno (posted Oct 19, 2009) Septemeber, 26, 2009 “It was a rainy Saturday morning. Like any other ordinary weekend, my children and I watched cartoons early in the morning together in our house ar Riverside Village, Brgy. Sta. Lucia, Pasig City. At around 10AM, we started preparing our food for lunch.

It surprised me when I went out of our house and saw flood starting to get high, which isn’t normal in our village. Some of our neighbors blamed the flood to the excavation of Manila Waters. When I was preparing at the kitchen, the rug I was stepping on was soaked I though it was just a leak from the sink. I tried to replace it, but after a couple of minutes, it was damp again, so I checked out all the corners of the house. Just then, the flood began to enter. We try to mop it out so that it will not enter my children’s room, but when I saw water coming out of the comfort room, I immediately called my brother-in-law so that he could come ver to get my children and bring them to their house where it was safer. We put everything on our house’s high places. We thought that if flood will continue to fill our house, it would reach up to knee level. We left and had lunch at my in-law’s house. When we came back, the water had already reached our sofa, so we put everything on our bed but still the water got higher. My in-laws started to help us get necessary things such as my children’s milk and some clothes good for 2 days. Meanwhile, flood water continued to enter our house, so we put our refrigerator, washing machines, electric fan, and other appliances about a table high.

In a minute, our refrigerator tilted and fell in water. The only thing we could do at that time was to get all the food we could get. I tried to get back to our room to get additional clothes, but my husband grabbed me out of the house because the flood was almost chest level. He told me to leave everything. In a matter of 2 hours the water immersed all the things that we had. ” * Taken from http://www. magsaysaywecare. com/1/post/2009/10/my-typhoon-ondoy-experience-by-rose-paterno. html C. 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2010 (Philippines) Sources: NDRRMC, DPWH, and Wikipedia) Name of Typhoon| Casualties| Damage| Basyang (Conson)| 68 dead, 102 injured,And 91 missing| Php 377. 98 million| Florita (Lionrock)| 28 dead, 20 injured,And 9 missing| Php 45 million | Juan (Megi)| 31 dead, 42 missing| Php 11 billion| Caloy (Chanthu)| 41 dead| Php 77. 9 milliion| Domeng (Jelawat)| 3 dead| Not stated(caused low damage)| Ester (Dianmu)| 1 dead, 2 injured,and 15 missing| Not stated(caused low damage)| Inday (Fanapi)| No casualties recorded| Not stated(caused low damage)| Glenda (Kompasu)| 2 missing| Php 25 million|

Agaton (Umais)| No casualties recorded| Php 4. 1 million| Katring (Chaba)| 3 dead| Php 996, 300| Total(as per data gathered)| 175 dead, 124 injured, and 159 missing| Php 11, 567, 876 300 billion (est. )| Photographs (from Google Images, Reuters, and Travel blog) Houses damaged by Typhoon “Caloy”. Aftermath in Cagayan made by “Juan”. Battered roofs & trees in Metro Manila A top-view of the destruction by made by Typhoon “Basyang”. Typhoon “Juan” in Cagayan Valley.

Top-view of a barangay in Isabela 4 men are captured rescuing a child after Typhoon “Juan” hit the place. during “Juan” in Pangasinan. Newspaper/online Articles (for Typhoons “Juan” and “Basyang”) “The day-long heavy rains and strong winds brought by Juan destroyed houses, felled trees, caused power outages and cut off communication lines in Cagayan and Isabela provinces and flooded some towns in Pangasinan. Isabela is still under state of emergency but the worst is over for Cagayan, said Office of Civil Defense administrator and NDRRMC executive director Benito Ramos.

Based on the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council’s (NDRRMC, formerly NDCC)latest site report, at least 974 families or 4,614 persons were affected by typhoon Juan in four regions in La Union, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Isabela, Kalinga and Aurora. As of Monday night, some 866 families or 4,151 persons were evacuated to 16 evacuation centers across the Ilocos region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera and Central Luzon. Agriculture undersecretary Antonio Fleta estimated that farmers may lose 600,000 metric tons of rice crops.

About 157,000 hectares of rice farmlands in Cagayan and Isabela provinces were in the path of the typhoon. “Even if farmers harvest the damaged rice, they’d have a hard time drying the grain. There may not be much left to sell,” he told Bloomberg. ” * Excerpt from Philippine Online Chronicles. “Super typhoon Juan batters northern Luzon” by Hermitanio, Maui (October 18, 2010) “The United Nations has assured the Philippines of support and assistance in the aftermath of typhoon 'Juan' (international name: 'Megi'), according to Philippine Ambassador to the United Nations Libran Cabactulan.

Metro Manila was not as prepared last year when Ondoy brought the area to a standstill and hundreds perished and thousands rendered homeless. Millions in property and agricultural products went down the drain. The OCHA and other multilateral organizations such as the European Union as well as individual countries such as Japan, the US, France, Germany, Great Britain, even China pledged millions in US dollars to help the Philippines recover from Ondoy. ” * Excerpt from Balita. ph - “RP gets UN assurance of assistance in Juan's aftermath” by Baylon, Gloria Jane. October 20, 2010) “Within the Philippines, 102 people died and 46 people are listed as missing. Damage is estimated at 378 million 2010 PHP (8. 17 million 2010 USD). When Conson made landfall in Quezon province at 11:00 pm (PST)/ 15:00 (UTC), power supply in Metro Manila, including 35 hit provinces in Luzon, went out. Telecommunications were also lost. Trees were uprooted, poles were strewn on the streets and rooftops were blown off. Classes from primary to college were suspended until July 14.

At regional airports, air traffic officials canceled 29 international and local flights due to dangerous flying conditions brought about by the storm. Elementary and pre-school classes for Metro Manila and affected provinces in Luzon canceled its classes before the afternoon of July 13. 15 Philippine Airlines flights from different airports were canceled due to heavy rain, gusty winds and near zero visibility. Roughly 500 passengers in Bicol and Quezon Province were stranded at their respective ports as the coast guard declared that ships may not depart due to high waves and heavy rains.

Areas that had public storm signal warnings experienced high winds and torrential rains. Off the coast of Pandan, 20 fishermen went missing after their boats capsized amidst rough seas produced by the storm. By July 13, only one person had been rescued while the 19 others still remain missing. Near Bagamanoc, 11 other fishermen went missing due to similar incidents. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. org – “Typhoon Conson (2010)” Online Blog/Journal An excerpt from “My Basyang Experience” by “Chris” from www. mommyjourney. com (posted July 14, 2010) “Last night was another one of those sleepless nights.

And it’s all because of the typhoon Basyang. Typhoon Basyang started to blow its winds by 9pm and with each hour that passed, the winds grew stronger and stronger. Until about 12 midnight, I could hear our roof being battered by the winds. Power was out and the kids were still asleep but around 1am, they woke up and said that it was hot and wondered why it was so dark. We embraced each other and I fanned them to sleep. I couldn’t sleep peacefully at all. And when the winds have finally stopped, it was the only time I was able to go to sleep. It was definitely a tiring night.

When I woke up, our roof’s shingles were scattered everywhere on our lawn. It was a nightmare. The plants are all a mess. Wood that came from the neighbour’s was also there. It was chaotic. ” * Taken from http://www. mommyjourney. com/2010/07/my-basyang-experience. html D. 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2011 (Philippines) (Sources: NDRRMC and Wikipedia) Typhoon Name| Casualties| Damage| Bebeng| 48| $31,700,000| Chedeng| 17| $287,000,000| Dodong| 29| $248,000,000| Egay| 18| $16,700,000| Falcon| 11| $1,024,000| Juaning| 128| $126,000,000| Kabayan| 22| $480,000,000| Mina| 38| $603,000,000|

Pedring| 95| $1,024,000| Quiel| 18| $2,500,000| Ramon| 10| $2,100,000| Sendong| 1268| $48,400,000| Total(as per data gathered)| 1 702Deaths| $ 447 460 000Billion(est. Php 18 345 868 000 billion)| Photographs (from Google Images and Photoshelter) Destruction on a property caused by A picture captured depicting victims Typhoon “Sendong” in Iligan. Of Typhoon “Pedring” in NCR. Heavy winds and strong water currents Destruction caused by “Chedeng” attack the shore of Manila. in a park in Luzon. The situation of a village near Ilocos Aftermath of a village in

Cagayan de during Typhoon “Quiel”. Oro after Tyhoon “Sendong”. Newspaper/online Articles (for Typhoons “Sendong”, “Pedring”, and “Quiel”) “Satellite estimated rainfall from Severe Tropical Storm Washi over the Philippines. Severe Tropical Storm Washi brought 10 hours of torrential rains that triggered disastrous flash flooding over Mindanao, an area that rarely experiences tropical cyclones. More than 200 mm (7. 9 in) of rain was reported in places where rivers were already swollen. During the overnight hours, hundreds of people were killed as flood waters and landslides destroyed homes along mountain sides.

In some locations, flood waters rose by 3. 3 m (11 ft) in less than an hour. Residents impacted by these flood waters were forced to seek refuge on their roofs amidst 90 km/h (55 mph) winds. The mayor of Iligan regarded the floods as the worst in the city's history. More than 2,000 people were rescued from the hardest hit areas. Damage was estimated at ? 2. 068 billion (2012 PhP, $48. 4 million USD). Over half of the damage was due to damaged roads and bridges. ” “A massive relief operation involving the evacuation of 100,000 people occurred on the morning of December 17, 2011.

Approximately 20,000 soldiers were mobilized to assist in recovery efforts and evacuations. The Philippine Coast Guard was dispatched to search for missing people after villages were reported to have been swept out to sea. Sixty people were rescued off the coast of El Salvador, Misamis Oriental and another 120 in the waters near Opol Township. President Benigno Aquino III visited Cagayan de Oro and Iligan on December 20, 2011, and declared a state of national calamity in the affected provinces. The total cost of damages to agriculture and infrastructure is estimated at P999. million according to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. The President also appealed to its citizens to help the victims in their way of celebrating Christmas in his Christmas Message. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. org - “Tropical Storm Washi” “The estimated damages in infrastructure and agriculture due to typhoons Pedring and Quiel has reached P15 billion, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council said in its latest report Monday. The report stated that Pedring has caused P14. 96 billion-worth of damages to nfrastructure and agriculture in the National Capital Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, Regions I, II, III, IV-A, IV-B, V, and VI while four provinces of Region II suffered damages worth P115. 08 million because of Quiel. The two typhoons have also damaged a total of 71,518 houses, affecting over 80,000 families. Records showed however, that more and more families were leaving evacuation centers to return to their homes. The report said that 21 road sections in Regions II, III and CAR remain impassable. The NDRRMC added that the Ambuklao (1 Gate/0. 5 m), Binga (2 Gates/1. m), Magat (1 Gate/2 m) and San Roque (2 Gates/1. 5 m) dams have opened their gates Monday morning after reaching their spilling levels. ” * Excerpt from Inquirer. net – “Damages due to Pedring and Quiel reach P15 billion” by Jamie Elona. (October 10, 2011) Online Blog An excerpt from “Typhoon Sendong Experience” by Krishia Kamille Tan (posted January 16, 2012) “ A rainy season welcomed the month of December in Iligan City. Low to moderate rainfall has been experienced almost every day. However, last December 16, 2011, heavy rain showered the entire city in the afternoon till nighttime.

At 4:00 AM of December 17, 2011, while I was silently sleeping, my sister woke me up saying she heard noises and neighbors are in panic about a flood. The rain had already stopped but I observed that the water level is starting to rise. As I looked outside, the flood water is only about a meter away from our doorstep. As we walked pass a morgue, my heart started to sink and I felt like crying. Vehicles parked near it were covered with mud, people were crying, and others were worried about their missing family members. It was then when my sister and I decided to travel back home to our hometown the following day.

I saw the aftermath of Sendong as we passed by Tambo and Hinaplanon. My heart was crushed and I was secretly crying on the bus. When we arrived home, I immediately searched videos and pictures on the internet to see how Iligan City was greatly devastated. I never thought the death toll and missing persons would reach 1000. The news on the television was all about Sendong, Iligan City and Cagayan de Oro. Hundreds of people with generous hearts donated and offered help to the flood victims. Relief goods were continuously delivered to the evacuation centers and other areas.

It was really relieving to know that many are really willing to help our fellowmen. I, for one, donated relief goods as a simple way to help the victims. My sister visited Bayug and Orchids Subdivision and she said that the place seemed to look as a sort of a ghost town. ”  * Taken from http://karaamille. blogspot. com/2012/01/typhoon-sendong-experience. html Summary (Graphs) : The year 2008 had the highest number of casualties (1788), followed closely by 2011 (1702), then 2009 (1569), and last 2010 (458). The year 2009 had the highest damage with an estimate of Php 21. billion, then by 2011 with 18,345 billion, followed closely by 2008 with Php 18. 327 billion, and finally 2010 with an estimate of Php 11. 6 billion. Conclusion The following conclusions were made by the group based on the data gathered and after interpretation of the information presented were done: From 2008, there have been a total Php 18 327 700 000 worth of estimated damage in properties, infrastructures, and agriculture and an estimated total 1788 casualties from the 10 typhoons that have struck the Philippines all throughout the year.

From 2009, there have been a total Php 21 125 707 631 worth of estimated damage which includes properties, agriculture, and infrastructures and an estimated total of 1569 casualties from the 10 typhoons that have visited the Philippines for the 12-months period. For 2010, the Philippines have a total of Php 11 567 876 300 worth of damage to properties, infrastructures, and agriculture and have 458 casualties in total because of the 10 typhoons that have made it to the Philippine territory.

For 2011, a total of Php 18 345 868 000 worth of damage on infrastructures, properties, and agriculture and 1702 casualties were brought by the 10 most destructive storms that have hit the Philippines in a p of one year. When it comes to nature, lots of landforms from both the urban and rural areas were destroyed, the seas have brought massive effects to places near the shore, a lot of trees were uprooted from the ground, and animals together with their shelter were greatly affected by these storms. They have really brought great hazards and danger to the people and the nation.

From the data and photographs presented above, the group concludes that these typhoons have brought very high and costly impact to the Philippines starting from the year 2008 up to 2012. In total, the country has suffered an estimated total of 69 367 151 931 worth of damage and an estimated 5517 number of casualties in the p of four years. To summarize, the year 2009 has been the most destructive among the four, followed by year 2011, then year 2008, and last is year 2010. CHAPTER 7: RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the data gathered from past super typhoons (e. g.

Basyang, Nina, Pedring, Sendong, Ondoy, Pepeng, and Quiel) these are the following recommendations: * Government should intervene by creating programs (drills where to go when a typhoon strikes), plans (land planning), and projects (purchase of additional early warning devices) that will help minimize the risk of possible loss of lives * Academic institutions should also practice their social responsibility by taking part in mobilizing the community on how to act accordingly prior, during and after the typhoon (by training future leaders to lead and adding the disaster risk training program in the curriculum) * There is a need for the community to be proactive and not just react by letting not just the men but also the women to take part in the planning of community risk reduction activities by the barangays. For those who wish to continue the study we recommend the use of individual depth interview of those who were past victims of the said typhoons for thorough and detailed extraction of information * Psychologists/social workers should take part in helping the victims of the typhoons with their traumatic and tragic experiences by assessing and helping them recover as time goes by. CHAPTER 8: REFERENCES This section contains all of the sources that the group made reference off during the whole course of the study. These references include books, theses, newspapers, journals, the internet, and other existing documents Books Bautista, M. & Go, S. (1985) Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods. De La Salle University Press: Manila, Philippines Battan, L. J. , (1961). The Nature of Storms. New York: Doubleday Jennings, G. (1970). The Killer Storms: Hurricanes, typhoons, and tornados. J. B. Lippincott Dictionary 2007). Webster’s Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus. (p. 532. ) WS Pacific Publishing: Manila, Philippines Newspaper Articles Casauay, A. (2009, Oct 1). Typhoon “Ondoy” damages ? 822-M agin products. Suns Star Davao. p. 7 Casauay, A. , Paredes, J. (2009, Nov 2). Typhoon “Santi” leaves 10 dead. Sun Star Davao. p. 15 Paredes, J. (2008, June 24). Typhoon “Frank” kills 163. Sun Star Davao. p. 13 Paredes, J. (2009, June 26). Typhoon “Feria” kills. Sun Star Davao. p. 11 (2009, Oct 3). Ondoy Aftermath. Suns Star Davao. p. 2 Online Articles Angeli, E. , Wagner, J. , Lawrick, E. , Moore, K. , Anderson, M. , Soderlund, L. , & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5).

General format. Retrieved from http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Tacio, Henrylito D. (2009, May 2). Philippines' Ecosystems on the Verge of Extinction. Retrieved from http://www. gaiadiscovery. com/nature-biodiversity/philippines-ecosystems-on-the-verge-of-extinction. html Jeff, J. (2009). 10 Biggest, Deadliest, Most Destructive Hurricanes EVER!! Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www. ranker. com/list/10-biggest-deadliest-most-destructive-hurricane_s-ever-/jeff419#RLEsVaKFtFeTcb6U. 99 Broward County Florida (2010). APA Style (6th ed. ) -- Library Guide. Retrieved December 14, 2012 from http://nova. campusguides. com/content. php? id=114919 Dante, K. (2009). Typhoon: Lessons Learned in the Philippines. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://reliefweb. int/report/philippines/typhoon-lessons-learned-philippines/ Mariano, L. (2011) Typhoon Watch 2011: List of Typhoons. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from http://visitpinas. com/typhoon-watch-2011-list-of-typhoons/ Sumalinog, F. (July 2010) Archival Research References. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from http://peace. saumag. edu/faculty/kardas/Courses/RMPA/archivalresearch Pictures Google Images at http://www. google. com. ph/imghp? hl=fil&tab=wi Travel Blog at http://www. travelblog. org/Photos/ Photoshelter at http://www. anigarcia. photoshelter. com/ Wordpress at http://www. whsword. wordpress. com/ Reuters at http://pictures. reuters. com/ Video (October, 21 2010). 9 accounted deaths in the aftermath of typhoon Juan. Retrieved December 14, 2012 from http://www. gmanetwork. com/news/video/68130/saksi/saksi-9-accounted-deaths-in-the-aftermath-of-typhoon-juan Other Websites (Blogs, Journals, Webpages, etc. ) Typhoons in the Philippines. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Typhoons_in_the_Philippines (2011, Apr 18). China: Violent storms kill 18 in Guangdong province. Retrieved f

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