Last Updated 13 Jan 2023

What was life before Inventions of Science

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Introduction

With the aggressive transformations in communication technologies. Videoconferencing is finding its application in every segment of the economy. Becoming a frequent instrument in collaborative communication. Organizations, businesses, and other entities face the challenge of effectively operating distributed offices with short-staffed and overworked IT departments. Tight budgets are also a concern. Despite these concerns, entities strive to expand. And reach new markets without increasing overhead by relying on effective communication technology. Morley & Parker (2010) define video conferencing. As "the utilization of communications technology to initiate face-to-face and real- time meetings involving individuals located in physically different locations." The advancement of the video conferencing technology software. And online services has been employed by businesses to significantly improve sales. Minimize travel and meeting expenses. As well as reduce teleconferencing expenses linked to recurring inter-office meetings (Rayler, 2010). Morley & Parker (2009) also highlight that video conferencing. And other web technologies are the increasing part of the communication technology power. It is employed by most entities to help them profit from outsourcing opportunities, globalization. And fairly compete with other entities in the respective industries.

Background Information

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All inventions in communication technology must have evolved with room for improvement. The first documented face-to-face video conferencing system. Was the Picture Phone by AT&T. This was presented at a New York's fair in the 1960s (Barney, 2011). This technology did not get widespread application since it was too expensive for average clients. Even those who could afford were disappointed due to poor picture quality and ineffective video compression techniques (Shelly. Vermaat, & Quasney, 2013). Since then, video conferencing technology and allied systems have consistently failed to achieve the high hopes offered for their intended function in communication. In early 1960s, it was predicted that people would be able to seamlessly have meetings on their phones or mobile devices. Despite technological advancements in digital communications, these earliest efforts gained widespread application either in working life or at home. The first improvement was registered in 1976 by introduction of network Video Protocol. Further advancement occured in 1980s, when digital transmission. And ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) was available (Packetizer, 2013). High procurement cost and bulkiness of the video conferencing equipment rendered the technology uneconomical in its application in areas such as telemedicine, business meetings, and distance education. In early 90s, several video conferencing systems were available, but the turning point was the introduction of CU-SeeMe system by Macintosh (Packetizer, 2013). This gave a leeway for Microsoft NetMeeting software in 1996.

Other advancements include improvement of signal transmission quality. Speed as well as reliability of networks. Improved integration. And interoperability between various hardware and software components has also played. A role in increasing the use of video conferencing technology. The first HD video conferencing system was produced in May 2005 by Life Size Communications in a trade show in Nevada (Telework Research Network, 2012). As of the March, 2013, developments in HD videoconferencing systems had become popular in the market of videoconferencing. Some of the renowned video conference equipment manufactures include LifeSize, Cisco, Tandberg, Polycom, Sony, and Aethra (Telework Research Network, 2012). These manufacturers are all working using the same protocols; therefore, the systems are able to link various brands. Recently, aggressive developments introduced by video conferencing systems developers directed their attention to hand- held mobile devices. Aspects, such as audio, video and on-screen drawing, have been integrated in mobile devices. Security of real-time transmissions has also been enhanced irrespective of location. Application of video conferencing technology has expanded beyond office meeting environments (Shelly, Vermaat, & Quasney, 2013). A demand for collaboration tools and converged infrastructure has catalyzed development. And usage of this technology. Video conferencing is gaining popularity in tactical and non-tactical environments.

The Concept of Video Conferencing Technology

Video conferencing is an audiovisual communication technology. That allows people or teams of users to communicate via synchronized broadcasts of audio and visual data. It utilizes audio and video telecommunications to link people at different locations together. Video conferencing systems transmit bidirectional data, audio and video streams during a session. Compression is performed by a software or hardware known as a codec. This leads to a stream of digital data which is divided into packets. Then packets are transmitted to endpoints through the digital network such as ISDN or Internet Protocol (Barney, 2011). Endpoints need a gateway for a link to exist.

Video conferencing can take place via computer and the Internet or via dedicated video conference setup (Enrica & Vladimir, 2012). Dedicated video conferencing systems are those. That have all required components incorporated in a single unit. typically a high quality remote video camera connected to a console.Desktop video conferencing systems are the peripherals attached to normal computers to transform them into videoconferencing devices. These add-ons include cameras and microphones having the necessary codec and transmission interfaces.

There are two major types of videoconferencing systems available on the market. They include point- to-point and multipoint videoconferencing. Point-to-point (or P2P) video conferencing is a simple communication limited to two participants or teams in the private offices. It easily implemented, hence being the cheapest type of video conferencing technology (Enrica & Vladimir, 2012). The quality of P2P video conferencing broadcast is superior to multipoint. P2P is also characterized by less chances of lag in signal transmission. Despite this, P2P video conferencing requires that the involved parties use the same type of communication protocol such as an Internet Protocol (IP) or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) one. Multipoint video conferencing involves several locations in large rooms at multiple sites. Real-time transmission of meeting activities. Also involves related video conferencing technologies to display shared documents on whiteboards. The most essential device in this type is multipoint control unit (or MCU). Which is located at a node of a Local Area Network (LAN) and consists of a multipoint controller (MC) and multipoint processors (MPs).

Current Development/Technology& Industry

Delivery of high quality video conferencing to any business environment. Is attributed to advanced off- the-shelf webcams, multi-core processors, and transmission technologies. Major video conferencing system developers, such as Cisco, Polycom, and Sony, are reported to conduct experiments in videoconferencing. And allied technologies intended to determine the best possible. Way of using new technology and its vitality at various development stages (Telework Research Network, 2012). Some of the emerging trends are application of videoconferencing. And related communication technologies exist in. Such fields as telemedicine, tele-surgery, and psychologists conducting online sessions. Other application includes making contact with inmates incarcerated in penitentiaries, astronauts, and resolving airline engineering issues maintenance. As of 2013, the state of this technology could not seamlessly give both image and sound. It was an exchange, and which translates to sacrificing sound to get a good video quality (Telework Research Network, 2012).

Significance of Video Conferencing

Video conferencing technology delivers a number of benefits to most organizations. Technology analysts, customers, and value-added resellers (VARS) indicate that it increases productivity among distributed workforces and project teams. This is the most tangible effect of using video conferencing. If it is well panned and effectively implanted, this technology has significant impact on the way people manage business and the productivity gains they can derive. Video conferencing systems provide a platform for sharing easily any kind of information, thus fostering fast decision making, which is a critical success factor in this knowledge driven economy. This translates to availing products or services to the market quicker, consequently enabling an entity to stay ahead of competitors in current dynamic markets.

In addition, video conferencing helps to save money. Despite the fact that productivity increases as a result of implementing this technology, actual savings are realized when travel costs are reduced. Video conferencing has become a prerequisite for leveraging new market opportunities, thereby eliminating frequent travels as today's globalized market dictates. In the current business environment, where the safety and time-related issues with traveling are a concern to many employees, video conferencing technology eliminates such concerns. Travel related issues include insurance policies, security threat in volatile airspaces or war torn environments. Furthermore, this technology can help increase the profits of organizations, while reducing the cost of physical conferences. A study entitled "Benchmarking the Benefits of Videoconferencing Deployments" by.

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